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PRE-SUBMISSION THESIS SEMINAR

ON
Effect of Integrated nutrient management on Plant growth, Flower yield
and Quality of Dahlia (Dahlia variabilis) c.v Kenya White.
Submitted to:
Chairman :
Advisor :

Prof. P.W.Ramteke.
Pro.(Dr.) Dr. S. Saravanan.

Co-Advisor

Prof. Dr. V. M. Prasad

Members

Dr. J.P.Collis.

Prof.(Dr.) V.M.Prasad
Submitted by:
Shivkumar M. Wararkar
12MSHFCO11
M.Sc ( Horti.)
Floriculture & Landscaping

Department of Horticulture
Sam Higginbottom Institute of Agriculture, Technology and Sciences
(Formerly Allahabad Agriculture Institute)
Deemed-To-Be-UniversityAllahabad-211007 (U.P.)

INTRODUCTION

Dahlia is one of the most popular bulbous flower grown in many


parts of the world for its beautiful ornamental blooms of varying
shades of colours for the beautification of gardens and cut
flowers.
It is a tuberous rooted, half-hardy herbaceous perennial belonging
to the family Asteraceae having its origin in Mexico, which
received its name by Cavanilles in the year 1791, to
commemorate the work of a Swedish Botanist Dr. Andreas
Dahl, a pupil of Linneaus.
Dahlia occupies a place of pride in any garden anywhere.
Dahlias are easy to grow both in field and in pot and are
extensively used for exhibition, garden display and home
decoration.
For exhibition and garden display all types of dahlias are used.
Dwarf growing types are suitable for beds and borders (pure /
mixed borders). Large flowering dahlias in pots are popular for
terrace garden or varandahdisplay.
The long stemmed flowers of various forms and colours are used
in flower arrangement. Cut flowers of pompon and miniature
types stay fresh in flower vases for many days and also better to

roseaare generally important species. Out of these eight


species, D. variabilisand D. roseaare of horticultural importance,
which include showy, fancy types, anemone flowered, cactus
and semi cactus types, peony, decorative, ball types, fimbriated,
water lily, star type and also the parents of most of the pompon
cultivars.
There are certain medicinal and nutritional uses of dahlia. Tubers
of this plant contain significant amount of insulin and fructose
and small quantities of medicinally active compounds such as
phytin and benzoic acid.
An insulin extract from tuber of dahlia is used in diagnosis of
renal function. Seeds of dahlia are a good source of fats and
proteins. Seeds contain more than 16 per cent oil and 20.9 to
47.0 per cent protein.
The root exudate is nematotoxic and the mortality of the
nematode was increased with increase in the concentration of
exudates and exposure period of nematode species such as
Hoplolaimusindicus, Tylenchusfiliformis, Helicotylenchusindicus,
Meloidogyne incognita and Tylenchorhynchusbrassicae.
Though there are about 20 species and many cultivars of dahlia
with different number, placement, texture, colour and size of

Considering the importance of the crop and potentiality of


cultivating this crop, there is a need for its improvement and to
develop accessions suitable for specific agro-ecological
conditions and also for specific use.
Dahlia are used with advantage for making bouquets and
wreaths or vase decorations. The long clean and stiff foot stocks
are very suitable for both handling and decoration purposes.
There are certain medicinal and nutritional uses of dahlia. Tubers
of this plant contain significant amount of insulin and fructose
and small quantities of medicinally active compounds such as
phytin and benzoic acid. An insulin extract from tuber of dahlia
is used in diagnosis of renal function.
Seeds of dahlia are a good source of fats and proteins. Seeds
contain more than 16 per cent oil and 20.9 to 47.0 per cent
protein. The root exudate is nematotoxic and the mortality of the
nematode was increased with increase in the concentration of
exudates and exposure period of nematode species such as
Hoplolaimusindicus, Tylenchusfiliformis, Helicotylenchusindicus,
Meloidogyne incognita and Tylenchorhynchusbrassicae.(Vikas,
2009).

Dahlias prefer rich, fertile, moist and well- drained soil with pH 6.5 in areas with
heavy or clay type soil, use well- rotten manure or suitable organic matter and
sand in equal quantities to make it ideal for planting.Dahlia grows better in high
organic residues.
Leaf mold, compost or FYM can also be used for good results. Dahlia like other
plants needs NPK in large amounts and other elements like Fe, Zn, Cu, and Cl in
small quantities.
Nutrition is an important factor which is directly related to growth and flowering
of dahlia. Many experiments regarding fertilizer applications has been conducted
in different parts of the world to improve the growth and flowering of dahlia.
The size of plant, tuber corms weight, number of flowers and growth was
increased significantly with increasing rates of N and P 2O Present study was
therefore, investigated to observe the influence of different combination .e., N,
P2O5 SSP and FYM on the growth and flowering of dahlia which ultimately
improve the production of cut flower as well as tuber.
and develop interest of growers to cultivate Dahlia for making high return.( M.
Ahmed, et al. 2004).

The Rosa damascene (Damask rose) is perennial shrub producing fragrant


flowers is used for production of rose water, rose 'Attar', gulkand, rose hair oil
'Otto'.

Poultry manure contributes to the nation annually 0.3, 0.26, and 0.14 million
tones of N, P2O5 SSP and K2O MOP, respectively.
Apart from this, it also contain 60 to 100 ppm Zn and 380 to 1450 ppm Fe
(Garg, et al., 1971). Due to its rapid mineralization, poultry manure has been
recognized as a valuable source of plant nutrients for crops.
In this organic manure, 60 percent of the nitrogen is present as uric acid and
remaining 40 per cent as stable organic nitrogen (Srivastava, 1988)..

Considering the importance of dahlia, research on this crop is very much


necessary to find out the suitability of different treatments of N P K AND
Biofertilizer for a Allahabad region.

Keeping in view the above facts in mind, an experiment was conducted


on. Effect of Integrated Nutrient Management on Growth,
Flowering ,Flower Yield and Tuber Yield of Dahlia (dahlia variabilis)
cv. Kenya white"

1.

To check the response of different concentration of NPK and biofertilizers


on growth, flowering, and yield of dahlia plant.

2.

To work out the economics of different treatment.

REVIEW OF LITERATURE

Maheshwari (1977) observed that increased plant height in


china aster with the application of nitrogen up to 180 kg and
phosphorus 120 kg per ha attain maximum height Similarly,
Ramachandra (1982) Obtained maximum plant height with
120:60:60 kg NPK per ha.

Bhattacharjee and Mukherjee (1983) studied in a field trial


applied N@ 20-30 kg or 40 kg/h and P2O5 at 30-40 or 50 kg/ha
at planting to dahlia cultivar blackout but will give good Plant
growth, number of flowers, flower size and flowers longevity
with the highest N and P2O5 rates Renukaradya et al. (2011) reported
that maximum duration of flowering (59.20days) was observed in plots receiving 50%
RDF + vermicompost (5 t ha-1) in carnation.

Mishra and AvijitSen (1986) found the increase in plant


height (101.21 cm) when phosphorus was applied at rate of
90 kg per ha compared to control (97.97 cm) in sunflower.
Shyam (1986) noticed the delayed flower initiation (42.37
days) in marigold with the application of higher dose of NPK
(275 : 140 : 120 kg / ha) and early flower initiation (36 days)
With 225 : 120 : 60 kg NPK per hectare.
Mantur, (1988) recorded maximum plant height with
100:60:60 kg N:P:K per ha. Whereas, significantly maximum
plant height was recorded at 250:120:75 kg N:P:K per ha and
at 200:100:50 kg NPK per ha byRavindra (1998) in china
aster.
Taiz&Zeiger, (1991) studied that Potassium appears to have
no structural role in plant but it serves a number of Catalytic
roles. Many enzymes do not act efficiently in absence or
abundance of Potassium. The results of present study are
similar to the results of JhonEt al.(1991).
Jana and Pal (1991) reported that nitrogen and phosphorus
treatment showed maximum reduction in flowers and seed

Sigedaret al.(1991) found that in calendula, application of NPK at the rate of


100:50:25 kg per ha increased the height of plant, number of branches and leaves
per plant Similarly, Rao Et al. (1992) noticed that increase in number of lateral
branches per plant with higher level of Nitrogen (200 kg/ha) in chrysanthemum.
Henry,(1992) noticed that by the application nitrogen, phosphorus and
potassium vegetative growth of plant increased. The results of this study are in
accordance with Jana and Pal (1991).
Belorkaret al.( 1992) studied that although potassium is involved in synthesis of
peptide bond, protein metabolism and carbohydrate metabolism and also
participates in rapid cell division and differentiation Hence, The balanced
application of these nutrients might have resulted in higher number of leaves.

Singh and Gupta(1995) studied the effect of N. And P2O5.on tuber production
and growth in Dahlia variabiliswild cultivar Powder puff. The size of plant, bulb
weight, number of Flowers and growth was increased significantly with increasing
rates of N and P2O5.

Singh et al. (1996) noticed in sunflower maximum plant height (151.4 cm) when
nitrogen was applied at 40 kg per hectare compared to control (139.2 cm).

Ramesh Kumar and KiranjeetKaur(1996) studied in balsam, found increased


plant height(35.23 cm) and plant spread (29.85 cm) with the application on
nitrogen at 20 g per square.

RupinderKaur and Ramesh Kumar(1998) recorded maximum plant height

(21.26Cm) and plant spread (34.67 cm) with the application of nitrogen at 40 g per square
meter Compared to control (18.73 cm and 29.16 cm, respectively) in pansy.
Khan etAl.(1999) found that the high balanced levels of fertilizers had positive effects on plant
height and also high dose of fertilizers has direct relation with lateral buds and number of
branches.
Shivakumar (2000) recorded with the application of 315: 84: 84 kg NPK per hectare took
maximum days for initiation of bud (36.60 days) and days to 50 per cent flowering (47.60Days)
compared to dose of 225: 60: 60 kg NPK per hectare (32.80 days and 45.20 days, respectively)
in marigold.
Singh and Sangama (2000) noticed more number of flowers (35.22) per plant with the
application of nitrogen at 300 kg per hectare compared to application of nitrogen at 100 kg per
Hectare (21.27) in China Aster.

Sivamuruganet al., (2000) observed application of 80 : 40 : 40 kg NPK per hectare recorded


maximum number of seed(655) per head, hundred seed weight (5.24 g) and seed yield (1540
kg/ha) compared to application of 40 : 20 : 20 kg NPK per hectare (474, 4.27 g and 1227 kg/ha,
respectively) in Sunflower.

Acharya and Dashora (2004) reported that application of 200 kg per ha each of
nitrogen and phosphorus produced maximum plant height (95.92 cm), plant spread
(49.31Cm) and branches (14.2) when compared to other levels of nitrogen,
phosphorus and control In African marigold. Similarly, Saud and Ramachandra
(2004) reported that higher dose of fertilizer (150:150:150 kg NPK/ha) resulted in
maximum number of primary and secondary branches in French marigold.
Karuppaiah and Krishna (2005) revealed that nitrogen application at 450 kg per
hectare had hectare had taken more number of days to 50 per cent flowering (81.30
days) over control (70.86 days) in French marigold.
pandey and mishra (2005) noticed that application of 20:20:20 gm N:P:K per
square meter gave more number of flower (75.84) per plant , flower yield (754gm)
per plant compared to control (47.19g, 306g and 11.08g respectively) in African
marigold cv. PusaNarangiGainda.
Jenny Marks et al., (2006) reported that application of 150 : 75 : 75 kg N:P:K per
ha in ajowan recorded the highest plant height and number of primary branches per
plant compared to application Of 100 : 50 : 50 kg NPK per ha (71.43 cm and
16.08cm, respectively).

MATERIALS AND METHODS


EXPERIMENTAL SITE
The experiment was carried out at the Floriculture research farm, Department
of Horticulture, SHIATS, Allahabad
CLIMATE
The area of Allahabad district comes under subtropical belt in the South east
of Uttar Pradesh, which extremely hot summer and fairly cold winter. The
maximum temperature of the location reaches up to 46 0C 48 0C and seldom falls
as low as 4 0C 5 0C. The relative humidity ranged between 20 to 94 per cent. The
average rainfall in this area is around 1013.4 mm annually.
MATERIALS:

Dahlia seedlings
Cultivar Kenya White of Dahlia was used for research work

Urea
Urea consist of 46% Nitrogen

DAP (Di Ammonium Phosphate)


DAP consists 18% of Nitrogen and 48% of phosphorous.

MOP (Murate of Potash)


MOP consists of 60% potassium

FYM
FYM consists 0.5% N, 0.2%P, 0.5% K

POULTRY MANURE
Poultry manure consists 3.03% N, 2.63% P, 1.4% K

VERMICOMPOST
Vermicompost consists N 1.5-2.0 %, P 0.9-1.7 % and K 1.5-2.5 %

BIO-FERTILIZER
Azotobacter is a non-symbiotic N-fixing bacterium. Azotobacter fixes the
atmospheric nitrogen when inoculated to plants, which help to save the application of N
fertilizers to an extent of 20-25 per cent. Azotobactor applied as soil application, mixing
in FYM.

DESIGN AND LAYOUT OF EXPERIMENT


The experiment was laid out in randomized block design (RBD) with three
replications and Thirteen treatments .

DETAILS OF LAYOUT

Crop Name of Crop

Dahlia

Botanical name
Kenya White

Dahliavariabilis L. var.

Family

Design of experiment
(R.B.D)

No. Of treatments

11

No. of replication

03

compositae
Randomised Block Design

Total no. of plot

33

Spacing

0.45m X 0.45m

Size of each plot

1m x 1.5m

Area of single plot

1.5m2

Width of main irrigation channel

0.80m

Width of sub irrigation channel

0.50m

Width of bund

0.30m

Total length of area

16.1m

Total width of area

7m

Net cultivated area

112.7m2

Total no of plant/plot

06

Total no. of plant in experimental field

198

TREATMENT DETAILS
S.

Symbols

Treatment & Combinations

No.
1

T0

Control 00:00:00 kg NPK/ha

T1

9:9:6.75 gm NPK/Plot+Azospirullum

T2

12:10.59:7.5 gm NPK/Plot+PSB

T3

15.9:12:8.25 gm NPK/Plot+FYM

T4

18:13.5:9 gm NPK/Plot+VC

T5

21:15:9.75 gmNPK/Plot+Azospirillum+FYM

T6

24:16.5:10.5gmgm NPK/Plot+Azospirilum+VC

T7

27:18:11.25 gm NPK/Plot+Azo+PSB

T8

30:19.5:12 gm NPK/Plot+Azo+PSB+FYM

10

T9

33:21:12 gm NPK/Plot+Azo+PSB+VC

OBSERVATIONS RECORDED
(A).Growth parameters
1. Plant height (cm)
2. Plant spread (cm)
3. Number of branches per
plant
4. Number of leaves per plant

(B).Floral parameter and


yield
1. Days to flower
2. Flower diameter (in cm)
3. Flower weight (in gm)
4. Total number of flower per
plant
5. Flower yield per plant (gm)

C(C).Yield parameters
1. Average no of tuber per
plant
2. Average tuber weight
(gm)
3. Tuber yield per plant
(tones/ ha)

ED).Economics of
cultivation
1. Cost of cultivation (Rs/ha)
2. Gross income (Rs/ha)
3. Net income (Rs/ha)
4. Benefit cost ratio

RESULTS AND
DISCUSSION

Effect of Integrated Nutrients Management on Plant height (cm)

Treatments

30
DAT

60
DAT

90
DAT

120
DAT

T0

Control

11.32

22.92

45.93

66.80

T1

9:9:6.75 gm NPK/Plot + Azospirullum

9.50

23.12

44.43

85.01

6.42

23.16

43.94

84.29

8.71

24.65

45.42

80.44

T2
T3

12:10.59:7.5 gm NPK/Plot+PSB
15.9:12:8.25 gm NPK/Plot+FYM

T4

18:13.5:9 gm NPK/Plot+VC

9.00

23.46

46.55

86.60

T5

21:15:9.75 gm
NPK/Plot+Azospirillum+FYM

9.87

23.51

44.91

79.74

T6

24:16.5:10.5 gm
NPK/Plot+Azospirilum+VC

10.34

24.64

44.76

76.62

T7

27:18:11.25 gm NPK/Plot+Azo+PSB

10.38

22.81

45.00

75.98

T8

30:19.5:12 gm
NPK/Plot+Azo+PSB+FYM
14.42

27.42

54.19

91.83

10.07
S
1.41
2.97

23.15
S
1.25
2.62

41.93
S
2.22
4.67

82.37
S
4.19
8.80

T9

33:21:12 gm NPK/Plot+Azo+PSB+VC
F- test
S. Ed. ()
C. D. at 5 %

Treatments

Effect of Integrated Nutrients


Management onNumber of leaves per
plant

T0

Control

T1

9:9:6.75 gm NPK/Plot +
Azospirullum

30 DAT

60 DAT

90 DAT

12
0DAT

11.00

11.66

17.22

19.63

11.58

12.04

19.28

21.01

T2

12:10.59:7.5 gm NPK/Plot+PSB

12.24

11.96

17.69

20.14

T3

15.9:12:8.25 gm NPK/Plot+FYM

10.28

11.81

18.17

19.75

T4

18:13.5:9 gm NPK/Plot+VC

11.04

11.16

17.61

19.45

T5

21:15:9.75 gm
NPK/Plot+Azospirillum+FYM

11.27

11.20

17.35

22.54

T6

24:16.5:10.5 gm
NPK/Plot+Azospirilum+VC

11.25

11.80

17.74

22.11

T7

27:18:11.25 gm
NPK/Plot+Azo+PSB

11.49

8.42

18.07

21.71

T8

30:19.5:12 gm
NPK/Plot+Azo+PSB+FYM

13.54

13.91

21.34

25.32

T9

33:21:12 gm
NPK/Plot+Azo+PSB+VC

11.22

11.85

17.74

18.91

Effect of Integrated nutrient management on number of primary branches per plant at


different growth Stages of African marigold
Treatments

30 DAT

60 DAT

90 DAT

T0

100:100:80 NPK/kg/ha(RDF)

6.60

10.87

13.93

T1

75% RDF + 25% FYM

8.53

13.60

17.27

T2

75%RDF+25% Vermicompost

10.26

15.27

19.40

T3

75% RDF + 25% Poultry manure

9.80

14.73

18.40

T4

75% RDF + Azotobactor@5 kg/ha

8.93

14.40

17.40

T5

50% RDF + 50% FYM

6.80

11.67

14.20

T6

50%RDF+50% Vermicompost

8.47

13.07

16.60

T7

50% RDF + 50% Poultry manure

8.00

12.87

15.67

T8

50%RDF + Azotobactor@5 kg/ha

6.93

12.06

14.47

T9

25% RDF + 75% FYM

5.33

9.53

11.33

T10

25%RDF+75% Vermicompost

5.93

10.26

12.73

T11

25% RDF + 75% Poultry manure

5.60

9.80

12.53

T12

25% RDF + Azotobactor@5 kg/ha


F- test

5.07
S

8.93
S

11.07
S

S. Ed. ()

0.62

0.73

0.86

C. D. at 5 %

1.28

1.51

1.78

Effect of Integrated nutrient management on Girth of Major Stem of Dahlia


Treatments

Girth of Major Stem (days)

T0

Control

T1

9:9:6.75 gm NPK/Plot + Azospirullum

T2

12:10.59:7.5 gm NPK/Plot+PSB

T3

15.9:12:8.25 gm NPK/Plot+FYM

T4

18:13.5:9 gm NPK/Plot+VC

T5

21:15:9.75 gm
NPK/Plot+Azospirillum+FYM

22.32

T6

24:16.5:10.5 gm
NPK/Plot+Azospirilum+VC

18.10

T7

27:18:11.25 gm NPK/Plot+Azo+PSB

T8

30:19.5:12 gm
NPK/Plot+Azo+PSB+FYM

T9

33:21:12 gm NPK/Plot+Azo+PSB+VC

12.25
19.34
19.95
20.14
19.56

16.31
20.88
20.12

F- test

NS

S. Ed. ()

4.00

C. D. at 5 %

8.41

Effect of Integrated Nutrients Management on the size of vegetative growth to leaves (cm)

Treatments

size of
vegetative
growth to
leaves (cm)

T0

Control

T1

9:9:6.75 gm NPK/Plot + Azospirullum

T2

12:10.59:7.5 gm NPK/Plot+PSB

T3

15.9:12:8.25 gm NPK/Plot+FYM

T4

18:13.5:9 gm NPK/Plot+VC

T5

21:15:9.75 gm
NPK/Plot+Azospirillum+FYM

63.67

T6

24:16.5:10.5 gm
NPK/Plot+Azospirilum+VC

55.32

T7

27:18:11.25 gm NPK/Plot+Azo+PSB

T8

30:19.5:12 gm NPK/Plot+Azo+PSB+FYM

T9

33:21:12 gm NPK/Plot+Azo+PSB+VC

29.06

F- test

40.56
58.89
48.14
65.08

54.56
54.38
45.16
S

Effect of Integrated Nutrients Management onLeaf blade (cm)

Treatments

Leaf blade
(cm)

T0

Control

T1

9:9:6.75 gm NPK/Plot + Azospirullum

T2

12:10.59:7.5 gm NPK/Plot+PSB

T3

15.9:12:8.25 gm NPK/Plot+FYM

T4

18:13.5:9 gm NPK/Plot+VC

T5

21:15:9.75 gm NPK/Plot+Azospirillum+FYM

T6

24:16.5:10.5 gm NPK/Plot+Azospirilum+VC

T7

27:18:11.25 gm NPK/Plot+Azo+PSB

T8

30:19.5:12 gm NPK/Plot+Azo+PSB+FYM

T9

33:21:12 gm NPK/Plot+Azo+PSB+VC

18.04

F- test

21.17
25.39
30.62
23.95
22.53
24.86
17.51
26.56
33.55
S

Effect of Integrated Nutrients Management on Diameter of flower (cm)

Diameter of
Flowe(cm)

Treatment
T0

Control

T1

9:9:6.75 gm NPK/Plot + Azospirullum

T2

12:10.59:7.5 gm NPK/Plot+PSB

T3

15.9:12:8.25 gm NPK/Plot+FYM

T4

18:13.5:9 gm NPK/Plot+VC

T5

21:15:9.75 gm
NPK/Plot+Azospirillum+FYM

T6

17.65

24:16.5:10.5 gm
NPK/Plot+Azospirilum+VC

T7

27:18:11.25 gm NPK/Plot+Azo+PSB

T8

30:19.5:12 gm NPK/Plot+Azo+PSB+FYM

T9

33:21:12 gm NPK/Plot+Azo+PSB+VC

19.50
21.76
28.33
22.55
22.58
20.71
21.05
23.17
22.76

F- test

S. Ed. ()

1.80

Effect of Integrated Nutrients Management on Weight


of the flowers (gm)

Treatments

Weight of the
flowers (gm)

T0

Control

T1

9:9:6.75 gm NPK/Plot +
Azospirullum

T2

12:10.59:7.5 gm NPK/Plot+PSB

T3

15.9:12:8.25 gm NPK/Plot+FYM

T4

18:13.5:9 gm NPK/Plot+VC

T5

21:15:9.75 gm
NPK/Plot+Azospirillum+FYM

55.95

T6

24:16.5:10.5 gm
NPK/Plot+Azospirilum+VC

68.99

T7

27:18:11.25 gm
NPK/Plot+Azo+PSB

53.46

T8

30:19.5:12 gm
NPK/Plot+Azo+PSB+FYM

47.26

T9

33:21:12 gm
NPK/Plot+Azo+PSB+VC

73.95

53.19
50.92
64.70
91.96
75.61

F- test

S. Ed. ()

2.89

Effect of Integrated Nutrients Management on Flower yield per plant

Treatments

Flower yield per


plant

T0

Control

T1

9:9:6.75 gm NPK/Plot + Azospirullum

T2

12:10.59:7.5 gm NPK/Plot+PSB

T3

15.9:12:8.25 gm NPK/Plot+FYM

T4

18:13.5:9 gm NPK/Plot+VC

T5

21:15:9.75 gm
NPK/Plot+Azospirillum+FYM

20.92

T6

24:16.5:10.5 gm
NPK/Plot+Azospirilum+VC

20.25

T7

27:18:11.25 gm NPK/Plot+Azo+PSB

T8

30:19.5:12 gm NPK/Plot+Azo+PSB+FYM

T9

33:21:12 gm NPK/Plot+Azo+PSB+VC

19.50
21.92
20.78
21.00
21.33

33.01
24.17
20.17

f-test

NS

S.E.

4.52

Effect of Integrated Nutrients Management on Weight of tubers (g)

Treatments

Weight of
tubers (g)

T0

Control

T1

9:9:6.75 gm NPK/Plot + Azospirullum

T2

12:10.59:7.5 gm NPK/Plot+PSB

T3

15.9:12:8.25 gm NPK/Plot+FYM

T4

18:13.5:9 gm NPK/Plot+VC

T5

21:15:9.75 gm NPK/Plot+Azospirillum+FYM

T6

24:16.5:10.5 gm NPK/Plot+Azospirilum+VC

T7

27:18:11.25 gm NPK/Plot+Azo+PSB

T8

30:19.5:12 gm NPK/Plot+Azo+PSB+FYM

T9

33:21:12 gm NPK/Plot+Azo+PSB+VC

273.61

f-test
S.E.

198.97
592.79
894.56
317.31
617.52
236.61
957.12
423.13
532.52
S
21.63

Cost of cultivation of Dahlia (fixed cost for all treatments) / ha.


SI.NO.
A

Particulars
Land Preparation

Unit

Qty

Rate
Unit(Rs)

Cost
Rs/ha

Total Irigation

Rs. 500

2500

Ploughing

Rs. 300/hr

600

Labour Harrow

Rs. 300/hr

600

Weed Managment
Levelling

Labou
r

Rs.200

600

Hand Weeding

Labou
r

48

Rs.60/lab

2880

Layout

Labou
r

20

Rs.100/lab

2000

Tones

10

Rs.500

5000

hr

10

Rs.100/lab

1000

Fertilizer Applied
FYM
Labour

E Insect control

Unit

Qty

Rate
Unit(Rs)

Cost
Rs/ha

Lit

1.5 Lit

Rs. 300/Lit

450

Bavistin

Ppm

2 Spray

Rs.
75/Spray

150

Labour

Labour

100/Labou
r

300

Flower

10

Rs.60/Lab

600

Tuber

Rs.48/Lab

144

Chlorophyriphos

F Harvesting

Total Working Cost

31,8624

Depreciation on fix
Capital

4000

Rental Value of Land

200

Miscellaneous

1000

Interest on fix
capital@10%

400

Fixed cost

5600

Economics of cultivation of Dahlia


Commo Cost of
Total cost of Flower
Income
Tuber
Name n cost of Fertilizers cultivatior
yield from flower yield
of the cultivati @ 19200
(Rs./ha)
(q/ha)
(Rs./ ha) (q/ha)
Treatm
on
plants/ha
ents (Rs./ha)
(Rs.ha)

T0

324224

324224

Income
from tuber
(Rs./ha)

Gross
return=
Income
from flower
+ tuber
(Rs./ha)

10.17

244080

548580

224356

1.69

10.48

251520

608520

280396

1.85

446500

11.43

272160

718660

388886

2.18

448500

11.98

287520

746020

415426

2.26

481500

12.47

299280

780786

449542

2.36

499000

12.86

308640

807640

476066

2.44

522500

13.40

321600

844100

512196

2.54

529500

13.51

324240

853740

521666

2.57

592000

14.04

335960

928960

596736

2.88

557000

13.86

332620

889620

55644

2.67

304500

Net return Benefit:


(Rs./ ha)
Cost
ratio

6.09
T1

324224

3900

328124

357000
7.14

T2

324224

5550

399774
8.93

T3

324224

6370

330594
9.17

T4

324224

7020

331244
9.63

T5

324224

7350

331574
9.98

T6

324224

7700

331924
10.45

T7

324224

7850

332074
10.59

T8

324224

8000

332224
11.84

T9

324224

8950

333174
11.15

SUMMARY AND CONCLUSION


1. Among the different treatments studied with respect of plant height. Maximum plant height (91.83cm) was recorded in treatment T8

(30:19.5:12 gm NPK/Plot + Azo + PSB + FYM) and minimum plant height (66.80cm) was recorded in T0 (00:00:00 kg
NPK/ha).
2. Maximum number of leaves per plant (25.32) was recorded in treatment T8 (30:19.5:12 gm NPK/Plot + Azo + PSB+FYM)
and minimum number of leaves per plant (18.91) was recorded in T9 (33:21:12 gm NPK/Plot + Azo + PSB + VC).
3. Maximum girth of stem (22.32) was recorded in treatment T8 (30:19.5:12 gm NPK/Plot + Azo + PSB + FYM) and minimum
girth of stem (12.25) was recorded in T0 (00:00:00 kg NPK/ha).
4. Maximum vegetative growth of leaves (65.08) was recorded in treatment T4 (18:13.5:9 gm NPK/Plot +VC) and minimum
vegetative growth of leaves (29.06) was recorded in T0 (00:00:00 kg NPK/ha).
5. Maximum leaf bled (33.655) was recorded in treatment T9 (33:21:12 gm NPK/Plot +Azo + PSB+VC.) and minimum leaf
bled(17.51) was recorded in T7(27:18:11.25 gm NPK/Plot+ Azo +PSB).
6. Maximum diameter of flower (28.33) was recorded in treatment T3 (15.9:12:8.25 gm NPK/Plot+FYM) and minimum
diameter of flower (17.65) was recorded in T0 (00:00:00 kg NPK/ha).
7. Maximum weight of flower (91.96) was recorded in treatment T3 (15.9:12:8.25 gm NPK/Plot + FYM) and minimum weight
of flower(47.26) was recorded in T8 (30:19.5:12 gm NPK/Plot +Azo + PSB + FYM).
8. Maximum number of flowers per plant (33.01) was recorded in treatment T8 (27:18:11.25 gm NPK/Plot +Azo + PSB) and
minimum number of flowers per plant (19.50) was recorded in T0 (00:00:00 kg NPK/ha).
9. Maximum weight of tuber (957.12 gm) was recorded in treatment T8 (30:19.5:12 gm NPK/Plot + Azo + PSB + FYM) and
minimum weight of tuber(198.97 gm) was recorded in T1 (9:9:6.75 gm NPK/Plot + Azospirullum).

Economics of different treatments


Economics of all treatments were calculated according to expenditure occurred from the
land preparation till harvesting of flower crop viz. Cost of cultivation, gross return, net
return and benefit: cost ratio has been worked out.
Maximum gross return was recorded in treatment T8 with 30:19.5:12 gm
NPK/Plot+Azo+PSB+FYM (Rs. 9,28,260/ha) and the minimum (Rs. 5,48,540/ha) was
recorded in treatment To (00:00:00 NPK).
Maximum

net

return was

recorded

in

treatment T8

with

30:19.5:12

gm

NPK/Plot+Azo+PSB+FYM (Rs. 5,96,732 /ha) and the minimum (Rs. 2,24,356 /ha) was
recorded in treatment To (00:00:00 NPK).
Maximum

Benefit

cost

NPK/Plot+Azo+PSB+FYM

ratio

was

recorded

in

T8

with

30:19.5:12

gm

(2.88 :1) and the minimum (1.69: 1) was recorded in

treatment To (00:00:00 NPK).

Maximum gross return, net return and cost: benefit ratio was observed in the treatment
T8 with 30:19.5:12 gm NPK/Plot+Azo+PSB+FYM and recorded the best treatment

CONCLUSION

On the present investigation conducted in Dahlia, it is


concluded that with application (T8) 30:19.5:12 gm
NPK/Plot+Azo+PSB+FYM gave maximum plant growth and
highest flower yield (11.84 t/ha).. The treatment T8 30:19.5:12
gm NPK/Plot+Azo+PSB+FYM
was found to be most
economically viable in terms of gross return (Rs. 9,28,260/ha),
net return (Rs. 5,96,732 /ha) and benefitcost ratio (2.88 :1).As
the study was undertaken only for winter season, it needs
further confirmation by conducting more trails.

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THANK