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Naming Ionic

Compounds and
Writing Chemical
Formulae

NAMING IONIC COMPOUNDS

There are a few general rules that apply when naming ionic
compounds.

1. Most ionic compounds are also called salts.


2. Most ionic compounds exist as solids and many
dissolve to form aqueous solutions.
3. An ionic compound is made up of a metal and a
nonmetal; metals are located on the left side of the
periodic table and nonmetals are on the right side.
4. The cation (positive ion) is written first followed
by the anion (negative ion).
5. Before naming compounds, you should first
memorize the individual cations and anions.

Writing Chemical Formulas


1. The charge of the individual ions in a salt should add
up to zero, the overall charge of the compound. For
example NaCl is composed of Na+ ions and Cl- ions. For
every one sodium ion you need one chloride ion. Adding
the individual ion charges, (+1) + (-1) = 0
For Ba2+ and N3- : You need 3 (+2 ) barium ions to cancel
out the 2 (-3) nitride ions so the overall charge of the
compound is zero.
2. The individual ions should add up to the overall
charge of the polyatomic ion. Practice: What is the charge of
Mn in permanganate ion, MnO4-?

Nomenclature of BINARY ionic


compounds
Symbol

Element

Root

Anion
Symbol

Anion
Name

Br

Bromine

Brom

Br-

Bromide

Cl

Chlorine

Chlor

Cl-

Chloride

Fluorine

Fluor

F-

Fluoride

Hydrogen

Hydr

H-

Hydride

Iodine

Iod

I-

Iodide

Nitrogen

Nitr

N-3

Nitride

Oxygen

Ox

O-2

Oxide

Phosphorus

Phosph

P-3

Phosphide

Sulfur

Sulf

S-2

Sulfide

General Rule:
Name the metal then the root of the nonmetal + ide ending:
NaCl Sodium chloride BaCl2 Barium chloride
H2S Hydrogen sulfide Mg3N2 Magnesium nitride
NaF Sodium fluoride
K2O
Potassium oxide
Notice that the cation is always mentioned first and then the anion.
Notice that the anion always ends in -ide
Notice that the number of elements in the compound is not
mentioned in the name.
Practice: Name the following ionic compounds.
Na2O
Ba3As2

K 2S

CaCl2

AgCl

MgBr2

AlH3

AlN

ZnI2

Li3P

Some polyatomic anions that you must


know:
NO3- = nitrate

NO2- = nitrite

SO4 2 - = sulfate
PO43- = phosphate
phosphite

SO32- = sulfite
PO33- =

CO32- = carbonate C2H3O2- = acetate


HCO31- = hydrogen carbonate or
bicarbonate

OH-

= hydroxide

CN- = cyanide

Naming salts composed of the polyatomic ions is


the same as with the monatomic anions. Metal
name then polyatomic name.
NaOH sodium hydroxide
H2SO4 hydrogen sulfate

Ba(NO3)2 barium nitrate


CsNO2
cesium nitrite

Sometimes there is a common name:


KHCO3 potassium hydrogen carbonate or potassium bicarbonate

Note: the polyatomic anions must be memorized.


Practice: Name the following compounds:
NaHCO3
K2SO3
MgSO4
H2PO4

KCN

Early Names of Elements


Present
Name

Symbol

Former
Name

Antimony

Sb

Stibium

Copper

Cu

Cuprum

Gold

Au

Aurum

Iron

Fe

Ferrum

Lead

Pb

Plumbum

Mercury

Hg

Hydrargyrum

Potassium

Kalium

Silver

Ag

Argentum

Sodium

Na

Natrium

Tin

Sn

Stannum

Tungsten

Wolfram

The previous examples only named type 1 or fixed


oxidation state cations. When naming type 2 or
variable oxidation state cations the rules change.
CuOH copper(I) hydroxide
CuSO4 copper(II) sulfate

Fe(NO3)3 iron(III) nitrate


Sn(NO2)4 tin(IV) nitrite

Sometimes a common name exists:


CuOH cuprous hydroxide
Fe(NO3)3 ferric nitrate
When naming type 2 cations, the systematic method (IUPAC) requires
the use of roman numerals after the elemental name to represent the
oxidation state of the cation. The common name uses the ic ending
for the higher oxidation state and ous ending for the lower oxidation
state. Many times the old latin or greek name is used as the root.

Practice: Name the following ionic compounds.


CuHCO3

FeSO3
Cr(CN)3

Sn(OH)2

W(NO2)5
CoPO4

CuSO4
Cr(PO4)2
Ti(CO3)2
PbCl2

Naming Covalent/Molecular
Compounds

Covalent compounds have a different


naming system since there are no
ions involved to balance the charges.
Remember: Covalent bonds are
formed between non-metals.
Covalent compounds are formed
when electrons are shared.

There can be many different compounds


made up from the same two elements.
Ex. CO2 (carbon dioxide)
O

CO (carbon monoxide)
C

Covalent Compounds are


Named Using Prefixes
1 - mono
2 - di
3 - tri
4 - tetra
5 - penta

6 hexa
7 hepta
8 octa
9 - nona
10 - deca

Simply use the correct prefix to tell how


many of each atom are in the
compound.
You may leave out the prefix mono only
if it appears in front of the entire name.
Dont forget to change the ending to
ide.
Examples:
1) PCl3
Phosphorus trichloride

2) N2O4
Dinitrogen tetraoxide

3) H2O
Dihydrogen monoxide

4) CF4
Carbon tetraflouride

5) SiO4
Silicon tetroxide

Use the prefixes to tell you how many of each


atom. Then place this number as the
subscript.
1) disulfur oxide
S2O

2) nitrogen trichloride
NCl3

3) Carbon monoxide
CO

4) tetrabromine nonoxide
Br4O9

5) arsenic trihydride
AsH3

GEOMETRY OF MOLECULES

The shape of a molecule is a description


of the way the atoms in the molecule
occupy space.

General Ideas of the VSEPR Theory:


an 'electron cloud' may be a single, double or triple
bond, or a lone pair of electrons
a lone pair of electrons is a non-bonding pair of
electrons
'electron clouds' are negatively charged since the
electrons are negatively charged, so electron clouds
repel one another and try to get as far away from
each other as possible
lone pairs of electrons exert a greater repelling effect
than bonding pairs do
lone pair-bonding pair repulsion is greater than
bonding pair-bonding pair repulsion
lone pair-lone pair repulsion > lone pair-bonding pair
repulsion > bonding pair-bonding pair repulsion

Predicting the Shape of Molecules


Electron-pair geometry geometry around a
central atom, of both bonding and nonbonding
electron pairs (electron clouds).
Molecular shape describes the shape only
of atoms around a central atom.
REMEMBER: a molecule will favor the shape that most
minimizes electron pair repulsions.

Steps in predicting the shape of the molecule:


1.Draw the Lewis structure.
2.Determine the total number of bonding and
nonbonding pairs of electrons attached to the
central atom.
3.Determine the molecular geometry, remembering
that nonbonding electron pairs will repel the
bonding pairs just as they will other nonbonding
pairs.

Comparison of Properties of
Ionic and Covalent Compounds
IONIC

COVALENT

Metal nonmetal combination

Nonmetal nonmetal combination

Solid

Solid, liquid or gas

Hard and brittle (salt)

Brittle and weak (sugar), or soft


and waxy (butter)

High melting and boiling points

Low melting and boiling points

Soluble in water

Solubility varies widely

Nonconductor if solid or conductor


if liquid

Insulators