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WATERFRONT STRUCTURES and

DREDGING OPERATIONS
FOR NCBOC CL-01-10
NCBTC, NCBDE
CAPT LORENZO I ADECER PN(RET)
(LECTURER)
LT DANTE P ARELLANO PN
(COURSE DIRECTOR)

Definition of Waterfront
Structure

Is a contained land area


or a structure that lies alongside a
body of water

Waterfront Structure is divided

Off shore Structures designed to


create a sheltered Harbor.
Example: Breakwater
Breakwater is an offshore barrier, erected to
break the action of the waves and thereby
maintain an area of calm water inside.

A JETTY is a similar structure, except


that its main purpose is to direct a
current or tidal flow along the line of
selected channel

Composition of a Rubble-mound
or rock-mound breakwater
Cap Rock - is the largest rock placed at the
top
Class A Rock is a rock not less than 85% of
which consists of pieces weighing more than
2 tons each
Class B Rock is a rock not less than 60% of
which consists of pieces weighing of more
than 100 Lbs each , but less than 2 tons
Class C Rock - also called quarry waste, is
any rock smaller than class B
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Composite Breakwater
Is a breakwater intended for a deepwater site, or for one with an extra-high
tide range. It is a rubble mound
breakwater topped with a concrete cap
structure

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Along Shore Structure designed


to establish a definite shoreline and
maintain it against wave erosion
Example: Seawalls

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Seawalls
It is a vertical or a sloping wall which
offers protection to a section of the
shoreline against erosion and slippage
due to tide and wave action
Seawalls are classified according to the
type of construction: Riprap or a solid
concrete
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Wharfage Structures
designed
to make it possible for ships to lie
alongside for loading and
discharging.

Types of Wharfage Structures


Quay
Square Pier
Right Angle Pier for one freighter on
each side
Right Angle for one freighter and lighter
on each side
Acute- angle pier for one freighter on
each side
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Type of Wharfage Structure


Right Angle Pier for two freighters on
each side
Acute Angle pier for two freighters on
each side
T- type Marginal Wharf for freighter on
outer birth and lighter on inner birth
U Type Marginal Wharf
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Bulkheads
Used in port construction, is a vertical
retaining structure used along a shore
or the shore end of a pile wharf or
approach, its purpose is to support and
protect from erosion an area of shore or
fill

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Classified According to Type of


Construction:

Pile and Sheathing Bulkhead


Wood sheet-pile bulkhead
Steel sheet-pile bulkhead
Concrete sheet-pile bulkhead

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DREDGING OPERATIONS

What is
Dredging ?

Dredging is an operation to excavate


material from the bottom of a shallow sea
or freshwater area, disposing of the
materials at a different location

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The process of Dredging may involve


scraping or sucking the seabed and
the dredged materials are called Spoils
The machinery for dredging is called
Dredge
A ship or boat equipped with dredge is
called a Dredger

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Primary Uses of Dredging

To create a new harbor or water ways


To maintain navigable waterways or channel
Make preparations for future docks and bridges
Dredged materials may be used to construct new
land elsewhere for flood or erosion control
Historically, dredging has been used for gold mining
and other valuable substances
Dredging may also be used to remove trash and
debris, and to reclaim areas affected by toxic
chemicals and urban run off.

Dredging however may adversely affect Aquatic


Ecosystem
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Variety of Dredging Operations

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Maintenance Dredging removal


of accumulated sediments from
harbor channels and berths to
ensure a safe depth of water for
navigational purposes

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Environmental Dredging similar


maintenance works to remove
sediments to restore an adequate
flow of water to mitigate risk of
flooding or protect sensitive
habitat

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Capital Dredging excavation of


materials to deepen or create
navigational channel and berths to
provide additional harbor
infrastructure or to provide access for
deeper draft vessels

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Construction Dredging applies to


removal of areas of the seabed during
construction works at sea associated
with placement of other structures
such as foundations, laying of
pipelines and outfalls

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Pre Sweep Dredging


preparation of the sea bed to level
and remove obstruction
preparatory to laying of pipelines
and cables

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Types of Dredging
Equipment

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Clamshell or Grab Dredger is a


type of dredge of one or more
buckets operated by a crane and
mounted on a floating vessel or
barge, usually located directly on
the shore or positioned offshore
by anchor or moorings

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Clampshell or Grab Dredger


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Clamshell type bucket

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Dipper Dredger or Backhoe


Dredger operate somewhat
similarly to a land based power
shovel, characterize as an
excavator and that excavated
materials are loaded on to barges
or on land

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Ladder Bucket Dredger this type of


dredger is configure with long steel
frame which is easily lowered and
raised, equipped with multiple buckets
passing over sprockets and scoop
materials from the bottom and
discharge it through a chute into a
hopper moored alongside or receiving
hopper located on the dredger

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Ladder Bucket Dredger


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Cutter Suction Dredger is a type


of hydraulic dredger used for
loosening hard compact materials.
The most common feature is the
rotating cutter mounted on the
lower end of the ladder that
support both the cutter drive and
suction pipe

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The cutterhead of a hydraulic


dredge

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Hydraulic or Suction Dredger


used to excavate soft fine
materials such as sand and mud. It
consist of a pipe joined at one end
to a centrifugal pump. Deep
suction can excavate sand from
depth of 328 ft (100 m)

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Hydraulic dredging with a pipeline.

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Suction Dredge Pipe


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Suction Type Dredger


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Mechanical dredging using a crane and barge

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Trailing Suction Hopper Dredge


are self-propelled hydraulic
dredge with large drag arms and a
high pumping capacity. This type
of dredge is primarily used in
clearing channels and offshore
sand bars from the mouth of rivers

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Self-propelled hopper dredge

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Environmental Impact of
Maintenance Dredging and
Disposal

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Factors Influencing the


Potential Effects

Magnitude and frequency of dredging activity


Methods of Dredging and Disposal
Channel size and depth
Size, density and quality of the material
Level of water, suspended sediment and turbidity
Tidal Range
Current, direction and velocity
Proximity of marine features to the dredging and
disposal activity
Presence and sensitivity of plant and animal
communities
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Generally, the Potential Impact of


Dredging and Disposal can be
summarized as follows:
Removal of subtidal Benthic species and
communities
Short term increases in the level of suspended
sediments can give rise to changes in water quality
which can effect marine life due to the increased
turbidity and the possible release of organic matter,
nutrients and contaminants depending on the nature
of material in the area
Settlement of these suspended sediments can result
in the smothering or blanketing of subtidal
communities although beneficially used to raise the
level of selected areas to offset rise in sea level or
erosion (short term impact vs long term gain
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