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CLOUD COMPUTING

Cloud Computing - programska rjeenja u


oblacima
One of the more significant
endorsements (support) of
the cloud took place
when Apple unveiled its
iCloud service.
Apple founder Steve Jobs
stated at the launch that
iCloud would replace the
PC for many people who
use the PC to store media
and data.

The name cloud computing


was inspired by the cloud
symbol that is often used
to represent the Internet in
flowcharts and diagrams.

Cloud computing is a model for enabling on-demand access to


shared pool of compute resources e.g. server, application &
service.
In other words, cloud computing is a model for delivering IT
services. Instead of a direct connection to the server, the
resources are retrieved from the Internet though web-based tools
and applications.
These services are broadly divided into three categories /
delivery models:
1.Infrastructure-as-a-Service (Iaas),
2.Platform-as-a-Service (Paas) (GoogleApps are examples of PaaS),
&
3.Software-as-a-Service (Saas).
Data and software packages are stored in servers. The cloud
computing structure allows access to information as long as an
electronic device has access to the web. This allows employees
to work remotely.

Based on the definition, a typical cloud environment consists of a set of


hardware, software, and manageability interfaces, which collectively
deliver
computing as a service with the following four essential characteristics:
1. Elastic and dynamic scaling (A key benefit of cloud computing is the

ability to add and remove capacity as and when it is required. This is often referred
to as elastic scale. Being able to add and remove this capacity can dramatically
reduce the total cost of ownership for certain types of applications, for some
applications cloud computing is the only economically feasible solution to the
problem);

SCALABILITY - ability of a system to increase the workload on its current


hardware resources (scale up);
ELASTICITY - ability of a system to increase the workload on its current
and additional (dynamically added on demand) hardware resources (scale
out);

2. Self-service provisioning and management;


3. Self-management and automatic scaling;
4. Cost effectiveness.

Characteristics
It is :
sold on demand (automatic approach to scaling
in cloud environments), typically by the minute
or the hour;
it is elastic - a user can have as much or as little
of a service as they want at any given time; and
the service is fully managed by the provider (the
consumer needs nothing but a personal
computer and the Internet access).

These essential characteristics have different


meanings to different types of cloud stakeholders.
In order to ensure common understanding,
potential cloud stakeholders are characterised
into four general roles:

End Users;
Cloud Service Providers (CSPs);
Cloud Tool Providers (CTPs);
Cloud Application Vendors (CAVs).

The definition of these roles and the role-specific


implications of individual characteristics:

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Service Delivery Models

Software as a Service (SaaS) is a cloud


delivery model that has existed for a long time.

A SaaS is an implementation of a business


application or process that is developed on a
cloud platform and hosted in a cloud
infrastructure.
SaaS providers deliver domain-specific
applications or services over the Internet and
charge end users on a pay-per-usage basis.

A Platform as a Service (PaaS) cloud lies


directly upon an IaaS layer with a solution stack
summarising everything required for the whole
software engineering lifecycle (i.e. design,
development, debugging, testing, and
deployment).

The potential consumers of a PaaS cloud service


are therefore software developers and testers.

Most PaaS vendors lock developers into


particular development platforms and
debugging tools, and do not allow direct
communication with lower computing
infrastructures, although certain programming
APIs might be provided with limited
functionalities of infrastructure control and
management.

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Cloud services that deliver infrastructure


resources (i.e. compute, storage,
networking, and operating systems) as a
service are known as Infrastructure as a
Service (IaaS).
IaaS model allows customers to start a new
project quickly by renting computing
resources. The key characteristic of an IaaS
cloud is elasticity and scalability,
enabling computing resources to scale
up and down.
Most IaaS cloud providers offer scalability
under customers control with direct selfservice interfaces, through which
consumers can request to scale, control,
and manage computing resources.
An IaaS cloud is also referred as a resource
cloud.

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According to the different types of


resource offered, IaaS cloud can be
further
divided
into
three
sub Computing as a Service (CaaS) offers customers access to raw
computing power on virtual servers or virtual machine instances.
categories:
CaaS provides self-service interfaces for on-demand provisioning
and management (i.e. start, stop, reboot, destroy) of virtual
machine instances.

A CaaS provider may also provide self-management interfaces for


auto-scaling and other automatable management facilities.
Storage as a Service offers online storage services allowing ondemand storing and access to data on third-party storage spaces.
Database-as-a-service (DaaS) includes standardised processes
for accessing and manipulating (i.e. write, update, delete) data
through database management systems (DBMS) that are hosted
in the cloud.

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Deployment Models

A cloud system (IaaS, PaaS, and SaaS) can be deployed using the
following three main models.
A public cloud sells services to anyone on the Internet. (e.g.
currently Amazon Web Services is the largest public cloud
provider.)
A private cloud is a proprietary network or a data centre that
supplies hosted services to a limited number of people.
When a service provider uses public cloud resources to create
their private cloud, the result is called a virtual private cloud.
Private or public, the goal of cloud computing is to provide
easy, scalable access to computing resources and IT
services.
A hybrid cloud is needed when private clouds run out of
capacity. It is a composition of two or more clouds that remain
unique entities but are bound together.

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The advantages of using Public cloud


computing include:

Efficient storage and computing services.

Inexpensive, since all the virtual resources whether


application, hardware or data are covered by the
service provider.

Easy connectivity to servers and information


sharing.

Assures appropriate use of resources as the users


are required to pay only for the services they
require.

Highly reliable.

Widespread availability irrespective of geographical


region.

Sets the business people free from the trouble of


buying, managing and maintaining all the virtual
resources , the cloud server does it all.

Public cloud empowers employees and enables


them to become productive even when outside the
office. The SaaS model ensures that corporations
save on IT expenditures while delivering the
flexibility of productivity software on the cloud.

The disadvantages include:


Variety of applications;
E.g. Microsoft Amazon
incompatibility;
Security issue.

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Cloud Computing Segments


Cloud computing is broken down into three segments.
Each segment serves a different purpose and offers different
products for
businesses & individuals:

Application
Storage
Connectivity

15

Best cloud computing companies


of 2012

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Should the future of the Internet rest in


the clouds?

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Cloud Computing Glossary


Cloud - A metaphor for a global network, first used in reference to the
telephone network and now commonly used to represent the Internet.
Cloud provider makes storage or software available to others over a
private network or public network (like the Internet).
Cloud Storage also called online storage, Internet storage or hosted
storage, it is a data storage management solution that enables
individuals or organisations to store their data on the Internet using a
service provider, rather than storing the data locally on a physical disk,
such as a hard drive or tape backup.
Elastic computing The ability to scale resources both up and down
as needed. To the consumer, the cloud appears to be infinite, and the
consumer can buy as much or as little computing power as they need.
Hybrid cloud A computing environment that combines both private
and public cloud computing environments.
Hosted application An Internet-based or Web-based application
software programme that runs on a remote server and can be accessed
via an Internet-connected PC or thin client.

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Infrastructure as a Service (IaaS) Cloud infrastructure services or
Infrastructure as a Service (IaaS) delivers computer infrastructure,
typically a platform virtualisation environment, as a service. Rather
than buying servers, software, data centre space or network
equipment, clients buy those resources as a fully outsourced service.
IT is the study, design, development, implementation, support and
management of the computer-based information systems, particularly
software applications and the computer hardware on which they
operate. IT is responsible for the use of computers and software to
convert, store, protect, process, transmit and retrieve information.
Private Cloud Infrastructure as a Service (IaaS) delivered to a
restricted set of customers, usually within an organisation.
Platform as a Service (PaaS) Cloud platform services or Platform
as a Service (PaaS) deliver a computing platform and /or solution
stack as a service, often consuming cloud infrastructure and sustaining
cloud applications. It facilitates deployment of applications without the
cost and complexity of buying and managing the underlying hardware
and software layers.
Public Cloud Infrastructure as a Service (IaaS) delivered to an
unrestricted set of customers.