You are on page 1of 69

RADIATION

SAFETY

RADIATION
QUANTITIES
EXPOSURE:THE QUANTITY OF X or YRADIATION THAT
PRODUCES IN AIR, IONS CARRYING 1 C/Kg
of air
Unit- Roentgen(R)
DOSE: DEFINED AS THE AMOUNT OF
ENERGY ABSORBED PER UNIT MASS OF
MATEER AT POINT OF INTEREST
Unit-Gray=100 rad
Eq. DOSE:HT=∑ DTR WR
Unit- Sievert(Sv)

Radiation weightage factorWR
TYPE

ENERGY
RANGE

PHOTON(Y-RAY)

ALL

WR
1

ELECTRON

ALL

1

ALPHA
PARTICLE

ALL

20

NEUTRONS

<10 Kev
10-100 Kev

5
10

THYROID 0.TISSUE WEIGHING FACTOR(Wt) TISSUE /ORGAN Wt FACTOR GOANDS 0.20 LUNG.01 .BLADDER 0.12 LIVER.05 SKIN 0.12 STOMACH 0.

NUCLE US SOMATIC C 6 (4 CELLS CE LL GERM 23 ( CELLS CH O R H O M O M RO SO SO E) M E) M .

EFFECT OF RADIATION ON CELLS WATER— FREE RADICAL INHIBITATION OF CELL DIVISION CHOMOSOME ABBERATION GENE MUTATION CELL DEATH .

radiation induced cancers .Radiological risk Stochastic effects Effects where the probability of the effect occurring is proportional to the size of the dose received.g. but for which there is no threshold level of dose. e.

g. e.Deterministic effects SOMATIC EFFECT Effects that will not occur below a certain threshold of dose.Blood count depression Radiation burns . Above the threshold the severity of the effect is directly related to the magnitude of the dose.

Radiation Hazard • External Hazard Hazard Internal inhalatio n ingestio n .

lens of the eye.External Radiation Dose Gamma. extremities & the whole body (i. beta or neutron radiation emitted by radioactive material outside the body exposing the skin. internal .e.

• Accumulation of internally deposited radionuclide depends on its concentration in air and water. . the rate of intake and metabolism. inhalation. wounds or absorption by skin.Internal Exposure • Radionuclide can enter the human body through ingestion.

Internal Radiation Dose thyroid lung bone Alpha. beta or gamma radiation emitted by radioactive material inside the body exposing internal organs such as: GI System .

NATURAL BACKGROUND RADIATION .

Fallout from Weapon Testing Television Extra Cosmic Rays from Air Travel Dental X Rays Nuclear Power Plants Luminous Wristwatch Medical X Rays Terrestrial Radiation Cosmic Rays Radon & Daughters .

5 12 66 44 Potassium 1184 414 89 89 5.Natural Radioactivity in Building Materials (mBq/g) Material Granite Sandstone Concrete Wallboard Gypsum Clay Brick Uranium Thorium 63 6 31 14 186 111 8 7 8.9 666 .

The noble gases do not readily form compounds due to their stable electron shell configuration. . Ne. and Xe. gas. Ar.  Radon is chemically like other members of this group of the periodic table. namely He.Background Radiation Radon  Radon is a noble gas (also called “inert”). Kr.

222 And daughters Uranium.37 0.36 0.16 Internal .40 Radon-220. Thorium Total 2.Natural Background Radiation Exposure Source Typical Annual Exposure (mSv) External Cosmic Rays Terrestrial Sources 0.26 0.41 Potassium.18 1.

SYSTEM OF DOSE LIMITATION .

Optimization of protection ALARA 3 Dose limitation Never to exceed Dose Limits .1. Justification of practice Net benefit positive 2.

RADIAION PROTECTION STANDRDS • To prevent deterministic effects • To reduce the probability of stochastic risk at an acceptable level • To ensure that practices involving radiation exposure .

DOSE LIMITS PRESCRIBED BY ICRP and AERB (excluding medical and natural exposure) .

Part of the body Occupational Exposure Public Exposure Whole body (Effective dose) 20 mSv/year averaged over 1 mSv/y 5 consecutive years. 30 mSv in any single year (AERB) 50 mSv in any single year (ICRP) Lens of eyes 150 mSv in a year (Equivalent dose) Skin 500 mSv in a year (Equivalent dose) 15 mSv/y 50 mSv/y Extremities 500 mSv in a year Equivalent dose ED to surface of abdomen 2 mSv after declaration of pregnancy of pregnant women .

January 1999): 100 mSv • ANNUAL EFFECTIVE DOSE TO INDIVIDUAL WORKER : 30 mSv • INVESTIGATION LEVEL : 10 mSv (per monitoring period) . 71999 ON DOSE LIMITS FOR RADIATION WORKERS • EFFECTIVE DOSE LIMIT FOR CUMULATIVE BLOCK OF FIVE YEARS (w.r.f.AERB SAFETY DIRECTIVE No.

18 years of age – Effective dose • 6 mSv/a in a year – Equivalent dose • to the lens of the eye 50 mSv/a • extremities (hands and feet) or the skin 150 mSv/a 30 mSv in any single year .Occupation dose limits Skin 500 mSv Eyes 150 mSv • Workers – Effective dose • 20 mSv/a over 5 years • 30 mSv in any single year Equivalent dose Elbows to hands 500 mSv • to the lens of the eye 150 mSv/a • extremities (hands and feet) or the skin 500 mSv/a • Knees to feet 500 mSv Apprentices and students of 16 .

Public Dose Limits Skin 50 mSv Eyes 15 mSv • Elbows to hands 50 mSv Knees to feet 50 mSv Members of the public – Effective dose • 1 mSv/a • in special circumstances 5 mSv in a single year provided that 1 mSv/a over 5 years is not exceeded – Equivalent dose • to the lens of the eye 15 mSv/a • extremities (hands and feet) or the skin 50 mSv/a 1 mSv/annually .

Dose Limits to Members of Public • Includes children – subjected to increased risk and exposed during the whole life time • No individual monitoring • No direct benefit from radiation .

Life-time risk (Stochastic Effects) Effect Risk per million Spontaneous per mSv risk per million Cancer 50 1x105 – 2x105 Hereditary 10 10% of all live born children .

RISK Perspective on occupational exposure levels • A dose of 1 mSv/a corresponds to a risk to die on radiation induced cancer of ~ 50 deaths per million people (5 % per Sv) • The average risk to die on cancer without irradiation is about 20 %. .

• ALARA principle has assured exposures are much below dose limits. This correspond to approx. . 3 excess fatality. This is very small compare to annual fatalities.38 mSv. The average dose to radiation worker is 1.• The annual dose limit 20mSv (whole body) as well as those for specific organs are much below the threshold dose of any observable clinical symptoms.

Significance of low levels of radiation exposure .

000 exposed (b) Risk of Leukaemia about 5 in 100.5 mSv/annum Average occupational exposure 10 mGy (whole body) (a) Risk of cancer mortality. 0.5 .Radiation Exposure (Low dose levels) EXPOSURE SIGNIFICANCE 2-3 mSv/annum Background radiation level at sea level outdoors. 100-200 mGy (in utero) Can induce malformations and (firs trimester) . No detectable clinical injury or sickness.000 exposed 20 mSv/annum Limit for occupational exposure of whole body 150 mSv/annum Exposure limit for eye lens 500 mSv/annum Limit for exposure of skin and extremities 10 mGy (in utero) 2 childhood cancer in 10. 1 mSv/annum Limit for exposure of public 1 mSv Dose received from 200 hours of flying 2.000? during pregnancy 100 mGy whole body Detectable increase in chromosome aberrations.about 5 per 10.5 mSv Most diagnostic radiological examinations.

PERSONAL MONITORING INSTRUMEN RADIATION SURVEY METER TLD BADGE DOSIMETER C-V TONGUE LEAD SHEET .

0-2 R/hr. for Detected pulse Alarm for high reading . 0-10000 R/hr. 0-50 mR/hr.WIDE RANGE SURVEY METR (TELETECTOR) Detector – GM counter philips 18504(β. BICRON µR SURVEY METER Range – 0-5000 uR/hr. 0-5 R/hr. γ). 18529(γ) Range – 0-2 mR/hr. with 18529 Application – locating lost sources. Detector – NaI (Tl) Audible click. measure high level radiation in routine & accidental. emergency situation.

2 MeV Weighs only 1 kg . the Radiographer also features automatic dead time compensation. and HV and battery checks Three linear ranges: 0-10 mR/h to 0-1000 mR/h Response times optimized for each range Energy compensated: 40 keV to 1.Bicron “Radiographer” A portable survey meter with an internal energycompensated GM detector.

Personal Monitoring Instruments “To measure radiation doses received by personnel working with radiation” • • • • Thermo luminescent Dosimeter (TLD) badges Pocket dosimeters (Direct reading dosimeters) Fast neutron badges Film badges .

Thermo luminescent Dosimeter (TLD) badges To measure X. TL card has three TL Teflon disc that are A thin paper wrapper pouch containing clipped intoregarding circular holes (12 mm information the badge & dia).radiation  Thermoluminescence is the emission of light from a wide band gap material during heating . . use. which has been exposed to ionising radiation. . Comprises of a plastic cassette containing TL Card. Plastic pouch prevented any radioactive contamination of the card. The card & its paper wrapper enclosed in a plastic pouch are inserted in the badge. .

3 mm & thickness 0.D2/D1 information about energy)  Each disc is having a diameter of 13. disc are made of homogeneous mixture of CaSO4: Dy(0. (Dose due to gamma exposure)  Disc D2 : Sandwiched between a pair of 1.5 mm thick plastic filters (180 mg/cm2) (D3/D2 gives idea about beta energy and D3-D1 –beta dose)  Disc D3 : Under circular open window. .9 mm Cu. (for X-Rays D2 & D3 are equal .8 mm & weights 250 mg. Disc D1 : Sandwiched between a filter of 1 mm Al & 0.05 mol%) TL phosphor(70 mg) & poly tetraflurocthylene (PTFF) (210 mg).

1 mSv to 10 Sv Reusability – 20 times Useful for dosimetric purposes due to high sensitivity. recycling of cards after annealing.Wide range of doses from 0. low fading. wrist hand and head band . indigenous production. can be used as finger badge.

Typical Thermoluminescent System TL Element Automatic TL Reader Filter Manual Reader .

 Quartz electrometer to measure the charge.Pocket Dosimeters Direct reading dosimeter (DRD). one of which a fixed QUARTZ FIBRE LECTROMETER .  The electrometer embodies two electrodes.  A capacitor which is highly insulated to share the charge with the electrometer  microscope to read the fibre image off a reticle.  Consists of chamber & quartz electrometer Ionization chamber sensitive to a desired radiation.

7 mGy in air • 1 R = 9.g. mR/h or mSv/h) • Pocket dosimeters indicate integrated radiation exposure ( e.• Area monitors indicate radiation levels or exposure rate (e. mR or Sv) • 1 R = 8.7 mGy in tissue .g.

e.Calibration & Maintenance of Radiation Monitors (RSM )  Calibration refers to determination and adjustment of instrument in a particular radiation field of known intensity.  Done with help of standard source of reasonably low activity (Cs-137. Co-60 in mCi strength. i. 5 mCi to 10 mCi)). .

• Repairs and calibration shall be performed only by authorised persons • Performance of RSMs to be checked every three months. all radiation workers .• All RSMs shall be kept in good working condition and periodically calibrated. Instruct. after any servicing or repair or mishandling • Performance of RSM is acceptable if response of RSM is within ± 20 % • RSO to go through instruction manual of RSM and observe scrupulously operational and handling instructions. at least once in two years. accordingly.

1962 RADIATION PROTECTION RULES 1971 NDUSTRIAL RADIOGRAPHY URVIELLENCE PROCEDURES .1980 .LEGISLATIONS IN RADIOGRAPHY TOMIC ENERGY ACT .

PENALTIES.ATOMIC ENERGY ACT. VARIOUS RULES HAVE BEEN FRAMED UNDER THIS ACT TO ENFORCE RADIATION PROTECTION.1962 THIS ACT EMPOWERS CENTRAL GOVT. CHAIRMAN. SECTION 17 OF THE ACT DEALS WITH SAFETY. . TO EXERCISE CONTROL OVER PRODUCTION AND USE OF ATOMIC ENERGY. ATOMIC ENERGY REGULATORY BOARD(AERB) IS THE COMPETENT AUTHORITY FOR ENSURING RADIOLOGICAL SAFETY IN INDIA ON GOVT. SECTION 24 DEALS WITH OFFENES. BEHALF.

RADIATION PROTECTION RULES .1971 SECTION 21 D : APPOINTMENT OF COMPETENT AUTHORITY SECTION 3 SECTION 9 : LICENSING : POWER TO WITHDRAW LICENSE SECTION 19 : MEDICAL TEATS OF RAD. SECTION 32 : POWER TO SEAL RADIOGRAPHIC MATERIALS SECTION 41 : DUTIES OF RSO. . WORKERS SECTION 30 : INSPECTION OF RADIOGRAPHIC INTALN.

SECTION 9 : MAINTENANCE OF LOG BOOK FOR INSPECTION SECTION 11 : SAFE PLANNING. DISPLAY OF RADIATION SYMBOL ON THE STORAGE ROOM .SURVIELLANCE PROCEDURES 1980 SECTION 2 : JOB ORDER DETAILS.. STORAGE FACILITY. CONTAINERS AND HANDLING DEVICES. SECTION 6 : IDENTIFICATION AND TAGGING OF SEALED RADIOGRAPHIC SOURCE. EXPOSURE DEVICES. PERSONNEL MONITORING AND AREA MONITORING EQPT.. DISPLAY OF “KEEP-AWAY” BOARDS ETC. APPROVAL. OPERATION OF RADIOGRAPHIC INSTALLATION . DESIGN.

DOSIMETRES ETC. TRAINED PERSONS( SITE IN-CHARGE EVEL-II. OPERATOR LEVEL-I FROM BARC ). . DETAILS OF URVEY METERS.SITE MANAGEMENT ROPER AND SECURE STORAGE FACILITY -6 DECLARATION : EVERY MONTH FILE WITH DETAILS F SOURCES. ARDONING OF OPEN FIELD SITES OVEMENT REGISTER OF CAMERA ROPER FUNCTIONING OF SURVEY METERS EW PERSON JOINING SITE SHOULD GIVE RELIEVING ETTER FROM PREVIOUS EMPLOYER ROPER STORAGE OF TLD BADGES. DOSIMETERS ETC. OG BOOK MAINTENANCE SUE REGISTER OF TLD BADGES...

. RENEWALS FOR THE SAME JOB ARE TO BE RATIFIED BY ABOVE MENTIONED OFFICERS. TIME PART-2 : TO BE FILLED BY AGENCY HAVING DETAILS OF SOURCE. B & ABOVE ) . ENGR HAVING DETAILS JOB. FINALLY BEFORE COMENCEMENT OF WORK. AGENCY NAME. . COLLIMATOR. LOCATION.RADIATION PERMIT SYSTEM AT BR PART-1 : TO BE FILLED BY CONCERN INSP. OF PERSONS INVOLVED IN THE JOB ETC. IT WILL BE SIGNED BY CONCERNED INSP. ENGR & AREA IN-CHARGE ( Gr. CORDON OFF DISTANCE NO.

Source decoupled from the drive cable Overexposure during radiography work X-ray Gamma ray Loss of industrial radiography device 4. call experts as it would require cutting of the guide tube at the appropriate location 2.Radiation Emergencies 1. Source stuck in the guide tube .identification of the location of source in the guide tube .In case of dent or damage to the guide tube.Investigate reasons for stuck (whether sharp bend in guide tube or fall of heavy object on the guide tube) . . straighten guide tube and then try to retrieve the source .Provide temporary shielding over the identified location of the source ( 2 TVT equivalent) .Drive in and out with a little more pressure on the drive cable .Cordon off safe area . 3.If due to sharp bend in the guide tube.

Estimation of radiation levels from point gamma ray source • Mathematical derivation for Specific Gamma ray constant (mGy /h / GBq or R/h/Ci at 1 meter) Specific Gamma Ray Constant is defined as the radiation intensity per hour from a unit activity of the radioisotope at one metre distance.125 AE mGy/h = 0.52 AE R/h . • Formula for Specific gamma ray constant: Exposure rate at 1 m = 0.

07 mGy/GBq 0.114 mGy/GBq 0.3 R/h 0.0m from 1 Ci • Iridium-192 0.34 R/h (1300mR/h) • Caesium (340mR/h) .31 mGy/GBq 1.Source Output – Specific Gamma Ray Constants • Isotope Dose-rate @ Dose rate @ • 1.0m from 1 GBq 1.48 R/h (480 mR/h) • Cobalt-60 0.

125 2-10 60-300 .8 days 0.25 Yrs 1.48 20-70 200-800 Se 120 days 0.Commonly used industrial Gamma radiography sources Source 60 Half life Exposure rate (RHM) Inspection range in steel (mm) Energy Spectrum (KeV 5.33 40-200 1170 & 1330 Ir 74.003 2-12 50-90 169 Yb 32 days 0.215 4-30 9-400 Co 192 75 170 Tm 128 days 0.

5 mm Cu 3.0 Sv/h 4.8 Sv/h 28.5 Sv/h 3.0 Sv/h 10.Typical X-ray set outputs Tube voltage (kV) Tube filtration Dose rate @ 1 m from anode.5 mm Cu 1. 10 mA tube current 50 75 150 250 300 400 2mm Al 2mm Al 2mm Al 0.0 mm Cu 0.0 Sv/h .5 Sv/h 10.

HOW TO MINIMIZE .

Time Distance Inverse square law : Dose  Time Dose-rate  1/(distance)2 dose-rate Dose = Dose-rate x Time Shielding distance HVT / TVT Incident radiation D mR/hr Transmitted radiation D/2 or D/10 mR/hr .

75 Sv .Example What dose would be received standing 1 m away from a 1 PBq Co-60 source for 1 minute ? Answer : Dose rate at - 1m from a 1 PBq source = 345 Svh-1 After 1 min dose received = 345 x 1/60 Sv = 5.

Application of distance
For x and gamma radiation, an
Inverse Square Law applies :D1 x (d1)2 = D2 x
(d2) 2

where D1 = the dose rate at a distance d1
metres and D2 = the dose rate at a
distance d2 metres
This formula can also be applied to
beta radiation

RADIATION SHIELDING
Important principle for

Protection of personnel
Radiation control

Shielding requirement will vary depending
on


Type of radiation
Intensity
Energy of radiation source

Shielding
The effectiveness of shielding
depends on:
• the type of radiation
• the ENERGY of the radiation
• the nature of the absorber
• the thickness of the absorber

Shielding TVT incident transmitted radiatio n radiation D Sv/h D/10 Sv/h .

depleted uranium.SHIELDING High z & high density material (lead. steel. tungsten) is best material for gamma ray shielding . concrete.

7 .35 6.85 23 0.2 7.62 0.48 1.82 15.HVT & TVT Values (cm) Shielding material Lead Steel Concrete HVT TVT HVT TVT HVT TVT Radioactive Source Co-60 Ir-192 1.87 2.24 4.9 4.11 2.

• The shielding requirement for primary radiations is determined from the equation   WUT RF = --------PD2 Where RF is reduction factor.Primary protective barrier….. P is weekly permissible dose to public (2 mR/wk or 20 microSv/wk) or radiation worker (40 mR/wk or 400 µSv/wk) D is distance in meters between source / target and the wall W is weekly workload of radiography – R / wk at 1 meter or mA-min/wk U is use factor -.Fraction of total work load during which primary beam is pointed towards the direction of interest T is occupancy factor -.nature of occupancy outside the installation during exposure .

office) Partial (e.g.g.Occupancy factors (T) • Nature of occupancy Full (e. open space) 1/16 1 1/4 .g. corridor) Occasional (e.

48 R/h mR/h) • Cobalt-60 0.07 mGy/GBq 0.0m from 1 0.3 R/h 0.Source Output – Specific Gamma Ray Constants • Isotope Dose-rate @ • 1.31 mGy/GBq 1.0m from 1 GBq Ci • Iridium-192 0.114 mGy/GBq Dose rate @ 1.34 R/h (1300mR/h) • Caesium (340mR/h) (480 .

Photon Attenuation Ix = Io e -x -  (x) = Io e where: Ix = photon intensity after traversing x cm of some material Io = initial or incident photon intensity x = thickness of material (cm)  = linear attenuation coefficient (cm-1)  = density (g/cm3) / = mass attenuation coefficient (cm2/g) .

3. Dose rate at 2 m from a bare source is 80 µSv/h.Exercises in Radiation Protection Distance (I1D12 = I2D22) 1.10 µSv/h------------2 m ------------? Dose rate 4. What will be the dose rate at a distance of 50 cm from the Source source?. Dose rate at 3 m from a bare source is 20 µSv/h. What is the activity of the source? . Dose rate at 3 m from a bare Ir-192 source is 10 mSv/h. What will be the dose rate at a distance of 5 m from the source? 2. -----------3 m--------.

1 µSv/h in terms of TVTs and HVTs? 2. What is the attenuation factor provided by a shielding of 5 TVTs and 3 HVTs? . A 74 GBq Ir-192 sources is shielded by 3 TVTs and 2 HVTs. What is the shielding required to reduce the dose rate to 0. Dose rate at 2 m distance from a bare source is 100 µSv/h.Exercises in Radiation Protection Shielding 1. What is the dose rate at a distance of 1 m from the source? 3.