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Single-Phase Motors

Objectives
The objective of this section is to introduce the following
topics related to single-phase induction motors:
Introduction to single-phase induction motors
Double revolving field theory
Cross field theory
Different types of single-phase induction motors and
their characteristics
Shaded pole motors
Operation of three-phase motors from single-phase
lines
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Applications

Introduction
Single-phase induction motors are the most familiar of all
electric motors because they are used in home appliances,
businesses, and small industries. Single-phase induction
motors have usually two poles or four poles and rated at 2
hp or less.
In a single-phase motor we have only a single field winding
excited with alternating current; therefore, it does not have
a revolving field like three-phase motors. Thus, it does not
self-starting. Several methods have been devised to initiate
rotation of the squirrel-cage rotor and the particular
method employed to start the motor will designate the
specific type.
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Principle of operation
3. 2.1 Synchronous Speed
As in the case of three-phase motors, the
synchronous speed of all single-phase induction
motors is given by the equation
120f
ns =
p
Where ns= synchronous speed [rpm]
f = frequency of the source [Hz]
p = number of poles
The rotor turns at slightly less than synchronous speed,
and the full-load slip is typically 3 percent to 5 percent3 for

Torque-Speed
Characteristic
Figure shows a schematic
diagram of the rotor and main
winding of a two-pole singlephase
induction
motor.
Suppose the rotor is locked, if
an ac voltage is applied to the
stator, the resulting current Is
produces an ac flux s. The
flux alternates back and forth
but, unlike the flux in threephase stator, no revolving field
is produced. The flux induces
an ac voltage in the stationary
rotor which, in turn, creates
large ac rotor currents.

In effect, the rotor behaves like the


short-circuited secondary of a
transformer;
consequently,
the
motor has no tendency to start
rotating by itself. However, if we
spin the rotor in one direction or the Torque
other, it will continue to rotate in the
direction of spin and the rotor
quickly accelerates until it reaches a
speed slightly below synchronous
speed. The acceleration indicates
that the motor develops a positive
torque as soon as it begins to turn.
Although the starting torque is zero,
the motor develops a powerful
torque
as
it
approaches
synchronous speed.

Speed

Principle of Operation
Cross-field theory

The principle of operation of a single-phase induction


motor can be explained from the cross-field theory. As
soon as the rotor begins to turn, a speed emf E is
induced in the rotor conductors, as they cut the stator
flux s. This voltage increases as the rotor speed
increases. It causes current IR to flow in the rotor bars
facing the stator poles as shown in Fig. 2
Current,I
These currents
Current, I
produce an ac flux R
+
which acts at right

+
angle to the stator flux
+
s.
R

R
AC source

The flux R lags almost 90o behind S, owing to the


inductance of the rotor
The combined action of s and R produces a
revolving magnetic field, similar to that in a threephase motor. The value of R increases with increasing
speed, becoming almost equal to s at synchronous
speed. The flux rotates counterclockwise in the same
direction as the rotor and it rotates at synchronous
speed irrespective of the actual speed of the rotor. As
the motor approaches synchronous speed, R
becomes almost equal to s and a nearly perfect
revolving field is produced. The rotating magnetic field
produces unidirectional torque in the rotor in the
direction of motion, and that torque will keep the rotor
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running.

Double-revolving field theory


The principle of operation of single-phase induction
motor can also be explained by double revolving field
theory.
The single-phase supply given to the single-phase
winding will produce pulsating field in the air gap.
However, any pulsating field can be resolved into two
components, equal in magnitude but oppositely
rotating, as shown.

The maximum value of each


component is one-half of .
This method of analysis is
commonly known as the
double-revolving field theory.

2
CW

1
CCW

Each field component acts independently on the rotor


and in a fashion similar to that of the rotating field in a
three-phase motor. The clockwise component produces
the torque characteristic Tcw while the counterclockwise
component produces the torque Tccw as shown
Observe that the resultant
torque is zero at standstill.
But, if the rotor were
rotated slightly in any
direction, a net torque will
result and the motor will
continue to rotate in that direction. For example, if the
rotor is started in the clockwise direction, the torque T cw
will exceed Tccw and the rotor will accelerate in that
direction and reach the steady-state speed near
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synchronous speed at a slip dictated by the load.

To produce rotating magnetic field at starting, an auxiliary


winding is placed in the motor

Starting methods for single-phase induction


motors
Split-phase induction motor
One of the most widely used
single-phase induction motors
is the split-phase induction
motor. It is used in
refrigerators, washing
machines, portable hoists,
many small machine tools,

Centrifugal
switch

Main
winding

Auxiliary
winding

blowers, fans, centrifugal pumps and many others. The


essential parts of the split-phase motor are shown.

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The auxiliary winding also known


as starting winding, is placed in
Centrifugal
Main
switch
winding
space quadrature with the main
winding. The rotor is the squirrelAuxiliary
cage type. The starting winding is
winding
made of thin wire so that its
impedance is different from that of
the main winding. The two windings
are connected in parallel to the ac
supply. The phase difference
between the two winding currents
(about 30o) will be sufficient to
produce a rotating magnetic field resulting in a starting
torque. When the motor has come to about 70 to 75% of
the rated speed, a centrifugal switch disconnects the
starting winding, and the motor will continue to run as a
single-phase motor. A typical torque-speed characteristic
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is shown

Capacitor-start motors
If a capacitor is connected in series with the starting
winding, the phase angle between the two winding currents
will become more than 30o (about 80o) that is obtained in
the split-phase motors. This increase in phase angle will
increase the starting torque. Figure shows the capacitorstart motor and the typical torque-speed characteristic.

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Because of their higher starting torques, capacitor-start


motors are used in applications where not only higher
starting torques are required, but also where reversible
motors are needed. Typical applications are; washing
machines, belted fans and blowers, dryers, pumps, and
compressors.

Permanent-split capacitor motor


In this motor, the capacitor in series with the auxiliary
winding is not switched out after starting. It remains in
the circuit; therefore the centrifugal switch is not
needed. Since the capacitor and the auxiliary winding
are in the circuit continuously, they should be properly
designed. The value of the capacitor is chosen such that
the phase angle difference between the currents in the
main and auxiliary windings are exactly 90o.
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Such a motor will have a perfectly


uniform rotating magnetic field at
some specific load. Such a design

is called permanent-split
capacitor or capacitor-startand-run- motor. Figure shows
such a motor and its characteristic.
At normal load these motors are
more efficient and have a higher
power factor and a smooth torque
than ordinary single-phase induction motor. However,
permanent split-capacitor motors have a lower starting
torque than capacitor-motors, since the capacitor must
be sized to balance the currents in the main and auxiliary
windings at normal-load condition.
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Capacitor-start
capacitor-run motors
If both the largest possible starting
torque and the best running
conditions are need, two
capacitors can be used with the
auxiliary winding. Motors with two
capacitors are called Capacitorstart capacitor-run or two-value
capacitor motors. The small value
of capacitance required for optimum running is
permanently connected in series with the auxiliary
winding, and the much larger value required for starting is
obtained by connecting another capacitor parallel to the
running capacitor.
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The starting capacitor is


disconnected after the motor
starts. Thus, theoretically
optimum starting and
running performance can
both be obtained. A
capacitor-start, capacitor-run
induction motor and the
torque-speed characteristic
of the motor are shown in the
figure

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Shaded-pole motors
The least expensive of the fractional-horsepower
motors, generally rated up to 1 hp, are shaded-pole
motors. They have salient stator poles, with one-coil-perpole called main winding. The auxiliary winding consists
of one (or rarely two) short-circuited copper straps
wound on a portion of the pole and displaced from the
center of each pole, as shown.

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The shaded-pole motor got its name from these shading


bands. Induced currents in the shading coil cause the flux
in the shaded portion of the pole to lag the flux in the other
portion in time. The result is then like a rotating field
moving in the direction from the unshaded to the shaded
portion of the pole. A low starting torque is produced; a
typical torque-speed characteristic is shown. Shaded-pole
motors have a rather low efficiency.

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Equivalent circuit
According to the double revolving field theory the stator
mmf can be resolved into two revolving mmfs, rotating in
opposite directions. If the rotor is rotating at speed n R,
the component mmf rotating in the same direction as the
rotor is called the forward-revolving field, and the
oppositely rotating mmf is called the backward-rotating
field. Each rotating mmf induces a voltage in the rotor
winding. Therefore, two equivalent circuits are built: one
for the forward component mmf and one for the
backward-rotating component field. Then, the two
component fields are combined and the two equivalent
circuits are interconnected.
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The forward rotating component field rotates at


synchronous speed ns in the same direction as the
rotor. Therefore, the slip s+ of the rotor with respect to
the forward-rotating field may be expressed as:

ns nr
nr
s s
1
ns
ns

The amplitude of the forward component mmf is one


half of the stator mmf. Hence, one half of the stator
current may be associated with the forward mmf. The
equivalent circuit for this situation is similar to that of
three-phase induction motor, with the modification that
the core loss represented by Rc is omitted from the
equivalent circuit of the single-phase machine. The core
loss is treated separately and is usually lumped with the
rotational losses.
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Thus, the equivalent circuit is as shown. In the diagram,


V1+ is the stator voltage corresponding to the forward
component.
Because the rotor and
the backward fields are
rotating in opposite
directions, the slip s- of
the rotor with respect to the backward-rotating field is
expressed as:
n (nr )
n
s s
1 r
ns
ns

2 (1

nr
)
ns

Therefore
s- = 2 - s+
The equivalent circuit corresponding to the backward21
revolving field is shown

V
The terminal voltage 1
1
1
Since one half of the
current I flowing in an
impedance Z has the
same performance
effect as the current I
flowing in the
impedance ()Z, the
combined equivalent
circuits may be
obtained as

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R1

jX1

jXF/2

ZF/2
RF/2

jXB/2

ZB/2
RB/2

( R2 / s jX 2 )( jX m )
Z F R F jX F
( R2 / s jX 2 jX m )
( R2 /(2 s ) jX 2 )( jX m )
Z B RB jX B
( R2 /(2 s ) jX 2 jX m )
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To make the calculation simpler, let us define


impedances ZF and ZB as
( R2 / s jX 2 )( jX m )
Z F R F jX F
( R2 / s jX 2 jX m )

( R2 /(2 s ) jX 2 )( jX m )
Z B RB jX B
( R2 /(2 s ) jX 2 jX m )

The current flowing in the induction motors stator


winding is then given by
I1

V
R1 jX 1 0.5Z F 0.5Z B

The air-gap power (total power consumed in the rotor


equivalent circuit) for the forward magnetic field can be
expressed as PAG,F = I12(0.5 RF)
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Similarly, the air-gap power for the reverse magnetic field


can be expressed as
PAG,B = I12(0.5 RB)
The total air-gap power in a single-phase induction motor
is thus
PAG = PAG,F PAG,B
The induced torque

T=

PAG
s

Power converted Pconv = (1 s) PAG


Power output can be obtained by subtracting core
losses, mechanical losses and stray losses from power
converted.
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Example
A single-phase, 1/3-hp, 120-V, six-pole, 60-Hz induction
motor has the following parameters:
R1 = 1.520
R2 = 3.13
X1 = 2.1
X2 = 1.56 Xm=58.2
The core loss is 35 W, and the mechanical (friction and
windage) losses are 16 W. The motor operates at rated
voltage and rated frequency, with its starting winding
open, and the motors slip is 5%. Determine the following:
(a) Motor speed

(b) Input current

(c) Stator power factor

(d) Input power

(e) Air-gap power

(f) Output power

(g) Efficiency

(h) Output torque.


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Solution
The forward and reverse impedances of the motor at a slip of
0.05 are
( R2 / s jX 2 )( jX m )
Z F RF jX F
( R2 / s jX 2 jX m )

(3.13 / 0.05 j1.56)( j 58.2)


= 3.13 / 0.05 j1.56 j58.2)

= 25.4 + j30.7 = 39.9 50.5o


(3.13 / 1.95 j1.56)( j 58.2)
( R2 /( 2 s ) jX 2 )( jX m )
Z B R B jX B
=
( R2 /(2 s ) jX 2 jX m )
3.13 / 1.95 j1.56 j 58.2)

= 1.51 + j1.56 = 2.18 45.9o


(a) Synchronous speed ns = 120f/P = 1200 rpm
The speed of the motor is (1-s) ns = 1140 rpm
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(b)

The input current, I 1

V
R1 jX 1 0.5Z F 0.5Z B

110 0 o
4.66 50.6 o A
=
1.52 j 2.1 0.5(25.4 j 30.7) 0.5(1.51 j1.56)

(c) Stator power factor = cos(-50.6) = 0.635 lagging


(d) Input power Pi = V I cos = 110 x 4.66 x 0.635 = 325 W
(e)= The air-gap power for the forward magnetic field is
PAG,F = I12(0.5 RF) = 4.662 x 12.7 = 275.8 W.
The air-gap power for the reverse magnetic field is
PAG,B = I12(0.5 RB) = 4.662 x 0.755 = 16.4 W
The total air-gap power in a single-phase induction motor
is thus
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(f)

The power converted is


Pconv = (1 s) PAG = 0.95 x 259.4 = 246

(h)
The output power is given by (assuming no stray
losses )
Po = Pconv Pcore Pmech - Pstray = 246 35 16 = 195 W
(g)

The efficiency of the motor


= Po / Pi = 195/325 = 60%

(h)

Output torque = Po/ = 195/(1140x2/60) = 1.63 Nm

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Applications
Motors

General remark

Application

Split-phase motors

Have moderate starting


torque with low starting
current. Low cost.

Fans, blowers, centrifugal pumps


and office equipment

Capacitor-start
motors

High starting torque

Compressor, pumps, refrigeration


and air-conditioning equipment,
belt-driven loads and other loads
requiring high starting torque

Permanent-split
capacitor motors

Low starting torque.


Quite running

Low starting torque load: Directconnected fans and blowers

Capacitor-start
capacitor-run motor

High starting torque and


high power factor

Compressors, stokers, conveyors,


and pumps

Shaded-pole motors

Low starting torque

Toys, small desk fans, hair dryers


and other low-starting torque load

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Operation of a three-phase induction


motor on single-phase supply (Singlephasing)
If one line of a three-phase line is accidentally opened
while the three-phase motor is running the machine will
continue to run as single-phase motor. The current drawn
from the remaining two lines will almost double, and the
motor will begin to overheat. The torque-speed curve is
seriously affected when a three-phase motor operates on
single phase. The pull-out torque (maximum torque)
decreases to about 40% of its original value, and the
motor develops no starting torque at all. Figure shows
the typical torque-speed curves of a three-phase motor
when it is running normally and when it is singlephasing. Note that the curves follow each other closely
until the torque approaches the single-phase pull-out
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torque.

Torque

Pull-out torque
Three-phase
operation
Full load
Single-phase
operation
0

20

40

60

80

100

Speed

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