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Objectives

The objective of this section is to introduce the following

topics related to single-phase induction motors:

Introduction to single-phase induction motors

Double revolving field theory

Cross field theory

Different types of single-phase induction motors and

their characteristics

Shaded pole motors

Operation of three-phase motors from single-phase

lines

1

Applications

Introduction

Single-phase induction motors are the most familiar of all

electric motors because they are used in home appliances,

businesses, and small industries. Single-phase induction

motors have usually two poles or four poles and rated at 2

hp or less.

In a single-phase motor we have only a single field winding

excited with alternating current; therefore, it does not have

a revolving field like three-phase motors. Thus, it does not

self-starting. Several methods have been devised to initiate

rotation of the squirrel-cage rotor and the particular

method employed to start the motor will designate the

specific type.

2

Principle of operation

3. 2.1 Synchronous Speed

As in the case of three-phase motors, the

synchronous speed of all single-phase induction

motors is given by the equation

120f

ns =

p

Where ns= synchronous speed [rpm]

f = frequency of the source [Hz]

p = number of poles

The rotor turns at slightly less than synchronous speed,

and the full-load slip is typically 3 percent to 5 percent3 for

Torque-Speed

Characteristic

Figure shows a schematic

diagram of the rotor and main

winding of a two-pole singlephase

induction

motor.

Suppose the rotor is locked, if

an ac voltage is applied to the

stator, the resulting current Is

produces an ac flux s. The

flux alternates back and forth

but, unlike the flux in threephase stator, no revolving field

is produced. The flux induces

an ac voltage in the stationary

rotor which, in turn, creates

large ac rotor currents.

short-circuited secondary of a

transformer;

consequently,

the

motor has no tendency to start

rotating by itself. However, if we

spin the rotor in one direction or the Torque

other, it will continue to rotate in the

direction of spin and the rotor

quickly accelerates until it reaches a

speed slightly below synchronous

speed. The acceleration indicates

that the motor develops a positive

torque as soon as it begins to turn.

Although the starting torque is zero,

the motor develops a powerful

torque

as

it

approaches

synchronous speed.

Speed

Principle of Operation

Cross-field theory

motor can be explained from the cross-field theory. As

soon as the rotor begins to turn, a speed emf E is

induced in the rotor conductors, as they cut the stator

flux s. This voltage increases as the rotor speed

increases. It causes current IR to flow in the rotor bars

facing the stator poles as shown in Fig. 2

Current,I

These currents

Current, I

produce an ac flux R

+

which acts at right

+

angle to the stator flux

+

s.

R

R

AC source

inductance of the rotor

The combined action of s and R produces a

revolving magnetic field, similar to that in a threephase motor. The value of R increases with increasing

speed, becoming almost equal to s at synchronous

speed. The flux rotates counterclockwise in the same

direction as the rotor and it rotates at synchronous

speed irrespective of the actual speed of the rotor. As

the motor approaches synchronous speed, R

becomes almost equal to s and a nearly perfect

revolving field is produced. The rotating magnetic field

produces unidirectional torque in the rotor in the

direction of motion, and that torque will keep the rotor

7

running.

The principle of operation of single-phase induction

motor can also be explained by double revolving field

theory.

The single-phase supply given to the single-phase

winding will produce pulsating field in the air gap.

However, any pulsating field can be resolved into two

components, equal in magnitude but oppositely

rotating, as shown.

component is one-half of .

This method of analysis is

commonly known as the

double-revolving field theory.

2

CW

1

CCW

and in a fashion similar to that of the rotating field in a

three-phase motor. The clockwise component produces

the torque characteristic Tcw while the counterclockwise

component produces the torque Tccw as shown

Observe that the resultant

torque is zero at standstill.

But, if the rotor were

rotated slightly in any

direction, a net torque will

result and the motor will

continue to rotate in that direction. For example, if the

rotor is started in the clockwise direction, the torque T cw

will exceed Tccw and the rotor will accelerate in that

direction and reach the steady-state speed near

9

synchronous speed at a slip dictated by the load.

winding is placed in the motor

motors

Split-phase induction motor

One of the most widely used

single-phase induction motors

is the split-phase induction

motor. It is used in

refrigerators, washing

machines, portable hoists,

many small machine tools,

Centrifugal

switch

Main

winding

Auxiliary

winding

essential parts of the split-phase motor are shown.

10

as starting winding, is placed in

Centrifugal

Main

switch

winding

space quadrature with the main

winding. The rotor is the squirrelAuxiliary

cage type. The starting winding is

winding

made of thin wire so that its

impedance is different from that of

the main winding. The two windings

are connected in parallel to the ac

supply. The phase difference

between the two winding currents

(about 30o) will be sufficient to

produce a rotating magnetic field resulting in a starting

torque. When the motor has come to about 70 to 75% of

the rated speed, a centrifugal switch disconnects the

starting winding, and the motor will continue to run as a

single-phase motor. A typical torque-speed characteristic

11

is shown

Capacitor-start motors

If a capacitor is connected in series with the starting

winding, the phase angle between the two winding currents

will become more than 30o (about 80o) that is obtained in

the split-phase motors. This increase in phase angle will

increase the starting torque. Figure shows the capacitorstart motor and the typical torque-speed characteristic.

12

motors are used in applications where not only higher

starting torques are required, but also where reversible

motors are needed. Typical applications are; washing

machines, belted fans and blowers, dryers, pumps, and

compressors.

In this motor, the capacitor in series with the auxiliary

winding is not switched out after starting. It remains in

the circuit; therefore the centrifugal switch is not

needed. Since the capacitor and the auxiliary winding

are in the circuit continuously, they should be properly

designed. The value of the capacitor is chosen such that

the phase angle difference between the currents in the

main and auxiliary windings are exactly 90o.

13

uniform rotating magnetic field at

some specific load. Such a design

is called permanent-split

capacitor or capacitor-startand-run- motor. Figure shows

such a motor and its characteristic.

At normal load these motors are

more efficient and have a higher

power factor and a smooth torque

than ordinary single-phase induction motor. However,

permanent split-capacitor motors have a lower starting

torque than capacitor-motors, since the capacitor must

be sized to balance the currents in the main and auxiliary

windings at normal-load condition.

14

Capacitor-start

capacitor-run motors

If both the largest possible starting

torque and the best running

conditions are need, two

capacitors can be used with the

auxiliary winding. Motors with two

capacitors are called Capacitorstart capacitor-run or two-value

capacitor motors. The small value

of capacitance required for optimum running is

permanently connected in series with the auxiliary

winding, and the much larger value required for starting is

obtained by connecting another capacitor parallel to the

running capacitor.

15

disconnected after the motor

starts. Thus, theoretically

optimum starting and

running performance can

both be obtained. A

capacitor-start, capacitor-run

induction motor and the

torque-speed characteristic

of the motor are shown in the

figure

16

Shaded-pole motors

The least expensive of the fractional-horsepower

motors, generally rated up to 1 hp, are shaded-pole

motors. They have salient stator poles, with one-coil-perpole called main winding. The auxiliary winding consists

of one (or rarely two) short-circuited copper straps

wound on a portion of the pole and displaced from the

center of each pole, as shown.

17

bands. Induced currents in the shading coil cause the flux

in the shaded portion of the pole to lag the flux in the other

portion in time. The result is then like a rotating field

moving in the direction from the unshaded to the shaded

portion of the pole. A low starting torque is produced; a

typical torque-speed characteristic is shown. Shaded-pole

motors have a rather low efficiency.

18

Equivalent circuit

According to the double revolving field theory the stator

mmf can be resolved into two revolving mmfs, rotating in

opposite directions. If the rotor is rotating at speed n R,

the component mmf rotating in the same direction as the

rotor is called the forward-revolving field, and the

oppositely rotating mmf is called the backward-rotating

field. Each rotating mmf induces a voltage in the rotor

winding. Therefore, two equivalent circuits are built: one

for the forward component mmf and one for the

backward-rotating component field. Then, the two

component fields are combined and the two equivalent

circuits are interconnected.

19

synchronous speed ns in the same direction as the

rotor. Therefore, the slip s+ of the rotor with respect to

the forward-rotating field may be expressed as:

ns nr

nr

s s

1

ns

ns

half of the stator mmf. Hence, one half of the stator

current may be associated with the forward mmf. The

equivalent circuit for this situation is similar to that of

three-phase induction motor, with the modification that

the core loss represented by Rc is omitted from the

equivalent circuit of the single-phase machine. The core

loss is treated separately and is usually lumped with the

rotational losses.

20

V1+ is the stator voltage corresponding to the forward

component.

Because the rotor and

the backward fields are

rotating in opposite

directions, the slip s- of

the rotor with respect to the backward-rotating field is

expressed as:

n (nr )

n

s s

1 r

ns

ns

2 (1

nr

)

ns

Therefore

s- = 2 - s+

The equivalent circuit corresponding to the backward21

revolving field is shown

V

The terminal voltage 1

1

1

Since one half of the

current I flowing in an

impedance Z has the

same performance

effect as the current I

flowing in the

impedance ()Z, the

combined equivalent

circuits may be

obtained as

22

R1

jX1

jXF/2

ZF/2

RF/2

jXB/2

ZB/2

RB/2

( R2 / s jX 2 )( jX m )

Z F R F jX F

( R2 / s jX 2 jX m )

( R2 /(2 s ) jX 2 )( jX m )

Z B RB jX B

( R2 /(2 s ) jX 2 jX m )

23

impedances ZF and ZB as

( R2 / s jX 2 )( jX m )

Z F R F jX F

( R2 / s jX 2 jX m )

( R2 /(2 s ) jX 2 )( jX m )

Z B RB jX B

( R2 /(2 s ) jX 2 jX m )

winding is then given by

I1

V

R1 jX 1 0.5Z F 0.5Z B

equivalent circuit) for the forward magnetic field can be

expressed as PAG,F = I12(0.5 RF)

24

can be expressed as

PAG,B = I12(0.5 RB)

The total air-gap power in a single-phase induction motor

is thus

PAG = PAG,F PAG,B

The induced torque

T=

PAG

s

Power output can be obtained by subtracting core

losses, mechanical losses and stray losses from power

converted.

25

Example

A single-phase, 1/3-hp, 120-V, six-pole, 60-Hz induction

motor has the following parameters:

R1 = 1.520

R2 = 3.13

X1 = 2.1

X2 = 1.56 Xm=58.2

The core loss is 35 W, and the mechanical (friction and

windage) losses are 16 W. The motor operates at rated

voltage and rated frequency, with its starting winding

open, and the motors slip is 5%. Determine the following:

(a) Motor speed

(g) Efficiency

26

Solution

The forward and reverse impedances of the motor at a slip of

0.05 are

( R2 / s jX 2 )( jX m )

Z F RF jX F

( R2 / s jX 2 jX m )

= 3.13 / 0.05 j1.56 j58.2)

(3.13 / 1.95 j1.56)( j 58.2)

( R2 /( 2 s ) jX 2 )( jX m )

Z B R B jX B

=

( R2 /(2 s ) jX 2 jX m )

3.13 / 1.95 j1.56 j 58.2)

(a) Synchronous speed ns = 120f/P = 1200 rpm

The speed of the motor is (1-s) ns = 1140 rpm

27

(b)

V

R1 jX 1 0.5Z F 0.5Z B

110 0 o

4.66 50.6 o A

=

1.52 j 2.1 0.5(25.4 j 30.7) 0.5(1.51 j1.56)

(d) Input power Pi = V I cos = 110 x 4.66 x 0.635 = 325 W

(e)= The air-gap power for the forward magnetic field is

PAG,F = I12(0.5 RF) = 4.662 x 12.7 = 275.8 W.

The air-gap power for the reverse magnetic field is

PAG,B = I12(0.5 RB) = 4.662 x 0.755 = 16.4 W

The total air-gap power in a single-phase induction motor

is thus

28

(f)

Pconv = (1 s) PAG = 0.95 x 259.4 = 246

(h)

The output power is given by (assuming no stray

losses )

Po = Pconv Pcore Pmech - Pstray = 246 35 16 = 195 W

(g)

= Po / Pi = 195/325 = 60%

(h)

29

Applications

Motors

General remark

Application

Split-phase motors

torque with low starting

current. Low cost.

and office equipment

Capacitor-start

motors

and air-conditioning equipment,

belt-driven loads and other loads

requiring high starting torque

Permanent-split

capacitor motors

Quite running

Capacitor-start

capacitor-run motor

high power factor

and pumps

Shaded-pole motors

and other low-starting torque load

30

motor on single-phase supply (Singlephasing)

If one line of a three-phase line is accidentally opened

while the three-phase motor is running the machine will

continue to run as single-phase motor. The current drawn

from the remaining two lines will almost double, and the

motor will begin to overheat. The torque-speed curve is

seriously affected when a three-phase motor operates on

single phase. The pull-out torque (maximum torque)

decreases to about 40% of its original value, and the

motor develops no starting torque at all. Figure shows

the typical torque-speed curves of a three-phase motor

when it is running normally and when it is singlephasing. Note that the curves follow each other closely

until the torque approaches the single-phase pull-out

31

torque.

Torque

Pull-out torque

Three-phase

operation

Full load

Single-phase

operation

0

20

40

60

80

100

Speed

32

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