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PDCA Cycle

(Plan-Do-Check-Act)

Ground Rules
Keep phones on silent mode during the session.
Participate and ask questions
There are no right or wrong answers; all
responses are valued
Listen attentively
Express yourself
Be open-minded and respectful

Expectations
Understand the
steps of PDCA

Learn how to
apply PDCA in
our work

PDCA Cycle

ota Principles and Practices

troduction to Philosophy
It functions as a work management
tool to ensure that activities are well
planned (Plan) and implemented (Do)
and that there is a continuous
feedback loop that involves checking
the effectiveness of implementation
(Check) and then taking actions to
ensure success (Act).

History of PDCA

Walter A. Shewhart, 1891 - 1967


W. Edward Deming 1900 - 1993

Why PDCA?
PDCA facilitates:
Continuous improvement in our work.
Makes work easier by giving structure to the way we
work.
Reduces muda (waste) in time and resource by
increasing efficiency of our
work process
Ensures repetitive success via standardization
Helps eliminate problems in our work through
monitoring and problem
solving throughout the entire process
Increases the quality of our work.

he Marshmallow Challenge
Build the TallestFreestandingStructure:The
winning team is the one that has the tallest structure
measured from the table top surface to the top of the
marshmallow.

he Marshmallow Challenge
GUIDELINES:
1. TheEntireMarshmallow Must be on Top:The entire marshmallow
needs to be on the top of the structure. Cutting or eating part of the
marshmallow disqualifies the team.
2. Use as Much or as Little of the Kit:The team can use as many or as
few of the 20 spaghetti sticks, as much or as little of the string or tape.
The team cannot use the paper bag as part of their structure.
3. Break up the Spaghetti, String or Tape:Teams are free to break the
spaghetti, cut up the tape and string to create new structures.
4. The Challenge Lasts 18 minutes:Teams cannot hold on to the
structure when the time runs out. Those touching or supporting the
structure at the end of the exercise will be disqualified.

PLAN PHASE
All activities prior to
implementing/changing a
system.
What
should we
do?

Determine the Ideal Situatio


Grasp the Current Situation
Create a Plan
Communicate

PLAN PHASE

-Benjamin Franklin

PLAN PHASE
Muda in time and effort due to
insufficient time spent in planning
and communication

Total time spent when NOT PLANNING thoroughly

Plan

Check
Do

Act

Total time spent when PLANNING THOROUGHLY


Savings in time and effort as
a result of good planning

N PHASE: Determine the Ideal Situation

N PHASE: Determine the Ideal Situation


Key Questions
What is the purpose of my
work/project?
What is my work objective/my
desired outcome?
What is the impact if I dont do
this work?
Who are my stakeholders in this
work?
By when must I achieve the
ideal? Why by that time?
How will I know when Ive
achieved the ideal?

N PHASE: Determine the Ideal Situation


Example (MP)
What is the purpose of my work/project?
-To generate profit by selling vehicles
What is my work objective/my desired
outcome?
-Sell 71 units
What is the impact if I dont do this
work?
-Unachieved sales target
Who are my stakeholders in this work?
-Customers, management, sales
department
By when must I achieve the ideal? Why
by that time?
-By the end of December 2015
How will I know when Ive achieved the

N PHASE: Grasp the Current Situation


Clarify where you are now via facts and data.
The best method to grasp the situation is thru
Genchi Genbutsu

N PHASE: Grasp the Current Situation


Key Questions
What has occurred up to date?
Has this work or similar work been
done before? What are the existing
standards for the work?
What facts/data is available? What
does it tell me?
What is the current business
environment? What impact will it have
on my work?

AN PHASE: Create Action Plan


Develop a Task List
Brainstorm the actions required to achieve
the ideal
Co
rch
a
e
s
a
Re
omp
c
w
ie
Rev
ark
chm
n
e
B
Inte

arch
Rese

Identify main tasks


Determine dependencies between tasks
(simultaneous or consecutive) and critical
path
Estimate how long each main task will take.
Break down main task to smaller/detailed
actions

AN PHASE: Create Action Plan


Objective: Complete a 5
year sales forecast for
Company Executives as
basis for their future
strategic plan.

Objective: Complete a 5
year sales forecast for
Company Executives as
basis for their future
strategic plan.

1. Research Content

11. Review with Manager

2. Review Company Database

12. Draft Report

3. Benchmark Competitors

13. Complete 1st Draft

4. Interview Experts

14. Review with Manager

5. Research Trend

15. Draft Final Report

6. Develop Outline

16. Gain Approval

7. Analyze Data

17. Present Report

8. Develop Hypothesis
9. Draft Report Outline

18. Development Supporting


Ppt.

10. Review with Experts

19. Practice Presentation

Develop a Task List


Co
rch
a
e
s
a
Re
omp
c
w
ie
Rev
ark
chm
n
e
B
r
Inte
arch
Rese

20. Present Report

AN PHASE: Create Action Plan


Set a Target
DEFINITION

CONFIRMATION POINT

S Specific
Do what exactly?

What is it to be accomplished? Who is to be


involved? Where is it to be done? When is it to be
done?

M Measurable
To what degree?

How much? How will you know when it is


accomplished?

A Appropriate
Is it business
suitable?

Is there a realistic chance that the target can be


accomplished? Is it within my control or scope? Can
the target be achieved with the available resources,
knowledge, and time allotted?

R Realistic
Can it be done?

Is the goal appropriate and consistent with mission


and vision of the organization?

T Time Based
By When?

Are the deadlines and milestone dates set for each


task?

AN PHASE: Create Action Plan


Develop a Schedule

AN PHASE: Create Action Plan


Determine Resources Required to Carry Out the
Tasks
Budget
Equipment or facilities
Information
Manage Risk
Identify potential risks to your project.
RISK can be understood as any factor that
may interfere with the successful
completion of your project.

N PHASE: Communicate thru Nemawash


To nemawashi
something
is to discuss it with
others to gain
clarification, support
and/or
consensus.

S
Gain
Give
E
InformationEInformation
K

DO PHASE
Actual Execution

How do we
implement
our plan?

Implement Plan
Monitor
Adjust
Communicate

DO PHASE
COMMUNICATE

PLAN
Develop a plan to achieve the
ideal situation

DO
Implement the Plan

Who needs to know what


and when?

Adjust

Throughout the project

CHECK
Verify the Result and Process

ACT

Monitor
At project conclusion

PHASE: Implement the Plan


Even if you do a perfect
job, if it is not complete
by
the due date, in the
worst
case the project may
fail.

O PHASE: Monitor

O PHASE: Monitor
Monitor
Monitor the process ( ex. baking)
Monitor the results ( ex. Cakes taste, moisture,
texture, etc.)
Adjust
Altering Schedule
Changing the process or the target

DO PHASE: Monitor
and Adjust

Key Questions

How and when will I monitor process? What are


process KPI?
How and when will I monitor results? What are
the result KPI?
Can I see problems when they occur?
Did I check via genchi genbutsu?
Is it clear why I did or didn't achieve my plan?
Are problem causes identified?
Are countermeasures set?

DO PHASE: Communicate
Visualization

DO PHASE: Communicate thru


HORENSO

CHECK PHASE
Confirm, evaluate and
monitor results

How did
we do?

Evaluate Results
Evaluate Process
Communicate

CHECK PHASE: Evaluate Results


Key
Questions
What are
the final
results vs.
target?
Did I check
via genchi
genbutsu?

CHECK PHASE: Evaluate Process


Key
Questions
What is the
difference
between plan
and actual?
Why?
Would I do
it again the
same way?
Why or Why

CHECK PHASE: Communicate


Reflection Meetings
Common way to wrap up a project that has ended
Stakeholders meet and review the project from
beginning to end
Discuss summarized outcome of the project
Final Report
Feedback from customers
Improvements (Kaizen) against former standards
Circumstantial causes vs. process causes

CHECK PHASE: Communicate


Key Questions
Did I conduct reflection meeting with
stakeholders?
Are the final results and process clearly
visualized?

ACT PHASE
The implementation of necessary
adjustments to ensure successful
implementation of the

How do we
improve?

Resolve Issues
Standardize
improvement
Kaizen
Communicate

ACT PHASE

ACT PHASE: Resolve Issues

Results
Evaluation

ACT PHASE: Resolve Issues


Process
Evaluation

ACT PHASE: Resolve Issues


Key Questions
What problems still need resolution?
What is the cause and countermeasure?

ACT PHASE: Standardize


What is a standard?
It is the best known method of performing a process.
It is the normal requirement for quality, quantity, level,
grade, etc.
Standards should be documented for others benefits!

ACT PHASE: Kaizen / Continuous


Improvement

ACT PHASE: Communicate


Yokoten
Japanese term which means transfer
Sharing of best practices and learning points

ACT PHASE
Celebrate
Enjoy the fruit of your labor!

PDCA Application: Dealer Genba


Kaizen

PDCA: Q and A

PDCA: Quiz
IDENTIFICATION:
1. What does P-D-C-A means?
2. PDCA was first conceived by
__________________?
3. This is the stage in the PDCA Cycle where all
activities prior to implementing/changing a
system is being done.
4. This is the stage in PDCA where results and
processes are being confirmed and evaluated.
5. The stage in PDCA where implementation of
necessary adjustments to ensure successful
implementation of the improvement.
6. Stage of PDCA where actual execution of plans

PDCA: Quiz
7. A Japanese word that refers to the practice of
thorough communication. This is done to
discuss with others to gain clarification,
support and or consensus.
8. The best method to grasp the situation is thru
_________?
9. A Japanese word meaning transfer. It refers
to the sharing of best practices and learning
points.
10.______________ is the best known method of
performing a process.

PDCA: Quiz
TRUE or FALSE
11. PDCA functions as a work management tool to ensure that activities
are well planned and implemented and that there is a continuous feedback
loop that involves checking the effectiveness of implementation and then
taking actions to ensure success.
12. PDCA ensures repetitive success via standardization.
13. Japan spends 30% in Planning, and 70% in Doing, while North America
spends 70% in Planning, and 30% in Doing.
14. Standards should be documented for others benefits.
15. A result is the outcome of the process.

KEY TO CORRECTIONS
1. Plan-Do-Check-Act

11.TRUE

2. Walter Shewhart

12.TRUE

3. Plan Phase

13.FALSE

4. Check Phase

14.TRUE

5. Act Phase

15.TRUE

6. Do Phase
7. Nemawashi
8. Genchi Genbutsu
9. Yokoten
10.Standard