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Full name is RS-232-C
RS-232 defines serial, asynchronous communication
RS-232 is a popular communications interface for connecting
modems and data acquisition devices
RS-232 can be plugged straight into the computers serial port
(know as COM or Comm port).
Architecturally RS-232 is a bi-directional point to point link.

Port Details
Architecturally RS-232 is a bi-directional point to point link
also it specifies the use of start and stop bits.
Logical 1 is -15Vdc
Logical 0 is +15Vdc

One important aspect of RS-232 is that it is an asynchronous form of
Asynchronous communication is important because it is efficient; if
no data needs to be sent, the connection is idle. No additional
CPU overhead is required for an idle serial line.
RS-232 is a standard by which two serial devices communicate
The connection must be no longer than 50 feet
Transmission voltage are -15V and + 15V
It is designed around transmission of characters of 7 bits of

Type of Communication

Serial Communications
Serial communication, as the name implies, occurs in serial form
through simple, twisted-pair cables.
It allows peripheral equipment, such as terminals, modems, operator
interface panels, and line printers, to receive ASCII information.

Types of data transfer

Unidirectional or Bidirectional
Unidirectional : One device is Sender (Output Device) and another
is Receiver (Input Device)
Bidirectional : Both devices can work as either Sender or Receiver
(Input or Output)
Bidirectional is done using single line shared between two devices
Two different lines are used one for receiving and other for
transferring with respect to one device.
First is known as Half Duplex
Second type is known as Full Duplex
Synchronous(no start &stop bits) and asynchronous(start bit before
the byte and stop bit at the end of bit) type data transfer.

RS232 Standard
Interface between Data Terminal Equipment (DTE) and Data
Communication Equipment (DCE) employing serial binary data
Logic 0 : +3V to 15 VDC
Logic 1 : -3V to -15 VDC
Maximum Distance : 15m or 50ft

Need of Parity Bit

The parity bit included at the end of the character to check for any
error during transmission
Even Parity : Total no. of bits including parity bit is Even
Odd Parity : Total no. of bits including parity is Odd
Only data bits and parity bit are considered for finding parity bit
Example for Even parity
: 0101 0101 0, total 4 ones
Example for Odd parity
: 0101 0101 1, total 5 ones


Baud Rate
The UART is also responsible for baud rate generation. This
determines the speed at which data is transmitted and received.
One baud is one bit per second (bps). As of this writing, data rates
can reach up to 230,400 baud.
The cable length between devices is limited by the baud rate -- the
higher the speed, the shorter the cable.
The RS-232C standard only permits transmission speeds up to
19200 baud with a cable length of 45 feet. With modern UARTs,
230,400 baud can be achieved with a short cable length of a few

Baud Rate Range

RS232 works in a restricted range of baud rates: 75, 110, 300, 1200, 2400,
4800, 9600, 14400, 19200, 28800, 33600, 56000, 115200 and 230400.
Start Bits 1
Stop Bits 1, 11/2 or 2
Data Bits 5, 6, 7, 8
Parity Bits Even, odd or none

Instruction cycle is the machine instruction executed each clock cycle

SMOD is the normal/double baud rate bit.
TRV is the reload value for the timer

Baud Rate v/s Data Transfer Rate

Data transfer rates are measured in bits per second (bps).
This is an indication of the useful data that has been transmitted
from the transmitter to the receiver.
For example, in Figure the useful data is only Eight bits, whilst
the total number of bits (or signal changes) amounts to Twelve.
The additional Four bits are overhead bits.
Baud rate: The number of signal changes per second, irrespective
of the presence of any useful data in the bit stream

Large-amplitude, bipolar voltage swings complicate power
supply and driver design
Non-differential signaling limits noise immunity
Cable length typically limited to 15m, more with lowcapacitance cables.
Slower than modern serial interfaces, such as USB .
No standard way to connect more than two devices on one bus

What is a Bit Rate

Number of bits that can be transmitted in 1 second.
If tp is the duration of the bit then the Bit rate R= 1/tp.
Bit duration need not be same as the pulse duration.

Received &Transmitted signals

Received Signal is never same as transmitted.
Clock signal samples & regenerates the original bits as it was
Received Signal should be sampled at right instant. Otherwise it will
cause bit error.
Transmitted Signal also

Data Speed, Baud

Two units of speed are employed in data transmission.

Number of data bits transmitted per second (BPS)
Baud : the rate at which the signal changes
For a binary two-level signal, a data rate of one bit per second is
equivalent to one Baud.

Transmission Speed
In RS-232, each signal change represents one bit, so baud rate and
bits per second are equal
Since each 8 bits of data are accompanied by a start and stop bit,
max. data rate is only 8/10 of baud rate
The final sample is taken 9.5 bit periods after the initial falling edge
and must lie within the stop bit
The permissible error is therefore about 0.5 bit period in 9.5 periods
or 5%
There may be errors in both receiver and transmitter, so each should
be accurate to within about 2%

Transmission Format
Every time a character is sent, the same communication occurs:
Start bit sent.
Seven data bits sent.
Stop bit sent.
This communication is dependent on the fact that both devices are
sampling the bits at the same rate.s

Line Sampling & Framing

RS-232 hardware samples the line multiple times during a single bit
If the samples do not all have the same voltage, a framing error
A framing error should only occur if one device is sending faster
than the other device is set to receive.
An intentional frame error can be caused by sending a BREAK.

However, serial communications between devices also has its
own speed barrier.
RS-232 was designed with the understanding that the analog
world is far from perfect.
Digital is fast, analog is slow. RS-232 is analog, therefore is it
slow (in computing terms).
Signal noise is bad. It is caused by a variety of sources, all of
which lead to lower speeds and less reliable transmission.