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TRANSFORMER PROTECTION

By
Y. k. Pandharipande.

TRANSFORMER PROTECTION
CLASSIFICATION
1. Protection against Electrical Faults
Unit Protection (against Internal Faults)

Differential Protection.

REF Protection.
Non-Unit Protection (against uncleared external faults)

IDMT O/C, E/F Relays.

Definite Time O/C, E/F Relays.


2.Protection against Abnormal Conditions

Over Load protection

Over Fluxing Protection


3. Protective Devices (Non-electrical)

Buchholz (Main Tank / OLTC)

Oil / Winding Temperature Indicators / Relays

Pressure Release Valve

Oil Level Gauges / Indicators

TRANSFORMER PROTECTION
DIFFERENTIAL RELAY OPERATING PRINCIPLE
Current Distribution (External Fault)

Battery Analogy (External Fault)

TRANSFORMER PROTECTION
DIFFERENTIAL RELAY OPERATING PRINCIPLE.
Current Distribution ( Internal Fault)

Battery Analogy (Internal Fault)

TRANSFORMER PROTECTION
DIFFERENTIAL RELAY NEED FOR BIAS

Transformer ratio = 100/50KV


F.L. Current = 100A (on 100 KV side)
= 200A (on 50 KV side)
Tap Range = (+/-) 10%
% Impedance (Zt) = 10%

TRANSFORMER PROTECTION
DIFFERENTIAL RELAY NEED FOR BIAS.

Current Distribution on Load on Normal Tap

TRANSFORMER PROTECTION
DIFFERENTIAL PROTECTION NEED FOR BIAS

CURRENT DISTRIBUTION ON LOAD ON + 10% TAP

TRANSFORMER PROTECTION
DIFFERENTIAL PROTECTION NEED FOR BIAS.

CURRENT DISTRIBUTION ON THROUGH FAULT ON + 10%TAP.

TRANSFORMER PROTECTION
DIFFERENTIAL RELAY NEED FOR BIAS.

Diff. Pick-up = 15% (0.15A), Bias = 30% (Assumed)

Modified Diff. Pick-up due to Restraining Effect of Bias


Id mod = 0.30 x (10+9)/2 + 0.15 = 2.85 + 0.15 = 3.0A.

Actual Diff. Current = 1.0A

TRANSFORMER PROTECTION
DIFFERENTIAL PROTECTION BIAS CHARACTERISTIC.

TRANSFORMER PROTECTION
DIFFERENTIAL PROTECTION MAGNETISING INRUSH.

STEADY STATE

At zero volts, flux is (-) m since flux in quadrature with voltage.

Total flux change in half the voltage cycle is 2m (-m to +m).

SWITCHING AT VOLTAGE ZERO.

Initial flux zero as against (-) m corresponding to steady state.

Total flux changes from zero to 2m.

Flux doubling causes extreme saturation of core.

TRANSFORMER PROTECTION
DIFFERENTIAL PROTECTION- MAGNETISING INRUSH.

Magnetising Impedance drastically reduces due to core


saturation causing heavy inrush current.
Inrush appears on excited winding (primary) without any
balancing current on secondary and unstabilises differential
protection.

TRANSFORMER PROTECTION
DIFFERENTIAL PROTECTION INRUSH STABILITY

Inrush current has predominant 2 nd harmonic content


(typical value, upto 60% max. of Fundamental depending
upon instant of switching).
Dominant 2 nd harmonic component is used to restrain the
protection on inrush condition.

TRANSFORMER PROTECTION
BIASED DIFFERENTIAL PROTECTION- INTERNAL CIRCUIT.

TRANSFORMER PROTECTION
DIFFERENTIAL PROTECTION- CT CONNECTIONS.
STAR / STAR TRANSFORMER

TRANSFORMER PROTECTION
DIFFERENTIAL PROTECTION CT CONNECTIONS.
DELTA / STAR TRANSFORMER (Dy11)

TRANSFORMER PROTECTION
DIFFERENTIAL PROTECTION STAR / STAR TRANSFORMER

Instability With STAR CONNECTED CTs On Up-stream Earth Fault.

TRANSFORMER PROTECTION
DIFFERENTIAL PROTECTION STAR / STAR TRANSFORMER.

Delta / Delta CTs filter Zero Seq. Current & ensure Stability.

TRANSFORMER PROTECTION
REF PROTECTION

Current Distribution on External Earth Fault.

TRANSFORMER PROTECTION
REF PROTECTION

Current Distribution on Single Phase load.

TRANSFORMER PROTECTION
REF PROTECTION

Current distribution on Internal Fault.

TRANSFORMER PROTECTION
REF PROTECTION

Current distribution on Internal Fault.

TRANSFORMER PROTECTION

STABILISING RESISTOR
SETTING CRIETERIA

If B- CT fully active while


NCT fully saturates, maximum
Voltage across Relay Branch
(Vs) = If/n (Rct + 2Rl).

If Relay current setting is Is


and Ohmic burden is Zr,
Stab. Resistor Setting (Rs)
= Vs/Is Zr Ohms.

TRANSFORMER PROTECTION
BACKUP PROTECTION
INFLUENCING FACTORS

Vector Group

Infeed conditions (Single or both end infeeds)

Type of Neutral Earthing

TRANSFORMER PROTECTION
BACKUP PROTECTION

LEGEND

50 High Set Inst. O/C Relay ( Delta side S.C. protection)

64 REF Protection (Delta side REF protection)

51 IDMT O/C Relay (time graded backup for down-stream S.C.)

51N IDMT E/F Relay (time graded backup for down-stream E/F)

TRANSFORMER PROTECTION
BACKUP PROTECTION
E/F PROTECTION ON DELTA SIDE.

Delta side E/F relay inherently immune to Star side earth


faults but can respond to Delta winding earth faults. Hence
sensitive, high speed E/F relay (64) in High Impedance mode
can be used on Delta side.

TRANSFORMER PROTECTION
BACKUP PROTECTION

LEGEND

50 High Set Inst. O/C Relay (Primary Star side S.C.)

51- IDMT O/C Relay (time graded backup for down-stream S.C.)

67N Directional IDMT E/F Relay (backup toTFR/down-stream E/F.)

51NIDMT E/F relay (time graded backup against down-stream E/F)

TRANSFORMER PROTECTION
BACKUP E/F PROTECTION- STAR / STAR TRANSFORMER

Directional IDMT E/F relay (67N) looking towards


transformer do not respond to up-stream E/F due to
current out-flow from TFR terminal into Grid, thus
requiring co-ordination with down-stream E/F
protections only.

TRANSFORMER PROTECTION
OVER LOAD PROTECTION
1. Definite Time Over Load Relay

Definite Time O/C relay used for Alarm.


Set above permissible over load with small time
delay(say 5 seconds)
Relay should have adjustable current setting, time delay
(built-in or external) and high reset ratio.
Some times, extended tripping is provided with
additional time delay.

TRANSFORMER PROTECTION
OVER LOAD PROTECTION
2. Thermal Over Load Relay

Set to match over load withstand of transformer.

Pre-trip Alarm with lower pick-up threshold.

Operating time for trip (t)


t = T. ln {(I/K.In) (I pre/K.In)} / (I/K.In)- 1}
Where
I = Over Load current.
K.In = Max. Permissible Load Current.
I pre = Load current prior to Over Load.
T = Thermal Time Constant (minutes)

TRANSFORMER PROTECTION
OVER FLUXING PROTECTION
INDEX OF OVER FLUXING
V .f, Hence V/f

Tandem variations in voltage & frequency most


likely to occur in case of Generator Transformer
during startup or coasting down (due to AVR
malfunction or manual control) requiring Over
Fluxing Protection.
It is necessary for Grid TFRs as well, under certain
conditions (e.g. TFR fed by long transmission line
subjected to high voltage due to Ferranti Effect
when off-loaded).

TRANSFORMER PROTECTION
OVER FLUXING PROTECTION
1. Definite Time Over fluxing relay.

Adjustable V/f setting (typically 1 1.5 of 110V / 50Hz).

Adjustable trip time delay (typically 10 120S)

Pre-trip Alarm (fixed or variable delay)

2. IDMT Over Fluxing Relay

Adjustable V/f setting.


Inverse time characteristic to match with TFR withstand characteristic.
Pre-trip Alarm and accelerated trip for severe over
fluxing condition.

TRANSFORMER PROTECTION
BACKUP EARTH
FAULT
PROTECTION

NCT operated
Standby E/F
Relay responds to
internal earth
faults as well,
besides providing
backup against
external faults.

Stand by E/F relay


offers better
sensitivity since
NCT ratio not tied
up with load and
lower ratio, based
on E/F infeeds, is
possible.