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ENTHALPY CHANGES

Before you start it would be helpful to


be able to balance equations
be confident with simple arithmetical operations

THERMODYNAMICS
First Law

Energy
changes

Examples

Energy can be neither created nor destroyed but


It can be converted from one form to another

all chemical reactions are accompanied by some form of energy change


changes can be very obvious (e.g. coal burning) but can go unnoticed
Exothermic

Energy is given out

Endothermic

Energy is absorbed

Exothermic

combustion of fuels
respiration (oxidation of carbohydrates)

Endothermic

photosynthesis
thermal decomposition of calcium carbonate

THERMODYNAMICS - ENTHALPY CHANGES


Enthalpy

a measure of the heat content of a substance at constant pressure


you cannot measure the actual enthalpy of a substance
you can measure an enthalpy CHANGE
written as the symbol , delta H
Enthalpy change () = Enthalpy of products - Enthalpy of reactants

What is enthalpy?
The enthalpy, H, of a system is a measure of the energy stored in (or heat
content of) a system. It cannot be measured directly.

During reactions, the enthalpy of the


reactants and the products is not the
same. This results in energy being
either given out or taken in during the
reaction. This energy is the enthalpy
change, H (delta H).

The enthalpy change for a reaction is usually observed as a change in


temperature, which can be measured or calculated.

Enthalpy changes
The enthalpy change of a reaction is the heat energy exchange with its
surroundings at constant pressure.
Enthalpy is the energy content of the reactants and is given the symbol H.

In science, change is represented by the upper case Greek letter delta, .

Therefore, enthalpy change is represented by H. It has the units kilojoules


per mole (kJ mol-1).
Standard enthalpy changes are measured at a standard pressure of 100 kPa
and temperature of 298 K. Standard enthalpy changes are represented by
H298 but this is usually shortened to H.

Exothermic reactions

THERMODYNAMICS - ENTHALPY CHANGES


a measure of the heat content of a substance at constant pressure
you cannot measure the actual enthalpy of a substance
you can measure an enthalpy CHANGE
written as the symbol , delta H
Enthalpy change () = Enthalpy of products - Enthalpy of reactants

ENTHALPY

Enthalpy

REACTION CO-ORDINATE

Enthalpy of reactants > products

= - ive
EXOTHERMIC

Heat given out

Endothermic reactions

THERMODYNAMICS - ENTHALPY CHANGES


a measure of the heat content of a substance at constant pressure
you cannot measure the actual enthalpy of a substance
you can measure an enthalpy CHANGE
written as the symbol , delta H

ENTHALPY

Enthalpy change () = Enthalpy of products - Enthalpy of reactants

ENTHALPY

Enthalpy

REACTION CO-ORDINATE

Enthalpy of reactants > products

= - ive
EXOTHERMIC

Heat given out

REACTION CO-ORDINATE

Enthalpy of reactants < products

= + ive
ENDOTHERMIC

Heat absorbed

Exothermic and endothermic


reactions

STANDARD ENTHALPY CHANGES


Why a
standard?

enthalpy values vary according to the conditions


a substance under these conditions is said to be in its standard state ...

Pressure:A stated temperature

100 kPa

(1 atmosphere)

usually 298K (25C)

as a guide, just think of how a substance would be under normal lab conditions
assign the correct subscript [(g), (l) or (s) ] to indicate which state it is in
any solutions are of concentration 1 mol dm-3
to tell if standard conditions are used we modify the symbol for .

Enthalpy Change

Standard Enthalpy Change


(at 298K)

Types of enthalpy change

Enthalpy change summary

ENTHALPY OF NEUTRALISATION
Definition

The enthalpy change when ONE MOLE of water is formed from


its ions in dilute solution.

Values

Exothermic

Equation

H+(aq)

Notes

A value of -57kJ mol-1 is obtained when


strong acids react with strong alkalis.

+ OH(aq)

>

H2O(l)

See later slides for practical details of measurement

Enthalpy of neutralization
experiment

Calorimetry calculations
Enthalpy change can be calculated using the following equation:

q = mcT
q = enthalpy change in joules
m = mass of substance being heated (often water) in grams
c = specific heat capacity in joules per Kelvin per gram
(4.18 JK-1g-1 for water)
T = change of temperature in Kelvin.
To work out the enthalpy of neutralization, the density and specific heat
capacities of the acid and base used are taken to be the same as for pure
water.

MEASURING ENTHALPY CHANGES


Example 2
25cm3 of 2.0M HCl was added to 25cm3 of 2.0M NaOH in an insulated beaker. The initial
temperature of both solutions was 20C. The highest temperature reached by the
solution was 33C. Calculate the Molar Enthalpy of Neutralisation. [The specific heat
capacity (c) of water is 4.18 kJ K -1 kg -1]
NaOH

Temperature rise ()
Volume of resulting solution =
Equivalent mass of water
(density is 1g per cm3)

HCl

>

NaCl

= 306K 293K
25 + 25 = 50cm3
= 50g

H2O

= 13K
0.05 dm3
= 0.05 kg

Heat absorbed by the water (q)

m x c x 0.05 x 4.18 x 13 = 2.717 kJ

Moles of HCl reacting


Moles of NaOH reacting
Moles of water produced

=
=

2 x
2 x

Enthalpy change per mol ()

= heat energy / moles of water

25/1000 =
25/1000 =
=

= 54.34 kJ mol -1

0.05 mol
0.05 mol
0.05 mol
= 2.717 / 0.05

Calorimetry calculation
examples

Calorimetry calculation
problems

The bomb calorimeter