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Comparing & Contrasting

Qualitative & Quantitative


Research
BY: NURIZZATI ZAINALABIDIN
NURUL NADIA ABD RASHED

Qualitative

Quantitative

Qualitative research is
subjective

Quantitative research is
objective

Research question
- qualitative research
asks the questions of
why and what.
- quantitative research
takes the idea a step
further and seeks to
test that theory.

Research question
- quantitative research
poses the question of
how many, or what
are the correlations
between the data.
- qualitative research is
done in order to
develop a theory

A qualitative researcher,
can be a part of the
process.

A quantitative experiment
is going to remain
separate from the
process.

Setting
qualitative research is
much more flexible

Setting
Quantitative research is
usually conducted in a
highly controlled setting

What Are The Main


Differences Between The
Two?

Quantitative research is objective and qualitative research


is subjective.

Objective research provides results that are not of opinion, but are
actually backed up by the statistical mathematics behind them.

The subjective nature of qualitative research is focused more on feelings


and theories.

Qualitative research asks the questions of why and what,

Quantitative research poses the question of how many, or


what are the correlations between the data

Qualitative research is done in order to develop a theory

Quantitative research takes the idea a step further and


seeks to test that theory.

A quantitative researcher remained separated from the


process.

Their job is to view what is happening objectively

Have to stay removed from the process.

Those participating are considered as subjects.

A qualitative researcher can be a part of the process.

They are allowed to draw their opinions into the investigation.


Those participating are called participants.

Quantitative investigation or research is usually


conducted in a highly controlled setting.

focused primarily on the outcome

it is important that extraneous factors dont alter the findings.

An investigation of qualitative reasoning or research is


much more flexible.

Often the affect of a surrounding environment will have no affect


on the outcome.
Therefore most qualitative work can be done in a natural setting.

Qualitative Research

Quantitative Research

Goal / Aim

To provide a complete, detailed


description of the research topic. It is
usually more exploratory in nature.

Focuses more in counting and


classifying features and
constructing statistical models and
figures to explain what is observed.

Objective /
purpose

To gain an understanding of
underlying reasons and motivations
To provide insights into the setting
of a problem, generating ideas
and/or hypotheses for later
quantitative research
To uncover prevalent trends in
thought and opinion

To quantify data and generalize


results from a sample to the
population of interest
To measure the incidence of various
views and opinions in a chosen
sample
Sometimes followed by qualitative
research which is used to explore
some findings further

Usage

Ideal for earlier phases of research


projects

Highly recommended for the latter


part of the research project

Sample

Usually a small number of nonrepresentative cases. Respondents


selected to fulfil a given quota.

Usually a large number of cases


representing the population of
interest. Randomly selected
respondents.

Qualitative Research

Quantitative Research

Data collection

Unstructured or semi-structured
techniques e.g. individual depth
interviews, group discussions,
structured and non-structured
interviews, focus groups, narratives,
content or documentary analysis,
participant observation and archival
research

Structured techniques such as


online questionnaires, on-street or
telephone interviews, surveys,
measurements and other equipment
to collect numerical or measurable
data.

Type of Data

In the form of words (from


interviews) and images (videos) or
objects (such as artifacts)

In the form of tables containing data


in the form of numbers and statistics.

Approach

Primarily subjective in approach as it


seeks to understand human
behavior and reasons that govern
such behavior

It is objective in approach in the


sense that it only seeks precise
measurements and analysis of target
concepts to answer his inquiry

Outcome

Exploratory and/or investigative.


Findings are not conclusive and
cannot be used to make
generalizations about the population
of interest. Develop an initial
understanding and sound base for
further decision making.

Used to recommend a final course of


action.

THANK YOU