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# STRENGTH OF MATERIALS

## - also known as mechanics of materials

between externally applied loads and internal resisting forces associated
deformations

STATICS
SOLUTION:
- external
effects of
forces on rigid bodies

STRENGTH OF MATERIALS
SOLUTION:
- the solution is

P=?
W

the pin
support

extended further
- investigate the
bar itself to be
sure that it will
neither break nor
be so flexible that
it bends without
supporting
the

F1

## ANALYSIS OF INTERNAL FORCES

STATICS SOLUTION:
- start by determining the resultant of the
applied forces to
determine whether or not
the body remains at
rest

F3

If the
resultant is
zero we
have static
equilibrium
!

F2

ARBITRARY SHAPED
BODY

F4

F1

## ANALYSIS OF INTERNAL FORCES

STRENGTH OF MATERIALS SOLUTION:
- additional investigation on the internal
distribution of the forces must be done

F3

F2

ARBITRARY SHAPED
BODY

F4

F1
1

F3

F2
1

cut an
exploratory
section 1-1
through the body
and exposing the
internal forces
that are
necessary to
maintain the
equilibrium

F4

F1

## - this component measures the pulling (or

pushing) action perpendicular to the section

## a. pull tensile force that tends to

elongate
the member
b. push compressive force that tends to
shorten the member

Mxy

## Pxy , Pxz = Shear Forces, V

- these are components of the total
resistance to sliding to one side of the
exploratory section past the other

Pxy
Pxx
O

F2

Mxz
z

Pxz

2 COMPONENTS:

Mxx

1.Vx
2.Vy

Mxx = Torque, T
- this component measures
to twisting

x
the resistance
Mxy , Mxz = Bending Moments the member

## - these components measures the resistance

to bending the member about the y or x axis
2 COMPONENTS:
1.Mx
2.My

a. Equation of equilibrium

TYPE OF CONNECTION
1. CABLE

2. ROLLER

3. EXTERNAL PIN/HINGE

EQUIVALENT REACTION
OR SUPPORT

TYPE OF CONNECTION
4. INTERNAL PIN

5. FIXED SUPPORT

EQUIVALENT REACTION
OR SUPPORT

B. Simple stresses
(sigma) = unit strength of a material or stress
P = axial force (compressive or tensile)
A = cross sectional Area (uniform)
TYPES OF SIMPLE STRESS:
1. Axial Stress
a. Compressive Stress
b. Tensile Stress
2. Shearing Stress
3. Bearing Stress
4. Stresses in Thin-walled Cylinder

## B. Simple stresses ( axial stress)

AXIAL STRESS is the stress due to axial force or force acting at
the centroid of resisting cross-sectional area.
Tensile Stress:
(t )

At

Compressive
Stress: (t )

Ac

## compressive area normal to the

B. Simple stresses
Selection of proper material and to proportion to enable the
structure or machine to perform its function efficiently is on of the basic
problem facing an engineer.
For this purpose, it is essential to determine the strength, stiffness
and other properties of materials.
Example:
Consider two bars of equal length but different materials,
suspended from a common support as shown in the figure:

BAR 1

500 n

BAR 2

5000
n

Which of the
material is
stronger?

BAR 1

BAR 1
Crosssectional
Area = 10
mm2

BAR 2

BAR 2
Crosssectional Area
= 1000 mm2

5000 n
500 n
SOLUTION
:
CrossCrossCOMPARE THEIR STRENGTH BY REDUCING THE DATA
sectional
sectional Area
TO LOAD CAPACITY PER UNIT 2AREA
Area = 10
= 1000 mm
mm2

BAR 1

Crosssectional
Area = 10 500 n
mm2

BAR 2

Crosssectional Area
5000 = 1000 mm2
n

Therefore:
the material of BAR 1 is ten (10) times as strong as the
material of BAR 2

B. Illustrative problems
1. A composite bar consists of an aluminum section rigidly
fastened between a bronze section and a steel section. Axial loads
are applied at the positions indicated. Determine the stress in
each section.
1
2
3
ALUMINU
M
A = 1.8
in2

BRONZE
A = 1.2
in2

9000
lb

4000
lb
1.3
ft

STEEL
A = 1.6
in2

2000
lb
1.6
ft

7000
lb
1.7
ft

SOLUTION:
After cutting and making the appropriate free body
diagrams, we must determine the axial loads in each section!

BRONZE
Pbr
9000
lb

4000
lb

(tensio
n)

(compressio
n)
2
ALUMINU
M
Pal
4000
lb

9000
lb

2000
lb

(compressio
n)
3

STEEL

4000
lb

9000
lb

Pal
7000
lb

2000
lb

B. Illustrative problems
2. For the truss shown, determine the stress in member AC and
BD. The cross-sectional area of each member is 900 mm2.
1

3m
A

C
1
AY

2
30 kN
4 panels at 4m =
16 m

HY
70 kN

Hx

SOLUTION:

## Make three assumptions for the elementary analysis of the

3m
trusses.
1. Weights of the members are neglected.
2. All connections
are smooth pin.
A
C
Edirectly to the
G pins.
3. All external
m
4m
4m

## Solve for the values

HY
AY of the external reactions of the entire truss.
30 kN
70 kN

Hx

1
BA
B
5

3m

3
4

AY

C
A
C

(tension)

B
4
3m 3
A

B2
5 D

AY

4
m

(compressio
n)

## SOLVING FOR STRESSES IN MEMBERS

AC AND BD:

B
E
C
E

30 kN

(tensio
n)

4
m

(compression

B. Illustrative problems
3. The bars of the pin-connected frame shown are each 30 mm by
60 mm in section. Determine the maximum load P that can be
applied so that the stresses will not exceed 100 MN/m 2 in tension
or 80 MN/m2 in compression.

8m

6m

10
m

B.

FBD @
B
A
B

FORCE
POLYGON

BC

BC

A
B

joint B.

AAB= 6/10
P

CA
C

## SOLVING FOR THE MAXIMUM LOAD P THAT CAN BE

APPLIED ACCORDING TO THE REQUIRED LIMITS

RA

LIMITING
FACTORS:

for AB:
(compression)
0.6 P = (30 x 60)
(80)
PAB = 240,000 N

for BC:
(compression)
0.8 P = (30 x 60)
(80)
PBC = 180,000 N
for AC: (tension)
0.48 P = (30 x
60) (100)
PAC = 375,000 N
Therefore, the maximum
P = 180,000 N = 180 kN

B. Illustrative problems
3. A cast-iron column supports an axial compressive load of 250
kN. Determine the inside diameter of the column if its outside
diameter is 200 mm and limiting compressive stress is 50 MPa.
Uniform Cross-sectional Area Normal to the
for Solid
for Hollow
for Hollow
Cylinders:
Cylinders:
A
= (/4)
A = (/4) (Do Di)2
Cylinders:
D2
A = (/4) (200 Di)2

D0= 200
mm
P = 250
kN

A = (/4) (40,000
Di2)
P = A - load formula
250 (1000 N/kN)
= (/4) ((40,000
kN
mm2 - Di2)

## 5000 mm2 = (/4) (40,000

2
2
mm

D
) 2 D 2) =
i
(40,000 mm

(50
MN/m2)

Di
= ? 2)) ( 1x 10-6
((1x 106 N/m2) / (MN/m
m2/mm2)

6366.2 mm2

Di = 183.4 mm