You are on page 1of 16
EPIDEMIOLOGI GANGGUAN JIWA OLEH: AGUNG S. DWI LAKSANA
EPIDEMIOLOGI
GANGGUAN JIWA
OLEH:
AGUNG S. DWI LAKSANA
PREVALENSI GANGGUAN JIWA DI DUNIA  Mental and behavioural disorders are not exclusive to any special
PREVALENSI
GANGGUAN JIWA DI DUNIA
 Mental and behavioural disorders are not
exclusive to any special group
 they are found in people of all regions, all
countries and all societies.
 About 450 million people suffer from
mental disorders (WHO’s World Health
Report 2001).
 One person in four will develop one or
more mental or behavioural disorders
during their lifetime (WHO, 2001b).
 Mental and behavioural disorders are present at any point in time in about 10% of
 Mental and behavioural disorders are
present at any point in time in about
10% of the adult population
worldwide.
 One fifth of teenagers under the age
of 18 years suffer from
developmental, emotional or
behavioural problems, one in eight
has a mental disorder;
 Among disadvantaged children the
t
i
i
fi
MENTAL DISORDERS BURDEN  Mental and neurological disorders account for 13% of the total Disability Adjusted
MENTAL DISORDERS BURDEN
 Mental and neurological disorders account
for 13% of the total Disability Adjusted Life
Years (DALYs) lost due to all diseases and
injuries in the world (WHO, 2004d).
 Five of the ten leading causes of disability
worldwide are psychiatric conditions,
including:
• depression,
• alcohol use,
• schizophrenia and
• compulsive disorder (Murray & Lopez, 1996).
 Projections estimate that by the year 2020 neuropsychiatric conditions will account for 15% of disability
 Projections estimate that by the year
2020 neuropsychiatric conditions will
account for 15% of disability
worldwide, with unipolar depression
alone accounting for 5.7% of DALYs.
Proyeksi 5 penyakit utama di Indonesia Proyeksi 5 Penyakit Utama tahun 1990-2020 Proyeksi 5 Penyakit Utama
Proyeksi 5 penyakit utama di
Indonesia
Proyeksi 5 Penyakit Utama
tahun 1990-2020
Proyeksi 5 Penyakit Utama
tahun 2020
ISPA
Ischaemic Heart Disease
Diare
Unipolar Major Depression
Penyakit pada masa
perinatal
Unipolar Major Depression
Road traffic accidents
Cerebro-vascular disease
Ischaemic Heart Disease
Chronic Obstructive
Pulmonary Disease
PREVALENSI GANGGUAN JIWA DI INDONESIA  Angka pasti masih belum diketahui  Menurut WHO: jumlah penderita
PREVALENSI GANGGUAN JIWA DI
INDONESIA
 Angka pasti masih belum diketahui
 Menurut WHO: jumlah penderita gangguan jiwa
di dunia 450 juta jiwa (2001)
 Dari 220 juta penduduk Indonesia, sekitar 50 juta
(22%) mengidap gangguan kejiwaan (Hawari,
2009)
 Beberapa penelitian:
• Bahar et al (1992): Overall morbidity rates
were similar to those in industrialized countries.
• the Indonesian Psychiatric Epidemiologic
Network (2004): the prevalence of mental
disorders in adults was 18.5%
 among those with mental disorders, the following diagnoses were common: • drug abuse (44.0%), •
 among those with mental disorders,
the following diagnoses were
common:
• drug abuse (44.0%),
• mental retardation (34.9%),
• mental dysfunction (16.2%) and
• mental disintegration (5.8%)
 Suryani et al (1990) noted a relatively high prevalence (about 40%) of excessive alcohol consumption
 Suryani et al (1990) noted a
relatively high prevalence (about
40%) of excessive alcohol
consumption in a less developed
village compared to a more
developed one.
 Narendra et al (1990) noted an
increase in risk taking behaviours like
drug use among adolescents in
Indonesia.
 Smet et al (1999): Among male students, smoking increased dramatically between the ages of 11
 Smet et al (1999): Among male
students, smoking increased
dramatically between the ages of 11
and 17, from 8.2% to 38.7%
• Determinants: Best friends’ smoking
behaviour and attitudes towards smoking and
older brothers’ smoking behaviour
 Wignyosumarto et al (1992): The
prevalence rate of autism within the
birth cohort was 0.12%
RISK FACTORS  Risk factors are associated with an increased probability of onset, greater severity and
RISK FACTORS
 Risk factors are associated with an
increased probability of onset,
greater severity and longer duration
of major health problems.
 Protective factors refer to conditions
that improve people’s resistance to
risk factors and disorders
 Social, environmental and economic determinants • Major socioeconomic and environmental determinants for mental health are
 Social, environmental and economic
determinants
• Major socioeconomic and environmental
determinants for mental health are related to
macroissues such as poverty, war and inequity
 Individual and family-related
determinants
• Individual and family-related risk and protective
factors can be biological, emotional, cognitive,
behavioural, interpersonal or related to the
family context
TERIMA KASIH
TERIMA KASIH