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In-cylinder Flow

Section 4

In the Otto and Diesel cycles the exhaust process is modeled as

constant volume heat extraction, it does not consider the actual

gas flow.

Pi

Pe

Products

Actual exhaust

Qout

Otto exhaust process 4-1

Air

BC

Pressure, P

WOT

EV closes

IV opens

IV closes

EV opens

Specific volume, v

often shown as a constant pressure

processes, e.g., 56 and 61

For WOT states 1 and 5 are the same.

Process 5-6 indicates a decrease in

specific volume which is incorrect since

as the cylinder volume decreases so does

the mass specific volume remains the

same!

This inconsistency results from treating

an open system problem with a closed

system model

3

Valves operate instantaneously, intake and exhaust process are adiabatic

and constant pressure.

Unthrottled: Pi = Pe = 1 atm

EV opens

IV closes (state1)

EV closes

IV opens

Throttled: Pi < Pe

EV opens

EV closes

IV closes

6

IV opens

Supercharged: Pi > Pe

IV opens

EV closes

The actual exhaust process consists of two phases:

i) Blowdown ii) Displacement

Pe

Pi Ti

Products

State 4 (BC)

State 5 (BC)

Blowdown

State 6 (TC)

Displacement

Blowdown At the end of the power stroke when the exhaust valve opens

the cylinder pressure is much higher than the exhaust manifold pressure

which is typically at 1 atm (P4 > Pe), so the cylinder gas flows out through the

exhaust valve and the pressure drops to Pe.

Displacement Remaining gas is pushed out of the cylinder by the piston

5

moving to TC.

Exhaust Blowdown

During blowdown the gas remaining in the cylinder undergoes expansion

which can be modelled as isentropic (neglecting heat transfer)

Blowdown

Displacement

5 (Otto/Diesel)

TC

BC

actual piston location

P5 Pe

P

T5 T4 5

P4

k 1

P

T4 e

P4

k 1

Residual Gas

The gas remaining in the clearance volume when the piston reaches TC (pt 6)

called the residual gas mixes with intake gas (fuel-air for SI and air for CI)

The residual gas temperature T6 is equal to T5

The Residual gas fraction f is defined as the ratio of the mass of residual

gas to the mass of the fuel-air (assume ideal gas Pv = RT)

m

m V v

1v

1T P 1T P

f 6 6 6 6 4 4 6 4 6

m1 m4 V4 v4 r v6 r T6 P4 r T5 P4

since

T5 P5

T4 P4

1

P5 k

1

f

r P4

k 1

P

6

P4

k 1

1

Pe k

1

r P4

7

The gas leaving the cylinder during blowdown has kinetic energy which is

converted into thermal energy when the exhaust gas comes to rest in the

exhaust gas manifold gas temperature in the exhaust manifold is

higher than T5.

Fluid leaving the cylinder earliest has higher velocity so temperature higher

when it stagnates in the manifold (T7a > T7b > T7c).

8

Intake Stroke 6 1

When the intake valve opens the fresh gas with mass mi mixes with the

hotter residual gas with mass mR so the gas temperature at the end of the

intake stroke T1 will be greater than the inlet temperature Ti.

Applying conservation of mass:

mi m1 mR m1 m6

Ti

U1 U 6 Q61 W61 mi hi

m1u1 m6u6 Pi (V1 V6 ) mi hi

m1 h1 P1v1 m6 h6 P6 v6 Pi (V1 V6 ) m1 m6 hi

h1

m1

m6

1

h

P

v

6

1

6 6

m

i

m1

6

Recall m6 = m1f and assuming ideal gas P6v6 = RT6 and h = cpT

P1

h1 1 f hi fh6 1 fRT6

P6

P1 k 1

T1 1 f Ti fT6 1 1

P

k

Pi k 1

T1 1 f Ti fTe 1 1

Pe k

10

Volumetric efficiency

mi

P / P 1

1 i e

iVd

k (r 1)

3

Pumping work

W561 ( Pi Pe )Vd

Pumping mep

pmep Pe Pi

Recall: imep

W34 W12

Vd

2

4

e

i

5

1

Net pmep

Heat input 23

Note: qin is the heat added per kg of inducted gas

11

The equations on the following slide are solved iteratively for the

following initial conditions:

Ti

Pe

r

Pi

k

qin

exhaust pressure

compression ratio

inlet pressure

specific heat ratio

heat added per unit mass of gas inducted

and temperature Te. These values are assumed to start the calculation

and then improved over the subsequent iterations.

12

e,i -1: Intake stroke

P k 1

T1 1 f Ti fTe 1 1 i

Pe k

P1 Pi

P2 P1r k

T2 T1r k 1

2 - 3: Constant volume heat addition

T3 T2 qin (1 f ) / cV

P3 P2 (T3 / T2 )

T4 T3 (1 / r ) k 1

P4 P3 (1 / r ) k

4 - 5: Isentropic blowdown

T5 T4 ( Pe / P4 )

e

i

( k 1) / k

5

1

P5 Pe

5 - e: Constant pressure adiabatic

exhaust stroke

Te T5

Pe P5

f 1 / r ( Pe / P4 )1 / k

13

The Ferguson textbook has a companion web site at:

http://he-cda.wiley.com/WileyCDA/HigherEdTitle.rdr?productCd=0471356174

that has a useful program that does the calculation for you:

Four Stroke Gas Otto Cycle Applet

14

Valve Flow

The most significant gas flow restriction in an IC engine is the flow through

the intake and exhaust valves

The mass flow rate through the valve is given by:

2

k 1

m c f o Av co

Pv

Po

2

k

Pv

Po

k 1

k

Pv

1

2

Pcyl

m , Po , o

o = stagnation density, co = stagnation speed of sound, Av = valve area

cf = flow coefficient

If the flow is choked (Po/Pcyl > 1.9) flow only depends on upstream pressure

m cr c f o Av co

k 1

2 ( k 1)

15

Valve Flow

Minimum areas:

low lift - Av = A1= dl

high lift - Av= A2= d2/4

Pcyl

A1

A2

flow coefficient (c f )

actual valve area (A v )

2

discharge coefficient (c d )

actual valve area (A v )

1

16

Set: Av

Measure: mi, Ti, Pi

Pv

Po

2

k

P

v

Po

k 1

k

1

2

Calculate: cf

m 2

cf

o Av co k 1

17

In thermo cycles it is assumed the valves open and close instantaneously

In reality a cam is used to progressively open and close the valves, the

lobes are contoured so that the valve land gently on the seat.

Duration

Valve starts

to open

CA

Valve completely

closed

18

Valve Sizing

In order to avoid choked flow the intake valves are sized based on:

U

Av 1.3b 2 p

ci

where Av is the average valve area, b is the cylinder bore, U p is average

piston velocity, ci speed of sound of gas in intake port.

Exhaust valves can be smaller since the speed of sound of the exhaust

gas expelled is significantly larger.

Since there is only so much room available for valves it is common to

have multiple intake and exhaust valves per cylinder. This increases

valve area to piston area ratio permitting higher engine speeds.

19

Valve Sizing

Heads are often wedge-shaped or domed, this permits Av/Ap up to 0.5.

Double overhead cams per cylinder bank are used to accommodate

multiple valves, one cam for each pair of intake and exhaust valves

20

Valve Overlap

In real engines in order to ensure that the valve is fully open during a

stroke, for high volumetric efficiency, the valves are open for longer than

180o.

The exhaust valve opens before BC and closes after TC and the intake

valve opens before TC and closes after BC.

At TC there is a period of time called valve overlap where both the intake

and exhaust valves are open.

2

4

e

i

TC

5

1

BC

BC

TC

BC

CA

21

Valve overlap

When the intake valve opens bTC the cylinder pressure is at roughly P e

Part throttle (Pi < Pe): residual gas flows into the intake port. During intake

stroke the residual gas is first returned to the cylinder then fresh gas is

introduced. Residual gas reduces part load performance.

WOT (Pi = Pe): some fresh gas can flow out the exhaust valve reducing

fuel efficiency and increasing emissions.

Supercharged (Pi > Pe): fresh gas can flow out the exhaust valve

Pe

Pi

Throttled

Pi < Pe

Pi

Pe

Supercharged

Pi > Pe

22

Conventional engines operate at low rpms, with idle and part load fuel

economy being most important.

High performance engines operate at high rpms, with WOT torque (i.e.,

volumetric efficiency) being most important.

Engine load

WOT bmep

sfc

Engine speed:

Idle - 1000 rpm

Economy - 2500 rpm

Performance - 4000 rpm

23

Valve Timing

Conventional

Performance

EVO

EVO

e

i

IVO

IVC

EVC

TC

180o

BC

e

i

IVO

TC

IVC

EVC

180o

BC

@2500 rpm

230o = 15.4 ms

@5000 rpm

230o = 7.7 ms, 285o = 9.5 ms

24

Valve Timing

Overlap

15o

65o

At high engine speeds less time available for fresh gas intake so need more

crank angles to get high volumetric efficiency large valve overlap

At low engine speed and part throttle valve overlap is minimized by reducing

the number of CA the intake valve stays open.

Variable Valve Timing used to obtain optimum performance over wide a

range of engine speeds and load

25

Each pair of valves has three cam lobes, two that operate the valves at

low-rpm, and a third that takes over at high rpm (4500 rpm). During low-rpm

operation, the two rocker arms riding the low-rpm lobes push directly on the

top of the valves. At high rpm a pin locks the three rocker arms and the

valves follow the larger center cam lobe.

26

Needs a large alternator to supply high current, also gently seating the

valve is difficult, needs sophisticated electronics

27

2nd crank shaft rev: 4

P = cylinder pressure

Lv = valve displacement

P, Lv

Lv, exh

Exhaust

Lv, int

Ppo o

Intake

Po

WOT

Part throttle

e

i

TC

BC

TC

4

2

BC

28

Valve Float

The valve spring normally keeps the top of the valve stem in contact with

the cam lobe

At very high engine speeds, and thus high camshaft speeds, it is difficult to

maintain contact between the cam lobe and the top of the valve stem as a

result the valves stay open longer than desired.

Spring

29

P

Air cleaner

Cylinder

Muffler

30

The intake manifold is a system designed to deliver air to the engine from

a plenum to each cylinder through pipes called runners.

Velocity magnitude (m/s)

Exhaust manifold used to duct the exhaust gases from each cylinder to

a point of expulsion such as the tail pipe.

31

Manifold Pressure

3000 rpm

6000 rpm

32

Volumetric Efficiency

Recall the volumetric efficiency is defined as:

ma

a ,oVd

i) Fuel evaporation

ii) Mixture temperature

iii) Pressure drop in the intake system

iv) Gasdynamic effects

to air flow velocity

or engine speed

N ( S / 2) U p

33

Factors affecting v

Heat transfer:

All intake systems are hotter than ambient air, so the density of the air

entering the cylinder is lower than ambient air density.

Injection system and throttle bodies are purposely heated to enhance fuel

evaporation.

Greatest problem at lower engine speeds more time for air to be heated.

Pcyl

m f

m a

34

Factors affecting v

Fluid friction:

The air flows through a duct through an air filter, throttle and intake valve

Air moving through any flow passage or past a flow restriction undergoes a

pressure drop

The pressure at the cylinder is thus lower than atmospheric pressure

Greatest problem at higher engine speeds when the air flow velocity is high

35

Factors affecting v

Fuel evaporation:

In naturally aspirated engines (no supercharging) the volumetric efficiency

will always be less than 100% because fuel is added and the fuel vapour

will displace incoming air.

The earlier the fuel is added in the intake system the lower the volumetric

efficiency because more of the fuel evaporates before entering the cylinder.

In Diesels fuel is added directly into the cylinder so get a higher efficiency.

36

Factors affecting v

Residual gas:

Recall the residual fraction given by

f 1 / r ( Pe / P4 )1 / k

occupied by residual gas increases and thus volumetric efficiency

decreases.

EO

e

i

TC

IO

IC

EC

BC

The longer the valve overlap, more exhaust gases are pushed into the

intake port.

Greatest problem at lower engine speeds when there is more time for

exhaust gases to back up.

37

P

Po = atmospheric pressure

Air cleaner

Po

Pair

Pthr = loss across throttle

Pvalve = loss across intake valve

Pu

Pthrottle

Pvalve

WOT

Part throttle

Cylinder

Muffler

Extreme case of flow restriction is when the flow chokes at the intake valve

as engine speed increases flow velocity remains the same have less fill38

time.

Factors affecting v

Closing the intake valve after BC (backflow):

When the piston reaches BC there is still a pressure difference across the

intake valve and the fuel-air mixture continues to flow into the cylinder,

therefore close the intake valve after BC.

As the piston changes direction the mixture is compressed, when the

pressure equals the intake manifold pressure the flow into the cylinder stops.

Best time to close the intake valve is when the manifold and cylinder

pressures are equal, close the valve too early and dont get full load, too late

and air flows back into the intake port.

At high engine speeds larger pressure drop across intake valve because of

higher flow velocity, so ideally want to close valve later after BC (60 o aBC).

At low engine speeds smaller pressure drop across the intake valve so

ideally want to close the intake valve earlier after BC (40o aBC).

39

Factors affecting v

RAM Effect:

As the intake valve closes at higher engine speeds, the inertia of the air in the

intake system increases the pressure in the intake port, called the ram effect.

This effect becomes progressively more important at higher engine speeds.

To take advantage of ram effect close intake valve after BC.

40

Factors affecting v

Intake and exhaust tuning:

When the intake valve opens the air suddenly rushes into the cylinder and an

expansion wave propagates back to the intake manifold at the local speed of

sound relative to the flow velocity.

When the expansion wave reaches the manifold it reflects back towards to

intake valve as a compression wave. The time it takes for the round trip

depends on the length of the runner and the flow velocity.

If the timing is appropriate the compression wave arrives at the inlet at the

end of the intake process raising the pressure above the nominal inlet

pressure allowing more air to be injected.

For fixed runner length the intake is tuned for one engine speed (flow velocity)

Similarly the exhaust system can be tuned to get a lower pressure at the

exhaust valve increasing the exhaust flow velocity.

41

42

Three parameters are used to characterize large-scale in-cylinder fluid

motion: swirl, squish, and tumble.

Swirl is the rotational flow about the cylinder axis.

i) promote rapid combustion in SI engines

ii) rapidly mix fuel and air in gasoline direct injection engines

iii) rapidly mix fuel and air in CI engines

The swirl is generated during air induction into the cylinder by either:

i) tangentially directing the flow into the cylinder, or

ii) pre-swirling the incoming flow by the use of helical ports.

43

Swirl motion

Helical port

Tangential injection

Contoured valve

44

Swirl Theory

Swirl can be simply modelled as solid body rotation, i.e., cylinder of gas

rotating at angular velocity, .

Tangential flow velocity is v = r

The swirl ratio, Rs, is defined as the ratio of the gas angular velocity and

the crank shaft angular velocity, i.e.,

Rs

2N

where N is the engine speed (revolutions per second)

is the air solid-body angular velocity (rad/s)

45

Swirl Theory

The angular momentum, , and moment of inertia, I, of a rotating

volume of gas is:

I

I rdm

MB 2

for a cylinder I

8

B is the cylinder bore

During the cycle some swirl decays due to friction, but most of it persists

through the compression, combustion and expansion processes.

Neglecting friction, angular momentum I is conserved,

I decreases increases

46

Engine Swirl

Many engines have a wedge shape cylinder head cavity or a bowl in the

piston where the gas ends up at TC.

air enters the cavity and the air cylinder moment of inertia decreases and

the angular velocity (and thus the swirl) increases.

47

Squish is the radial flow occurring at the end of the compression stroke in

which the compressed gases flow into the piston or cylinder head cavity.

called tumble, where rotation occurs about a circumferential axis near the

outer edge of the cavity.

48

Intake Flow

The intake process governs many important aspects of the flow within the

cylinder. The gas issues from the valve opening as a conical jet with radial

and axial velocities that are about ten times the mean piston velocity.

The jet separates from the valve producing shear layers with large velocity

gradients which generate turbulence.

The jet is deflected by the cylinder wall down towards the piston and up

towards the cylinder head producing recirculation zones.

Additional turbulence is generated by the velocity gradient at the wall

in the boundary layer.

Shear layers

Large vortices become unstable

and eventually break down into

turbulent motion

49

Turbulent Flow

Turbulent flow is characterized by its transient and random nature.

Steady flow

increase in the internal energy at the expense of its kinetic energy.

So energy is required to generate turbulence, if no energy is supplied

turbulence decays.

A common source of energy for turbulent velocity fluctuations is shear in

the mean flow, e.g., jets and boundary layers.

50

Turbulence

The fluid velocity measured at a point in a specific direction:

Ux(t)

Ux mean velocity (steady)

Ux(t1)

u(t2)

t1

t2

U (t ) U u ' (t )

1

where U tt U(t)dt mean velocity

t

u' is the fluctuating component

2

terms of the root-mean-square of the fluctuations:

ut u 'rms u '2

where u '2

1 t

2

t u ' (t ) dt

t

2

51

The following shows the velocity measurement at a point in the cylinder

over time for a two-stroke engine (cycle has 360 CA)

TC

Cycle i

Instantaneous

BC

Measurement

point

BC

TC

BC

TC

BC

CA

In engines the flow is statistically periodic (the flow pattern changes with

crank angle) not steady.

The instantaneous velocity measured at a specific crank angle in a

particular cycle i is:

U ( , i ) U ( ) u ' ( , i )

52

There are both cycle-by-cycle variations in the mean flow at any point in the

cycle as well as turbulent fluctuations about that specific cycles mean flow.

u

Individual cycle

mean

Instantaneous

UEA

Ensemble average

CA

Flows that are statistically periodic are treated using ensemble average:

1n

U EA ( ) U ( , i )

n i

where n is the number of cycles averaged.

53

The difference between the mean velocity in a particular cycle and the

ensemble average is defined as the cycle-by-cycle variation in mean velocity:

U ( , i ) U ( , i ) U EA ( )

Thus, the instantaneous velocity can be split into three components:

U ( , i ) U EA ( ) U ( , i ) u ' ( , i )

If the cycle-by-cycle variations are small then the cycle mean is equal to

the ensemble average.

The turbulent intensity is determined by ensemble averaging:

1

ut ( ) u '2 ( , i )

n i 1

54

At the end of compression when the piston is at TC, the turbulence

fluctuating intensity is about one-half the mean piston speed:

1

ut U P

2

lines are for individual cycle

turbulence intensity.

The rest of the points are for

ensemble averaged, which means

they include cycle-by-cycle

variations in the mean velocity,

making it larger by up to 2 times.

55

Turbulence Length-Scales

Turbulent flow is comprised of eddies (vorticies) with a multitude of length

scales and vorticities (measure of angular velocity).

The largest eddies in the flow are limited in size by the enclosure with

characteristic length-scale of L (e.g., large eddy associated with swirl).

The integral scale l represents the largest turbulent vortex size, determined

by the fluctuating velocity frequency.

Superimposed on the large scale flow is a range of eddies of smaller and

smaller size.

Most of the KE of the flow is contained in the large eddies.

The KE is converted to thermal energy via viscous effects.

56

The Reynolds number (Re#) is the ratio of inertia to viscous forces

The Re# of an eddy with circulation velocity u' and size L is:

u '2 L2

3

u ' L

inertia force per unit volume

L

Re

u ' L

3

L

Viscous forces are only important in the smallest scale where the Re# 1

The eddy size at which the flow KE is dissipated by viscous effects is

known as the Kolmogorov scale, and the eddy dimension is .

There is one more length-scale between the integral and Kolmogorov scales

known as the Taylor microscale which represents the distance over which

viscous effects can be felt, or the mean spacing between dissipative eddies.

57

The scales are: Integral (l), Taylor micro (l), Kolmogorov ()

intake valve

58

Dimensional analysis leads to the following relationships between the scales:

l C1 L

12

15

Re t1 2

l C

1 4

C Re t3 4

l

where C1, C, and C are numbers unique to the flow.

The turbulent Reynolds number is based on the integral scale and the

turbulent velocity

ul

Re t t

If the integral scale can be determined so can all the other scales.

As the engine speed increases the Re# increases so the smaller scales

of turbulence decrease in size.

59

Most common two-stroke engines are crankcase-scavanged

Another class of two-stroke engine uses a separate compressor to deliver

air into the cylinder to scavange the combustion products, fuel is

Injected directly into the cylinder.

AIR

PROD

AIR

60

Scavanging Performance

Delivery ratio, Dr

Dr

Trapping efficiency,

Scavanging efficiency, es

displaced volume ambient density

mass of delivered air

es

mass of trapped cylinder charge

If the cylinder volume is completely filled with air the delivery ratio is

given by:

Dr

a Vbc Vbc

r

1

a Vd Vd r 1

61

Scavanging Models

A. Perfect scavanging no mixing, air displaces the products out the exhaust

(if extra air is delivered (delivery ratio > r/r-1) it is not retained)

B. Short circuiting the air initially displaces all the products within the path

of the short circuit and then flows into and out of the cylinder

C. Perfect mixing the first air to enter the cylinder mixes instantaneously

with the products and the gas leaving is almost all residual

(for larger delivery ratio most of gas leaving is air)

62

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