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Writing Effective Opening

and Closing Paragraphs

Why are opening and closing

paragraphs important?
Opening Paragraph is your introduction. Its
where you introduce your topic of writing to
your audience.
Your introduction must be effective in order to
grab the readers attention and set the tone of
the paper; it is like making a first impression.
Closing paragraphs are for summarizing your
ideas and reiterating your purpose for writing.
Your conclusion is important because it is the
last thing the reader reads; you always want to
end on a positive note.

What should be included in the

A Hook- grabber statement
A thesis statement
The Hook is a 20 second window of opportunity
wherein marketers gain your attention this also
applies to writing!
Ways to accomplish this
1.Begin with a broad general statement
2.Use a question or series of thought provoking questions
3.Use quotations
4.Use an anecdote- a story or event with a moral
5.Use statistics
6.Use opposite of your topic- start by stating the
opposing views opinion

Thesis statement: is a single
sentence that states the main points
you will be covering in the essay.
Example: Second life has blurred the line
between reality and fiction, provided users with
an escape from the real world, and is creating an
energy crisis.
IN THE ABOVE, three points are clearly made about the
topic, Second Life, to let the reader know what they are
about to read further into.

What should be included in the


Signal the end of the paper

Reiterate your thesis statement
What you may have learned
The Big Picture

Transitional words or phrases should be used to signal your reader

that you are ending your paper.
Your thesis should be restated in a way that summarizes your
expanded ideas in the previous paragraphs.
Another good idea is to tell what you learned; what did you get or
accomplish from your research?
Explain why the content matters in terms of the Big Picture. In
other words, why is the content of your essay important to read?
Speculate about the Future.

Common mistakes in opening

DO NOT start your paper with the main purpose of your
writing! Good writers know that one of the most serious
errors that can be made is by opening up right away with
the main purpose of the writing.
*begin with a broad, general statement and then narrow it down to your

Beginning with, In this paper I am going to write about

or anything along those lines is a huge NO, NO!!
In your thesis, Dont be too broad or specific.
*example of too broad, Civil War was a major turning point in American
race relations.
*Too specific: if youre too specific and give too many details the reader
may stop reading. Make the reader curious to read more.

Common mistakes in closing

DONT BE REPETIVTIVE!! This is probably the
most common mistake in concluding paragraphs.
It can be difficult not to repeat yourself because
you are restating your thesis, but youre not
rewriting your thesis, just summarizing the ideas
previously discussed.
*Suggestion: Address the implications of the essays
central claim; ask a rhetorical question that will lead the
reader into a further thought process.