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Wheels and Tyres

Presented by:
D.Lakhan das
11C81A0321

PARTS OF A WHEEL:

Hub

Rim

Spider made of spokes

Tyre

Spider web spokes

Rim

Hub

TYPES OF WHEELS:
Disc wheel with air cooling
holes.

Spoked wheel with Tangential


spoking.

WHEEL BASICS:
Most standard wheels are made of steel.

Some vehicles are fitted with


alloy wheels that are made of
magnesium or aluminium.
The rim holds the tyre.
The well of the wheel allows the
tyre to be removed and refitted

Rim

The centre section is


welded to the rim.
The pilot bore fits to the hub.
Centre mounting section
Next >

TYPES OF
Alloy Wheels Attractive and light weight, but can be difficult
WHEELS:
to clean.
Spoked Wheels Used on older sports vehicles, but cannot be
fitted with tubeless tyres.
Divided rims the rims are made in two halves which are bolted
together, the rims must never be separated while the tyre
is inflated.
Split rims the tyre is held in place by a large circlip, do not
remove the tyre unless you have been properly trained

WHEEL SIZES:
The wheel sizes are indicated by three
measurements(Rim dia,rim width,flange
height)
Measurements are expressed in inches
A letter or a combination of letters are
used to indicate the flange height
Commonly used letters are
J=0.60,JK=0.71,K=0.77,L=0.85

WHEEL NUT TORQUE:


Correct torque of wheel
fixing is vital for all vehicles, and
nearly
all require the use of a
torque wrench.
Excessive torque can lead to
wheel or hub distortion, causing
runout and vibration.

Low torque may allow


wheel nuts to work loose and
wheels to come off.

Nuts should be tightened in a


diagonal pattern.

Torque
wrench

VALVE STEMS AND CORES:


It retains the air, It allows inflation and Deflation.
Valve
core

The rubber stem of the valve


is pulled into the wheel.
The valve core contains a
spring loaded air valve insert.

Valve
stem

Seat
washer

The valve core also has a


sealing washer and a seat washer.
The valve cap keeps out
dust and helps keep air in.

Sealing
washer

Tyre pressures must only be checked and


adjusted when the tyre is cold

Valve
caps

TYRES (INTRODUCTION)
The tyre acts as the primary suspension, cushioning the vehicle from the

effects of a rough surface.


It also provides frictional contact with the road surface.
This allows the driving wheels to move the vehicle.
The front tyres allows the wheels to steer .
The tyres allow the brakes to slow or stop the vehicle

PARTS OF A TYRE:
Plies Layers of strong fabric which are
built up to give the tyre its strength and shape
Bead loops of steel which are the
anchorage point for the plies.
Tread this provides the grip with the road
surface, the pattern assists in clearing any water
away
Side Wall this connects the beads to the
tread of the tyre.

TYRE SPECIFICATIONS:

P 205/55 V R 16
TYPE
P - PASSENGER
T - TEMPORARY
LT - LIGHT TRUCK
C - COMMERCIAL

RIM DIAMETER
(INCHES) 13, 14 ETC

ASPECT RATIO
(HEIGHT/WIDTH %)
55, 60, 65 70 ETC

WIDTH
(MILLIMETERS)
145-315

TYPE
B - BIAS-BELTED
D - DIAGONAL BIAS
R - RADIAL

SPEED RATING
B (31 MPH) V (150 MPH) Z (OVER 150 MPH)

TYPES OF TYRE CONSTRUCTION:


1.BIAS PLY TYRE:
In the bias ply tyre, the carcass consists of
two or more layers of virtually unwoven
fabric.
The cords or threads in these layers run
from one rim bead to other.
Bias angle is usually between 20-350
High cord angles in the carcass plies will
give a tyre greater strength,increase its fatigue
resistance.

2.Radial ply tyre:


First introduced by Michellin in 1947.
Plies extend straight across from bead to bead
at 900 to the circumference of the tread.
The side walls working independently can
flex,twist and squirm.
The squirming of the tread,which when occurs
during rolling,actually keeps away the tyre from
getting a solid bite on the road.

Remember the tyre tread depth must be not less than 1.6mm over the
central three-quarters of the tyre and must go all the way round the
circumference in an continuous unbroken band with no bald patches
anywhere on the tyre tread.
If radial and crossply tyres are fitted to the same vehicle, the radial-ply
tyres must only be fitted to the rear.
Cross-ply and radial ply tyres must never be fitted to the same axle.
Tyre pressures must be set to the manufactures recommendations
The tread and side wall must be free from large cuts, abrasions or
bubbles

TYRE MATERIAL:
The carcass of all tyres is made of long staple cotton.
In 1930s Rayon was used for making cords of a tyre back.
Subsequently Nylon is the most used material for making cords
because of its stronger,more elastic,flexible properties.It runs cooler
than rayon.
Most modern tyres all over the world use Terylene or Polyster
cord.

C
O
M
P
O
U
N
D
S

Carbon black adds strength and abrasion resistance, while


protecting rubber against UV light.

During curing, sulfur links rubber molecules together, adding


strength, and giving the rubber resistance to both heat and
cold.

Zinc stearate

Small amounts of zinc stearate and waxes can help control


cure rates, prevent oxidation and make rubber easier to
process.
Accelerators are used to control the cure rate, so different
types of rubber can cure fully in the same amount of
time.
Antioxidants and antiozonants are added to rubber to fight
degradation by oxygen and ozone, which can shorten the life
of tires.

TYRE TREAD PATTERN:


The design of treads provides traction and reduces possibility of
skidding.
Tread pattern should be such that it gives more mileage,positive
traction,cooler runs,smooth travel,longer puncture free life,better
steering controll,etc.
Modern tyres uses a high rubber which has excellent road grip
qualities

a)

b)

c) d)

e)

f)

Different types of Treads

g)

h)

DESIRABLE PROPERTIES:
Non-skidding:The tyre should not skid or slip on the road.It should have

good grip.
Uniform wear:The tyre must wear uniformly over its outer circumference.
Load carrying:The tyre should be able to carry the load.
Cushioning:The tyre should absorb vibrations set up by the road and

provide cushioning effect.


Power consumption:While running tyre should consume minimum power
developed by the engine.
Noise:The tyre should create minimum noise whilw running .
Balancing:Tyre should be balanced statistically as well as dynamically.

Tyre Life what effects it?


Load, burn outs, hard riding
Speed, road surface, temperature
Wheel condition, storage
Pressure, suspension
Incorrect brake adjustment
Frame/wheel alignment

Tread Wear
Indicator

Wear Bar

From 2000 & up last 2 digits in the oval = year & 2 digits preceding = week
tire was produced.
DOT AT8E165111 = tire made 51st week of 2011.