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What is Scientific Research?  Source: http://answers.ask.com/Society/Military/what_is_scientific_resear ...  Scientific research is also referred to as
What is Scientific
Research?
 Source:
http://answers.ask.com/Society/Military/what_is_scientific_resear ...
 Scientific research is also referred to
as scientific method. This is a process
of experimentation and observance.
This method uses cause and effect
matters. Scientists experiment, write
a hypothesis about what they believe
is going to happen.
Scientific research  Is a body of techniques for: • • investigating phenomena, acquiring new knowledge,
Scientific research
 Is a body of techniques for:
investigating phenomena,
acquiring new knowledge, or
correcting and integrating old knowledge
 To be termed scientific, a method of
inquiry must
be based on empirical and
measurable evidence subject to specific
principles of reasoning.
How Is Scientific Research Funded?  Source: http://www.ehow.com/facts_6016550_scientific-research- funded _. htm  Science research is supported
How Is Scientific Research
Funded?
 Source: http://www.ehow.com/facts_6016550_scientific-research-
funded
_.
htm
 Science research is supported by a
variety of federally funded and
private foundations through grants or
contracts. In general, a scientist
proposes an idea that is reviewed by
a panel of experts. If the review is
favorable, the scientis
How to Write Scientific Research  Source: http://www.ehow.com/how_6932674_write-scientific- research.html  The scientific method works on the
How to Write Scientific Research
 Source: http://www.ehow.com/how_6932674_write-scientific-
research.html
 The scientific method works on the
principle that what is observed and
measured is subjected to specific
principles of reasoning, the outcome
of which must be carefully
documented.
Good scientific research
documentation helps to
How to Conduct Scientific Research  Source: http://www.ehow.com/how_2248766_conduct-scientific- research.html  Scientific research is important for our
How to Conduct Scientific Research
 Source: http://www.ehow.com/how_2248766_conduct-scientific-
research.html
 Scientific research is important for
our society's improvement and
advancement. It helps us find ways to
improve medicine, help the
environment and improve products.
Conducting scientific research
requires advanced planning.
How to Write Scientific Research . Proposals  Source: http://www.ehow.com/how_4854939_write-scientific- research-proposa ...  Scientific research proposals
How to Write Scientific Research
.
Proposals
 Source: http://www.ehow.com/how_4854939_write-scientific-
research-proposa ...
 Scientific research proposals offer
information on a proposed research
topic, including what the research is,
by whom it is to be researched and
budgets. This article explains how to
properly write a scientific research
proposal
What is Basic Research? Basic (fundamental or pure ) research  is driven by a scientist's
What is Basic Research?
Basic
(fundamental or pure ) research
 is driven by a scientist's curiosity or interest
in a scientific question. The main motivation is
to expand man's knowledge , not to create or
invent something. There is no obvious
commercial value to the discoveries that
result from basic research.
Examples of Basic Research  How did the universe begin?  What are protons, neutrons, and
Examples of Basic Research
 How did the universe begin?
 What are protons, neutrons, and electrons
composed of?
 How do slime molds reproduce?
 What is the specific genetic code of the fruit
fly?
What is Applied Research? Applied research  is designed to solve practical problems of the modern
What is Applied Research?
Applied research
 is designed to solve practical problems of the
modern world, rather than to aqcquire
knowledge for knowledge's sake. One might
say that the goal of the applied scientist is to
improve the human condition .
Examples of Applied Research  Vaccination  in late 1790's. Edward Jenner developed a technique for
Examples of Applied
Research
 Vaccination
 in late 1790's. Edward Jenner developed a technique
for vaccinating people against smallpox, a disease
that once killed millions of people.
 In 1885, Louis Pasteur successfully innoculated a
patient with a rabies vaccine. More recently, Jonas
Salk developed a vaccine for polio in 1953; an oral
form of the vaccine was produced by Albert Sabin in
1961.
 Serendipity (chance discovery) : in 1928. Sir
Alexander Fleming was trying to find chemicals that
behaved as antibiotics, and Penicillium mold
accidentally contaminated one of his bacterial
Recent Trends in Scientific Research  There has been a noticeable shift in philosophy regarding the
Recent Trends
in Scientific Research
 There has been a noticeable shift in
philosophy regarding the types of research
receiving federal funding in recent years.
 Universities get much of their money from the
National Science Foundation (NSF).
 Research at the Berkeley National Laboratory
is funded primarily by the Departement of
Energy(DOE) and the National Institutes of
Health (NIH).
 Industry does little basic research today.
Possible Future Trends in Basic and Applied Research  global environment. In the next years, the
Possible Future Trends
in Basic and Applied Research
 global environment. In the next years, the
population will increase so dramatically that
the earth will no longer be able to support our
current standard of living
 overuse of raw materials, energy
consumption, pollution - will also increase.
The planet will reach an unsustainable level
of use.
 multi-disciplinary approach:
 biology, geology, chemistry, and physics
 opens new lines of communication among
researchers
Empiric versus scientific research  The scientific method (or simply scientific method) is a body of

Empiric versus scientific research

 The scientific method (or simply scientific method) is a body of techniques for investigating phenomena,
 The scientific method (or simply scientific
method) is a body of techniques for investigating
phenomena, acquiring new knowledge, or
correcting and integrating previous knowledge
 Empirical research is a way of gaining knowledge
by means of direct and indirect observation or
experience
 Scientific inquiry is:
 objective to reduce biased interpretations of results.
 open to document, archive and share all data and
methodology called full disclosure
Scientific research Four essential elements of a scientific method are iterations, recursions interleavings or orderings of
Scientific
research
Four essential elements of a scientific method are
iterations, recursions interleavings or orderings of
the following:
 Characterization (observations, [ definitions, and
measurements of the subject of inquiry)
 Hypothesis (theoretical, hypothetical
explanations of observations and measurements
of the subject)
 Predictions, including logical deduction ] from the
hypothesis or theory
 Experiments and tests of all of the above
Scientific research in medicine  Medical research:  the evaluation of new treatments for both safety
Scientific research in
medicine
 Medical research:
 the evaluation of new treatments for both
safety and efficacy in what are termed clinical
trials
 all other research that contributes to the
development of new treatments. The latter is
termed preclinical research if its goal is
specifically to elaborate knowledge for the
development of new therapeutic strategies
 Medical research is highly regulated
Scientific research in medicine has 3 components: 3 major components:  Biomedical  Behavioral – human
Scientific research in medicine
has 3 components:
3
major components:
 Biomedical
 Behavioral – human wekneses
 Organizational
 Public Health Ministry
 Private health institutions
Biomedical  Biomedical research is an approach used towards solving medical problems.  It deals with
Biomedical
 Biomedical research is an approach
used towards solving medical
problems.
 It deals with beliefs or theories
which can be
 proven or
 disproven
Through:
Through:
Observations and
Observations and
Experimentation
Experimentation
Behavior Social and behavioral research ("SBR") refers broadly to research that deals with human attitudes, beliefs,
Behavior
Social and behavioral research
("SBR") refers broadly to research
that deals with human attitudes,
beliefs, and behaviors.
Cultural
 Social
 Religious
 Etc.
 Beliefs
 Traditions
 Prejudgements
 Etc.
Organizational -servicii de sanatate-  Sistemul sanitar care deserveste :  Individul  Comunitatea sau grupul
Organizational
-servicii de sanatate-
 Sistemul sanitar care deserveste :
 Individul
 Comunitatea sau grupul social
Este caracterizat de:
 O anumita eficienta
 O anumita acoperire a teritoriului
 O anumita cantitate de resurse:
 Materiale
 Umane
Scientific research methodology  What is Research Methodology? Research Methodology is a term used to describe
Scientific research methodology
 What is Research Methodology?
Research Methodology is a term used to describe
how to conduct a scientific study. Each research
methodology is a standardized and accepted
practice.
 What does Methodology Mean?
Methodology is the compiled list of practice,
development of knowledge, and the execution of
steps and procedures in experiments and
empiricism.
 How to Write a Research Methodology?
To explain, defend, and justify a theory or concept.
It includes an introduction, a summary of the
research, then an extended explanation of the
research
Scientific research methodology  Methodology: - a sum of methods, a guideline system for solving a
Scientific research methodology
 Methodology: - a sum of methods, a guideline
system for solving a problem, with specific
components such as phases, tasks, techniques
and tools. A philosophy.
 Methode:
- a sum of tehniques, a series of
steps taken to acquire knowledge.
Requests :precision and logic.
 Technique:
- a procedure used to accomplish
a specific activity or task, a sum/sequence of
events /facts designed to obtain a specific result.
Requests: fidelity and validity
Scientific research steps 1. Defining the objectif /goal of the research 2. Research of the present
Scientific research steps
1.
Defining the objectif /goal of the research
2.
Research of the present state – literature
study
3.
Theory elaboration
4.
Methodology conception
5.
Theory testing
6.
Results consideration/
disemination/applicability
1. Defining the objectif  S - -specific  M - measurable  A - acceptable
1. Defining the objectif
 S - -specific
 M - measurable
 A - acceptable
 R – realistic
 T – acheievable in a definite lapse of
time
2. a. Research of the present state literature study  E-search  Scientific journals – OJOSE
2. a. Research of the present state
literature study
 E-search
 Scientific journals – OJOSE
 E – books – GOOGLE BOOKS
 Library study:
 Scientific journals
 Books / audiobooks
 Conferences - audio
2. b. Research of the present state literature study- results  Identification of a lack of
2. b. Research of the present state
literature study- results
 Identification of a lack of knowledge
 Finding contrary ideas
 Finding usefull knowledge for the study
 Preventing finding allready known facts
 Finding a way to continue a previious
research
 Identification researchers studying the
same problem and how to contact them-
forming teams.
3. Theory elaboration  Defining a segment of reality to examin  Conceiving a logical/plausible process
3. Theory elaboration
 Defining a segment of reality to examin
 Conceiving a logical/plausible process to explain
the segment of reality – the object of the research
 Descovering the mechanisms of the studied
process
 Finding the variables validly connected to the
process
 Disclosure of the factors interrelated with the
process
(Corelations)
4. Methodology conception  Conceiving a logical algoritm for the concatenation of events in the succesion
4. Methodology conception
 Conceiving a logical algoritm for the
concatenation of events in the
succesion of stages in our research in
order to test our teory
 Defining the variables validly
connected to the research – scales of
measurement units of measurement
 Finding a way to certify the results
5. Theory testing  Practical implementation of the succesion of stages in our research in order
5. Theory testing
 Practical implementation of the
succesion of stages in our
research in order to test our
teory.
 Overview the whole process to
see if
The obtained results arre
concordant with our previsions
(or not !!!! )
6.a. Results evaluation/ disemination/applicability Evaluation :  What the study did:  Covered a lack of
6.a. Results evaluation/
disemination/applicability
Evaluation :
 What the study did:
 Covered a lack of knowledge
 Found:
 A solution for a problem
 New applications of previous theories
 Support known ideas
 Contradict previous ideas
 Offer a new perspective on previous ideas
 Generate new questions
 Sugest new research methodes
6.b. Results evaluation/ disemination/applicability  Disemination:  Publishing the research in:  Journals  Books 
6.b. Results evaluation/
disemination/applicability
 Disemination:
 Publishing the research in:
 Journals
 Books
 Presenting the research to different
professional meetings.
6.c. Results evaluation/ disemination/applicability  Applicability :  Taking out a patent in order to provide
6.c. Results evaluation/
disemination/applicability
 Applicability :
 Taking out a patent in order to provide
protection for technological advances .
 An inventive step is necessary to be granted a
patent. The invention must be enough of an
advancement to be considered ‘non-obvious’
by a person having ordinary skill in the art.
 Time and geographical zone of a patent are
limited.
 Using the results of the research,if it is
possible to obtain products with value on the
market
Summa Allwa ry . ys use your head !
Summa
Allwa
ry
.
ys use
your
head
!