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GPRS Introduction

May 2003

GPRS

Content

General architecture and protocol layers


GPRS logical channels
Main transactions
Network Operation Mode
Allocation/De-allocation of radio resources
Cell selection/re-selection
UL Power control
CS Adaptation
Radio Link Supervision
Quality of Service

May 2003

GPRS

Service overview
Data transfer with GSM circuit VS packet switched
A

Air interface

Access node

GSM
network

Internet

C
A

Air interface
GPRS

Internet

network

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GPRS

GPRS architecture (2)

May 2003

GPRS

Oranges GPRS architecture (1)


M
F
S
1

M
F
S
2

BSCs

M
F
S
3

TC

SSP1

SSP2

SSP3

SSP4

TC

SSP5

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GPRS

GPRS architecture (3)

The GPRS Core is composed of:


Serving GPRS Support Node (SGSN)

On the same hierarchic level as an MSC/VLR


Authentication & Register Function
Mobility Management
Service Access Point to GPRS Network for GPRS MS
Protocol Conversion (IP SNDCP & LLC Protocol)

Gateway GPRS Support Node (GGSN)

Basic routing and translation between PDNs and Internal


GPRS Protocol
Provide connection to OMC-G
Generation and transfer of charging data.

May 2003

GPRS

Protocol layers (1)


Transmission plane

May 2003

GPRS

Protocol layers (2)


Transmission and reception data flow
IP
Packets
Compression (optional)

SNDCP
Layer

Segmentation

LLC
Frame
RLC/MAC
Blocks
Physical
Layer
Burst

Max 1520
FH Information Field

BH

BCS

Primary Block
Normal Burst

May 2003

BH

FCS

Following
Block
Normal Burst

FH Information Field

BCS

Normal Burst

BH

Normal Burst

GPRS

FCS

BCS

FH: Frame Header


FCS: Frame Check Sequence
BH: Block Header
BSC: Block Check Sequence

Protocol layers (3)


Signaling plane
relay
GMM/SM

GMM/SM

LLC

GTP

GTP

LLC

UDP

UDP

IP

IP

relay

RLC

RLC

MAC

BSSGP

BSSGP

MAC

GSM-RF

GSM-RF

MS

NS

NS

L2

L2

L1bis

L1bis

L1

L1

BSS
Um

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GGSN

SGSN
Gb

GPRS

Gn

GSM standard/Alcatel GPRS architecture

A Packet Control Unit (PCU) is defined by the GSM


standard :

handles RLC/MAC functions


may be either in the BTS, the BSC or the SGSN
Alcatel choice :
PCU in a new network element called the MFS to handle
RLC/MAC functions
Ater

BTS

SGSN

BSC
BTS

MFS
BSC

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GPRS

Gb

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GPRS Logical Channel (1)


PDCH
PDCH
Packet
Traffic
Channel

Packet Broadcast
Control Channel:
PBCCH

PDTCH
PDTCH

Packet
Dedicated
Control Channel

PBCCH
PBCCH

Uplink only

May 2003

PACCH
PACCH

PRACH
PRACH

PTCCH/U
PTCCH/U

PPCH
PPCH

PTCCH/D
PTCCH/D

Downlink only

Packet Common
Control Channel:
PCCCH

PAGCH
PAGCH
PNCH
PNCH

GPRS

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Multiplexing of GPRS logical channels


PDCH 1
B0

B1

B2

B3

B4

B5

B6

B7

B8

B9

B10

B11

B4

B5

B6

B7

B8

B9

B10

B11

B6

B7

B8

B9

B10

B11

PDCH 2
B0

B1

B2

B3

PDCH 3
B0

B1

TBF with TFI = 3

B2

B3

B4

B5

TBF with TFI = 19

TBF with TFI = 22

Several TBF (Temporary Block Flow) can be transmitted on one PDCH


A TBF is identified by a TFI (Temporary Flow Identity: 5 bits) and it can use
several PDCHs (depending on the multislot capability of the MS)

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GPRS

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Main transactions (1)


UL TBF establishment on CCCH
MS

BTS
Channel request
RACH

BSC

MFS

TA calculation
Channel request + TA
Immediate assignment

The MS switchs
on the assigned
PDCH

TFI, USF, TAI, TA

Immediate assignment
AGCH
Packet UL assignment
PACCH
Packet control Ack

Packet UL assignment, polling


TFI, USF, TAI

PACCH

Resource
activation

RLC data block (TLLI, TFI)


PDTCH
PACCH

May 2003

Resource
allocation

Packet UL Ack/Nack
TLLI, TFI

GPRS

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Main transactions (2)


UL TBF establishment during a DL TBF

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GPRS

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Main transactions (3)


DL TBF establishment on CCCH

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GPRS

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Main transactions (4)


DL TBF establishment during an UL TBF

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GPRS

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Main transactions (5)

Location
management

Cell update
RA update
RA/LA update
(only in NMO I)

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GPRS

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Main transactions (6)

MS mobility
management stages

IN GPRS

IN GSM

IDLE

TURN OFF

STANDBY

IDLE

READY*

DEDICATED

* Does not mean the MS is using resource(s)


In GSM
MM

RR

IDLE

NO RADIO RESOURCE ALLOCATED

DEDICATED

TCH CONNECTION

In GPRS

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GPRS

MM

RR

IDLE

PACKET IDLE MODE

STANDBY

PACKET IDLE MODE

READY

PACKET IDLE or PACKET TRANSFER MODE

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Network Mode of Operation


Mode

II

CS paging channel
PS paging channel

Remarks

PPCH

PPCH

Gs interface

PCH

PCH

Gs interface

PACCH

NA

Gs interface

PCH

PCH

no Gs interface

PCH

PPCH

no Gs interface

PCH

PCH

no Gs interface

III

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GPRS

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Allocation/De-allocation of radio resources (1)

Allocation

Step 1 : The MFS determines the multislot configurations supported by


the MS.
Step 2 : The MFS analyses the constraints due to a possible
concurrent TBF in the opposite direction : some TS may be unusable.
Step 3 : The MFS selects an allocation scheme.
Step 4 : The MFS serves the request.

De-allocation

GPRS low load : The MFS de-allocates inactive PDCH as long as


more than MIN_PDCH_GROUP PDCH are allocated, or inactive PDCH
are de-allocated after a delay.
High load situation : The MFS marks allocated PDCH exceeding the
maximum allowed number of PDCH as unavailable for new TBF. When
all the TBF carried by these PDCH are released, the MFS de-allocates
the PDCH without delay.

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GPRS

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Allocation/De-allocation of radio resources (2)

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GPRS

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Cell selection and re-selection

Cell selection :

Using the C1 criteria as in GSM

Cell re-selection :

Using the C1 and C2 criteria as in GSM


CELL_RESELECT_HYSTERESIS is used if :

the new cell belongs to a different routeing area


the MS is in the Ready state (in packet transfer mode).

No dedicated GPRS neighbour cells list : using the same


neighbour cells list as in GSM idle mode.
Cannot prevent MS to re-select a cell with no GPRS enable.
If C2 parameters are used in order to give a higher priority to a
given layer (Micro cell layer) for circuit mode, the same priority
is applied for packet mode.

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GPRS

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UL Power Control

Measurement : MS use DL level measurements to determine the


power

Averaging :

In packet idle mode : BCCH of the serving cell


In packet transfer mode :BCCH of the serving cell or all the blocks of
one of the PDCH carrying the PACCH.
Use of a recursive filtering to obtain an average level.
Cn = a * SSn + (1-a) * Cn-1
Average levels calculated in packet idle mode used in packet transfer
mode and vice versa.

MS Power :

MS power for access on RACH : MS_TXPWR_MAX_CCH


MS use the same power during a radio block (4 bursts)
MS power = min(0 - ch - * (C + 48), MS_TXPWR_MAX_CCH)

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GPRS

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CS Adaptation (1)

Four coding schemes are defined :

CS1 (9.05 kbit/s data rate)


CS2 (13.4 kbit/s data rate)
CS3 (15.6 kbit/s data rate)
CS4 (21.4 kbit/s data rate)

For Alcatel

CS1 is always used for signalling


CS1 and CS2 are used for traffic
CS3 and CS4 are not available in release B6.2.

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CS Adaptation (2)
Algorithm
CS1 -> CS2 :
AV_RXQUAL < CS_QUAL_1_2 and AV_RXLEV > CS_LEV
CS2 -> CS1 :
AV_RXQUAL >= CS_QUAL_2_1 or AV_RXLEV <= CS_LEV
AV_RXQUAL

CS_QUAL_2_1
CS 1 area

Hysteresis area

CS_QUAL_1_2

CS 2 area

AV_RXLEV
CS_LEV

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Radio Link Supervision

During an UL or DL packet transmission, the


corresponding TBF can be released due to abnormal
situations :

too high retransmission rate


no acknowledgement or data received

The abnormal release is always followed by the reestablishment of the TBF in case of uplink transfer
(initiative of the MS).
In case of downlink transfer, most of the SGSN do not
take the initiative to re-establish the TBF.

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Quality of Service (1)

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Quality of Service (2)

Different levels of QoS shall be distinguished :


User QoS profile :

GPRS QoS profile :

end to end QoS granted to a user application.

QoS granted in the GPRS network between the MS and the PDN.
defined in term of Service precedence, Transfer delay, Mean and
peak throughputs and reliability.

Radio QoS profile :

QoS granted on the radio interface


defined in term of Throughput, Service precedence, RLC reliability
mode, and Transfer delay
OPTIM parts of Um interface : LLC, RLC/MAC, GSM RF
Network Layers (SNDCP & IP/X25 & Application) are included if
capable with IP/X25 & Applications knowledge.

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Quality of Service (3)

ETSI R97 principles :

GPRS QoS is negotiated


between the MS and the
SGSN, at PDP context
activation.
The BSS is not involved in
QoS negotiation.
No absolute QoS can be
guaranteed by the BSS.
SGSN and GGSN play the
main role in QoS
management

5 GPRS QoS attributes in the R97 standard


Precedence Class : relative importance of
service under congestion; 3 values are
defined.
Delay Class : total delay measured between
R or S point and Gi; 4 values are defined.
Reliability Class : mainly linked to Ack/Not
Ack modes at RLC and LLC levels and within
the backbone network; 5 values are defined.
Peak Throughput Class : measured at Gi and
R reference points;
9 values, ranging from 8 kbit/s up to 2048
kbit/s
Mean Throughput Class : measured at the Gi
and R reference points; 19 values, ranging
from Best Effort up to 111 kbit/s

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Quality of Service (4)

QoS Follow up

GPRS QoS is not an isolated topic.


It is necessary to use GSM counters in order to complete the
analyse of GPRS QoS and the impact of GPRS on GSM QoS.
The BSS QoS does not allow to have a complete understanding
of the end to end QoS seen by the user.
Indeed, upper protocol layers (TCP for example) have a great
impact on the global QoS (out of Optimization scope).
The GSS (SGSN & GGSN) also has a great impact on the
global QoS.

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