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7 Layer OSI Model

CS4390

Network Architecture
How should we go about building the network
that will realize our wish-list of requirements?
Many requirements, including general, reliable,
secure, efficient, fair, high performance
Connectivity among a large number of computers
Technology and application demands constantly
changing
Hardware is heterogeneous

Need a flexible architecture to manage this


complexity.
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History
Rapid growth of computer networks caused compatibility
problems
ISO recognized the problem and released the OSI model in
1984
OSI stands for Open Systems Interconnection and consists
of 7 Layers
The use of layers is designed to reduce complexity and
make standardization easier
Layered structure makes a complex system easy to
Construct, understand, and manage

Abstraction through Layering


Decompose the problem of building a network into
manageable components, one layer per problem.
Each layer provides some functionality to the layer above.

Modular design provides flexibility


Modify/replace each layer independently
Allows alternative abstractions

Application programs
Process-to-process channels

Application programs
Request/reply Message stream
channel
channel

Host-to-host connectivity

Host-to-host connectivity

Hardware

Hardware
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Tasks - Delivery of a letter

7 Layers of the OSI Model


Layer

Responsible For:

7.) Application Provides Services to User Apps


6.) Presentation Data Representation
5.) Session

Communication Between Hosts

4.) Transport

Flow Ctrl, Error Detection/Correction

3.) Network

End to End Delivery, Logical Addr

2.) Data Link

Media Access Ctrl, Physical Addr

1.) Physical

Medium, Interfaces, Puts Bits on Med.

Examples
Layer

Example

7.) Application HTTP, FTP, SMTP


6.) Presentation ASCII, JPEG, PGP
5.) Session

BOOTP, NetBIOS, DHCP, DNS

4.) Transport

TCP, UDP, SPX

3.) Network

IP, IPX, ICMP

2.) Data Link

Ethernet, Token Ring, Frame Relay

1.) Physical

Bits, Interfaces, Hubs

The interaction between layers in the OSI model

router
Ethernet h

Layering Concepts
Encapsulation
Each highest layer protocol creates messages and sends them
via its lower layer protocol.
These messages are treated as data by the lower level
protocols
Each protocol adds its own control information in the form of
headers or trailers

Message

header

data

trailer

Multiplexing and De-multiplexing


Use protocol keys (protocol numbers) in the header to
determine correct upper-layer protocol
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Encapsulation
Data exists at each layer contained within a
unit called a Protocol Data Unit (PDU).
The process by which data moves between
PDU types is called Encapsulation
PDU move through interfaces between
layers using Service Access Points (SAP)

An exchange using the OSI model (encapsulation)

PDUs And the OSI Model


Layer
7.) Application

PDU Name
Data

6.) Presentation Data


5.) Session

Data

4.) Transport

Segment

3.) Network

Packet

2.) Data Link

Frame

1.) Physical

Bits

Layer 1: The Physical Layer

Physical characteristics of interfaces and medium.


PDU: Bits
Representation of bits (many different coding).
Data rate.
Synchronization of bits.
Line configuration (point-to-point or multipoint).
Physical topology (bus, star, ring).
Transmission mode: simplex, half/full duplex

Physical

layer

Physical medium:
direct digital signals (e.g., Ethernet, optical fib
modulated signals (e.g., WiFi, 3G)

Note
The physical layer is responsible for movements of
individual bits from one hop (node) to the next.

Layer 2: The Data Link Layer

PDU: Frames
Framing (frame is also called packet in Internet).
Physical addressing (MAC address)
Flow control
Constrain sender from overwhelming receiver

Error control
Adding error detection/correction bits
Detect error, correct error

Access control
Resolve how multiple nodes share the same data channel

Data link layer

Note
The data link layer is responsible for moving
frames from one hop (node) to the next.

2.

Hop-to-hop delivery for data link layer

Example device:
Ethernet switch/hub
WiFi access point

Layer 3: The Network Layer

PDU: Packet
End to end delivery of packets
Creates logical paths
Path determination (routing)
Hides the lower layers making things
hardware independent
Uses logical hierarchical addresses

The Network Layer (cont.)


Logical hierarchical addresses do change
when a node is moved to a new subnet
Devices: routers, firewalls

Network layer

Note
The network layer is responsible for the
delivery of individual packets from
the source host to the destination host.
The two hosts can be many hops away

The data link layer is responsible for moving


frames from one hop (node) to the next.
Single hop delivery

Source-to-destination delivery

Example device:
Routers

Layer 4: The Transport Layer


PDU: Segment
Service Point Address (more often called a port)
used to track multiple sessions between the same
systems. SPAs are used to allow a node to offer
more than one service (i.e. it could offer both mail
and web services)
This layer is why you have to specify TCP or UDP
when dealing with TCP/IP

The Transport Layer (cont.)


Must reassemble segments into data using
sequence numbers
Can use either connectionless or connection
oriented sessions
Connectionless sessions rely on upper layer
protocols for error control and are often
used for faster less reliable links
Ex: UDP (used by things like NFS & DNS)

The Transport Layer (cont.)


Connection oriented sessions require the sender to
first request a connection, the receiver to
acknowledge the connection, and that they
negotiate how much data can be sent/received
before its reception is acknowledged
Uses acknowledgements & retransmission for
error correction
Example: TCP (used by things like telnet, http)

Transport layer

Note
The transport layer is responsible for the delivery
of a message from one process to another.

Transport vs. network layer


network layer: logical communication between hosts
transport layer: logical communication between
processes

Sport:8050
Dport: 25

A
B

Sport:4625
Dport: 80

Transport Layer

Reliable process-to-process delivery of a message

Layer 5: The Session Layer


PDU: Data (from here on up)
Sometimes called the dialog controller, this
layer establishes, maintains, and terminates
sessions between applications
Sets duplex between applications
Defines checkpoints for acknowledgements
during sessions between applications

Layer 6: The Presentation Layer


Data formatting, translation, encryption,
and compression
Ex: ASCII, EBCDIC, HTML, JPEG

Layer 7: The Application Layer


Provides communication services to
applications
Ex: HTTP, FTP, SMTP

OSI model IP Stack

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