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MANAGING

INFORMATION
TECHNOLOGY
FIFTH EDITION
CHAPTER 4

TELECOMMUNICATIONS
AND NETWORKING
E. Wainright Martin Carol V. Brown Daniel W. DeHayes
Jeffrey A. Hoffer William C. Perkins

THE NEED FOR NETWORKING

Sharing of technology resources


Sharing of data
Distributed data processing and client/server systems
Enhanced communications
Marketing outreach

2005 Pearson Prentice-Hall

Page 96-97

AN OVERVIEW OF
TELECOMMUNICATIONS
AND NETWORKING

Networking
the electronic linking of geographically dispersed devices
Telecommunications
communications (voice and data) at a distance

2005 Pearson Prentice-Hall

Page 97-98

2005 Pearson Prentice-Hall Table 4.1 Functions of a

Telecommunications Network

Page 98

KEY ELEMENTS OF
TELECOMMUNICATIONS AND
N
ETWORKING
Analog
and Digital Signals
Analog network uses continuous voltage varying as
a function of time

Example: voice over telephone lines

Digital network directly transmits two discrete states

Note: 0 for pulse off and 1 for pulse on

2005 Pearson Prentice-Hall

Page 98-100

KEY ELEMENTS OF
TELECOMMUNICATIONS AND
N
ETWORKING
Analog
and Digital Signals

Modem
Device needed when transmitting data over analog lines
Converts data from digital to analog to be sent over analog
telephone lines
Also reconverts data back to digital after data transmission
Abbreviation for modulator/demodulator

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KEY ELEMENTS OF
TELECOMMUNICATIONS AND
N
ETWORKING
Analog
and Digital Signals

Figure 4.1 Use of Modem in Analog Network


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KEY ELEMENTS OF
TELECOMMUNICATIONS AND
N
ETWORKING
Speed
of Transmission
Bandwidth
difference between highest and lowest frequencies
(cycles per second) that can be transmitted on a
single medium
common measure of a mediums capacity

2005 Pearson Prentice-Hall

Page 100

KEY ELEMENTS OF
TELECOMMUNICATIONS AND
N
ETWORKING
Speed
of Transmission

Hertz cycles per second

Baud number of signals sent per second

Bits per second (bps) number of bits sent per second

When
each cycle sends one signal that transmits exactly one
:
e
Not bit of data (often the case), then the three terms are identical

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Page 100

KEY ELEMENTS OF
TELECOMMUNICATIONS AND
N
ETWORKING
Types
of Transmission Lines
Switched line system

Example: public telephone system


Uses switching centers to route signals along best possible path to
destination

Private (dedicated) lines

Leased from companies such as MCI, Sprint, AT&T


Use direct physical lines between source and destination

2005 Pearson Prentice-Hall

Page 101

KEY ELEMENTS OF
TELECOMMUNICATIONS AND
N
ETWORKING
Types
of Transmission Lines

Simplex data travels in one direction only

Half-duplex data can travel in both directions, but only one


direction at a time

Full-duplex data travels in both directions at the same time

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KEY ELEMENTS OF
TELECOMMUNICATIONS AND
NETWORKING
Transmission Media

2005 Pearson Prentice-Hall

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KEY ELEMENTS OF
TELECOMMUNICATIONS AND
NETWORKING
Transmission Media
Typical Speeds

2005 Pearson Prentice-Hall

Table 4.2 Telecommunications


Transmission Speeds

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KEY ELEMENTS OF
TELECOMMUNICATIONS AND
NETWORKING
Transmission Media

2005 Pearson Prentice-Hall Figure 4.3 Construction of a Coaxial Cable

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KEY ELEMENTS OF
TELECOMMUNICATIONS AND
NETWORKING
Transmission Media
Wireless
broadcast technology in which radio signals are sent out
into the air

Cordless telephone

Microwave

Cellular phone

Satellite

Wireless LAN

2005 Pearson Prentice-Hall

Page 102

KEY ELEMENTS OF
TELECOMMUNICATIONS AND
NETWORKING
Transmission Media

2005 Pearson Prentice-Hall Figure 4.4 Satellite Communications

Page 102

KEY ELEMENTS OF
TELECOMMUNICATIONS AND
N
ETWORKING
Types
of Transmission Lines

Fiber-optic cabling

Newest transmission medium


Transmits data by pulses of light through thin fiber of glass
Much faster than other media
Thinner requires less space
More secure harder to tap

2005 Pearson Prentice-Hall

Page 105-106

KEY ELEMENTS OF
TELECOMMUNICATIONS AND
N
ETWORKING
Topology
of Networks
Topology
term used to describe the configuration or
arrangement of network devices and media

2005 Pearson Prentice-Hall

Page 106

KEY ELEMENTS OF
TELECOMMUNICATIONS AND
NETWORKING
Topology of Networks

2005 Pearson Prentice-Hall

Figure 4.5 Network Topologies Page 106

More Complex Networks

2005 Pearson Prentice-Hall

Figure 4.6 vBNS+ Network Map

Page 107

KEY ELEMENTS OF
TELECOMMUNICATIONS AND
N
ETWORKING
Types
of Networks

Computer Telecommunications Networks

Private branch exchange (PBX) Networks

Local Area Networks (LANs)

Backbone Networks

Wide Area Networks (WANs)

Internet

Internet2

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Page 108

KEY ELEMENTS OF
TELECOMMUNICATIONS AND
N
ETWORKING
Types
of Networks

Computer Telecommunications Networks


Emanates from a single medium or large computer
Usually arranged as a tree
Uses coaxial and twisted pair cabling
Controlled by central computer
Often has a front-end processor to handle all aspects of telecommunications

2005 Pearson Prentice-Hall

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2005 Pearson Prentice-Hall Figure 4.7 Computer

Telecommunications Network

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KEY ELEMENTS OF
TELECOMMUNICATIONS AND
N
ETWORKING
Types
of Networks

Private Branch Exchanges (PBX)


Originally analog, today usually digital
Can serve as the central device in a star or ring network
Can function as front-end processor for mainframe

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KEY ELEMENTS OF
TELECOMMUNICATIONS AND
N
ETWORKING
Types
of Networks

Private Branch Exchanges (PBX)


Advantages:

Can connect ALL telecommunications devices in a building or campus


Can use existing telephone wiring
Can carry voice and data over same network
Has a high-potential throughput

2005 Pearson Prentice-Hall

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2005 Pearson Prentice-Hall Figure 4.8 Schematic Representation


of a PBX

Page 109

KEY ELEMENTS OF
TELECOMMUNICATIONS AND
N
ETWORKING
Types
of Networks

Local Area Networks


Owned by a single organization
Operate within area 2-3 miles in diameter
Contain a number of intelligent devices, usually microcomputers, that can process data based on peer-to-peer relationship
No part of telephone system, have their own wiring

2005 Pearson Prentice-Hall

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KEY ELEMENTS OF
TELECOMMUNICATIONS AND
N
ETWORKING
Local
Area Networks

LAN Topologies and Standards


Contention bus design IEEE 802.3
Token bus design IEEE 802.4
Token ring design IEEE 802.5
Wireless design IEEE 802.11

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Page 109

KEY ELEMENTS OF
TELECOMMUNICATIONS AND
N
ETWORKING
Local
Area Networks

Contention Bus Design (Ethernet)


Bus topology
Implemented with coax or twisted pair
Usually half-duplex
All devices contend for use of cable
Design now called Shared Ethernet uses a contention bus as its logical topology and implemented with a physical star arrangement

2005 Pearson Prentice-Hall

Page 110

2005 Pearson Prentice-Hall Figure 4.9 Shared Ethernet Topology:


Logical Bus, Physical Star

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KEY ELEMENTS OF
TELECOMMUNICATIONS AND
N
ETWORKING
Local
Area Networks

Switched Ethernet
Newer variation, better performance, higher price
Uses switch instead of hub
Operates both logical and physical star
Each device has own dedicated circuit

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KEY ELEMENTS OF
TELECOMMUNICATIONS AND
N
ETWORKING
Local
Area Networks

Token Bus
Employs bus topology, no contention
Uses single token passed around to all devices in order
Device can only transmit when has token
Central to Manufacturing Automation Protocol (MAP) connects robots and other machines on assembly line by a LAN

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KEY ELEMENTS OF
TELECOMMUNICATIONS AND
N
ETWORKING
Local
Area Networks

Token Ring
Device attached to ring must seize token before can send a message
Collisions cannot occur
Usual implementation is physical star, logical ring

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KEY ELEMENTS OF
TELECOMMUNICATIONS AND
N
ETWORKING
Local
Area Networks

Wireless LAN
Known as Wi-Fi (wireless fidelity)
Growing in demand for corporate and home use
Use IEEE 802.11 standards with shared Ethernet design
Requires use of wireless network interface card (NIC)
Wireless Access Point (WAP) radio transceiver that acts as a hub

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Page 111

2005 Pearson Prentice-Hall Figure 4.10 Wireless Local Area Network


Topology

Page 112

KEY ELEMENTS OF
TELECOMMUNICATIONS AND
N
ETWORKING
Types
of Networks

Backbone Network
In-between network that interconnects LANs in a single organization with each other and with
organizations WAN and the Internet

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Page 113

Major
corporate
network

Major ISP
Network Service Provider (NSP)

Network
Access Point
(NAP)

Network
Access Point
(NAP)

Network Service Provider (NSP)

Major
corporate
network

Major ISP

Regional ISP

The
backbone.

Major
corporate
network

Local ISP

Regional ISP

Local ISP

Regional ISP

Local ISP

Message A

Packet A1

Packet A2

Packet A3

Packet A3

Packet

Packet

Packet A1

Packet

Open

Packet

Packet A2

Packet

Packet

Packet

Open

Packet

Packet

Packet

Packet

Figure
2.16
Packet
switching.
Open

Packet

Packet A1

Packet A2

Message A

Packet A3

KEY ELEMENTS OF
TELECOMMUNICATIONS AND
N
ETWORKING
Types
of Networks

Backbone network terminology:


Bridge connects two LANs using same protocol
Router (gateway) connects two or more LANs that may use different protocols
Switch connects more than two LANs using the same protocols

2005 Pearson Prentice-Hall

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2005 Pearson Prentice-Hall Figure 4.11 Sample Backbone Network

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KEY ELEMENTS OF
TELECOMMUNICATIONS AND
N
ETWORKING
Types
of Networks

Wide Area Networks (WANs)


Communicate voice and data across greater distances
Usually owned by several organizations (including user organization and common carrier)
Employ point-to-point transmission
Often rely on public telephone network

2005 Pearson Prentice-Hall

Page 114

KEY ELEMENTS OF
TELECOMMUNICATIONS AND
N
ETWORKING
Types
of WANs

Switched-circuit
Direct distance dialing (DDD)
Wide Area Telephone Service (WATS)
Integrated Service Digital Network (ISDN)
Dedicated-circuit
Leased lines
Satellite

2005 Pearson Prentice-Hall

Page 115

KEY ELEMENTS OF
TELECOMMUNICATIONS AND
N
ETWORKING
Types
of WANs

Packet-switched
Shared private lines using store-and-forward data transmission
Permits multiple connections to exist simultaneously over the
same physical circuit

2005 Pearson Prentice-Hall

Page 116

KEY ELEMENTS OF
TELECOMMUNICATIONS AND
N
ETWORKING
Types
of WANs

ATM fast packet switching with short, fixed-length packets


Virtual Private Networks (VPNs) provide same as private packetswitched network using the public Internet

2005 Pearson Prentice-Hall

Page 117

KEY ELEMENTS OF
TELECOMMUNICATIONS AND
N
ETWORKING
Types
of Networks

The Internet
Network of networks that use the TCP/IP protocol
Contain gateways to computers that do not use TCP/IP
Provides four basic functions:

Electronic mail
Remote login
Discussion groups
Sharing of data resources

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Page 117-118

2005 Pearson Prentice-Hall Table 4.4 Internet Applications

Page 118

KEY ELEMENTS OF
TELECOMMUNICATIONS AND
N
ETWORKING
DSL,
Cable Modem, and Satellite

Internet access services:

Digital subscriber line (DSL) service offered by telephone companies using copper wire already installed in
homes moving data over wires without disturbing voice traffic
Cable modem connection obtained from cable TV company using existing home coaxial cable
Satellite most expensive, but may be only option for customers in rural areas

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KEY ELEMENTS OF
TELECOMMUNICATIONS AND
N
ETWORKING
Intranets
Intranet
a network operating within an organization that uses
the TCP/IP protocol

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Page 122

Intranet, Extranet, and VPN


Technologies

KEY ELEMENTS OF
TELECOMMUNICATIONS AND
NETWORKING
Internet2
not-for-profit consortium of over 200 universities,
working with over 60 technology companies and the
U.S. government, to develop and deploy advanced
network applications and technologies

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KEY ELEMENTS OF
TELECOMMUNICATIONS AND
NETWORKING
Primary goals of Internet2:
Create a leading-edge network capability for the national research
community
Enable revolutionary Internet applications based on a much higherperformance Internet that we have today
Ensure the rapid transfer of new network services and applications
to the broader Internet community

2005 Pearson Prentice-Hall

Page 123

KEY ELEMENTS OF
TELECOMMUNICATIONS AND
N
ETWORKING
Network
Protocols
Protocol
agreed-upon set of rules governing communication
among layers or levels of a network

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Page 124

KEY ELEMENTS OF
TELECOMMUNICATIONS AND
N
ETWORKING
Network
Protocols

LAN protocols:

Contention bus
Token bus
Token ring
Wireless

IBMs own protocol Systems Network Architecture (SNA)

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KEY ELEMENTS OF
TELECOMMUNICATIONS AND
N
ETWORKING
Network
Protocols

International Organization for Standardization (ISO) network


protocol Open Systems Interconnection Reference Model (OSI)

Thought to become the only standard for networking


Gained momentum until Internet explosion

Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol (TCP/IP)

Has become the de facto standard for networking today

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Page 124-125

The TCP/IP Protocol Suite

Client workstation

Host server

Browser

Web server

Select page

Display page

Request page
(HTTP)

Pass page to
browser
(HTTP)

Retrieve page

Send page
(HTTP)

Pass request to
server (HTTP)

Application layer
Resolve
domain name
address(DMS)

Using TCP/IP
protocols to
download a
page.

Create packet

Assemble
packets

Transport layer

Create packet

Assemble
packets

Route packet

Check packet

Internet layer

Route packet

Check packet

Send packet

Accept packet

Network access
layer

Send packet

Accept packet

Page
Request
Internet

2005 Pearson Prentice-Hall Figure 4.17 Data Transmission

Based on OSI Model

Page 126

THE EXPLODING ROLE OF


TELECOMMUNICATIONS AND
NETWORKING
Online Operations
Connectivity
Electronic Data Interchange (EDI) and
Electronic Commerce
Marketing

2005 Pearson Prentice-Hall

Page 128-129

THE TELECOMMUNICATIONS
INDUSTRY
Carriers
Own or lease the physical plant cabling,
satellites, cellular towers, etc.
Sell service of transmitting communication
from one location to another

2005 Pearson Prentice-Hall

Page 130

THE TELECOMMUNICATIONS
INDUSTRY
Equipment vendors
Manufacture and sell LAN software and
hardware
Includes routers, hubs, wireless access
points, digital switches, multiplexers, cellular
telephones, modems

2005 Pearson Prentice-Hall

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THE TELECOMMUNICATIONS
INDUSTRY
Service providers
Operate networks and deliver services
through the network
Provide access to or services via the Internet
(such as AOL, Microsoft Network, Yahoo!, and
many ISPs

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