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The 1.advancements
of industrialization, 2.
the wide acceptance
of the concept of
democracy, 3. the
spirit of liberalism
and the 4. growing
salutary (beneficial)
effects of nationalism
were gradually
affecting the
Philippines during the
19th century


1. The Challenge of
-. Industrialization
rapidly gained
momentum in the 2nd
half of the 9th century
-. Industrial Revolution
had taken its path
towards development
-. The use of steel, the
discovery of oil,
gasoline and
electricity, invention
of combustion engine
triggered the
motorized age

- Safer, faster and more

comfortable means of
transportation were
- Faster means of
communication like
telephone and
telegraph enabled
people to have better
- Closer communication
between the
Philippines and Spain
was now feasible

- The Philippines as
a source of raw
materials and as
market of
finished products
was eventually
drawn into the
orbit of
trade after 1834
- This marked a
change in the
economic and

- The struggle for the

recognition of farmer
and worker was
imminent (about to
- The oppression of the
working class
(proletariat) by the
bourgeois (capitalist)
gained support to
socialist philosophers
- Socialism was
expressed through
the works of Karl
Marx with his book
the Communist

- The Filipinos were aware

of these matters like Jose
Rizal and Juana Luna
- Although socialism was
gaining popularity, the
Filipinos in Europe were
more attracted to the
manifestations of
democracy and
- Filipinos believed in the
ideas of adoption of a
constitution that
guaranteed natural and
civil rights
- The ideas of popular
suffrage and setting up a

2. The Altered Position

of the Catholic Church
- The Catholic Church in
Europe was a powerful
influential institution
in the 19th century
- The Church has been
identified with the
monarchy and
- The church therefore
was considered an
adversary of the young
Republican states and
recently unified

- The French viewed the

Church as a threat to
their newly
republican state
- In Spain, the liberals
considered the Church
an enemy of reforms
- Other countries
sought to curtail the
Churchs influence, to
breakdown its
political power, and
destroy its traditional
control over

- A movement was
established called
- To maintain what was
left of its power and
influence, Pope Leo
XIII accepted the
demands of modern
society without
surrendering its
dogmas (beliefs)
- The Italian
curtailed the Papal
sovereign authority in
the Vatican

- Rizal and other Filipino

leaders were exposed to
these reforms and
- The Philippines was
opened to world trade
and a new breed of
middle class emerged
- The once obedient and
passive Filipino now
became aggressive in his
struggle for his rights
- Isolated Philippines
activated its citizens into
a revolution of change
and economic

3. The Philippines
is Drawn within
the Orbit of
World Trade
- The beneficial
effects of
liberalism in
Europe and US
convinced Spain
to abandon
- It reluctantly

- Spain opened the

Philippine ports to
foreign trades starting
with Manila in 1834,
followed by Iloilo,
Zamboanga, Cebu,
Legaspi and Tacloban
- The presence of foreign
traders and their
investments in the
Philippines led to
- These developments
encourage social
mobility and interaction
among the people
facilitating closer
understanding and unity

- These
(assisted) the
awareness of
the changes
that would
give them a
better life

4. The New Breed of

Native Middle Class
- The 19th century
economic and social
motivation affected a
marked improvement
in the standard of
living of indios and
- This group became
the foundation of a
growing middle class
- They were able to
send their children to
schools in Manila and

- By this time,
education began
to share the
existing liberals
in Europe
- The Educational
Reform Decree
in 1859 ordered
establishment of
public primary

- The Jesuits
opened a
secondary school
subsidized by the
- The Jesuits had
been influential
in disseminating
general primary
- Improving
methods of
instruction and

- Natives had gone to

school and small group
of college students was
influenced by modern
- Contacts with social and
political developments
in Europe and liberalism
was gradually felt after
the opening of the Suez
- Liberal ideas like
equality, freedom of
speech, representation,
and sovereignty had felt
by Filipinos

5. Initial Response to
the 19th Century
- Inspired by the
developments in
Europe, Filipino
members of the
educated middle
class as well as
religious, began to
work for reforms
- Their spirit and drive
for immediate
change was due to
racial discrimination

- The first united move

against racial
discrimination was
made by native clergy
- They demand for the
right to administer
parishes (issue of
- The firs to champion
the cause of the native
clergy was a Spanish
mestizo, Padre Pedro
- He was the
ecclesiastical governor
of the Philippines in

- Father Pelaez
used the pulpit
(Church) and
the press to
expose and
criticized the
against the
native clergy
- Unfortunately
his fight ended
with his death

- Father Jose A. Burgos

continued father
Pelaezs unfinished
- He worked for clerical
equality and
secularization of
- The unification of
Filipino clergy was
strengthened by the
sense of identity- that
of being a native
Filipino clergy fighting
for the right to
administer the parishes

6. Futile Spanish Attempts

to Initiate Reforms
- Governor General Manuel
Pavia (1854) and
Governor General Carlos
Ma de la Torre (18691871) warned the Spanish
government and
suggested certain
reforms in the Philippines
- Governor General Rafael
Izqiuerdo (1871-1873), on
the other hand, blamed
higher education as the
motivating factor of these

- He sought to prohibit
any further ordination
of Filipino priests
- He suggested that all
native troops be
replaced by Spanish
- But the Spanish
government could not
agree on policies to
counteract the
surging (flowing) rise
of nationalistic
sentiments of the

- The political instability

in Spain also added the
growing discontent of
the natives
- With the deposed of
Isabella II, Spain
created a Provisional
(liberal) Government
- They appointed Gov.
Gen. Carlos Ma de la
Torre in the Philippines
- He initiated reforms
and tried to curtail the
abuses of alcaldes

- However, the liberal

in Spain was
deposed by the
- De la Torre was
replaced by
Governor Izquierdo
- He restored strict
censorship of the
press, prohibited
political discussions
and stopped the
secularization of the
native priests

- These restrictions had

added the
dissatisfactions of the
- Mutiny in Cavite
erupted on January
20, 1872
- The mutineers led by
Sergeant La Madrid
admirably showed
their fighting spirits
- Without food and
support, however, the
mutineers had to hoist
the white flag of

7. Filipino Sentiment of
Nationality Aroused
- When the news of
Cavity mutiny reached
Manila, the arrest of
liberal intellectuals
was ordered
- Among those arrested
were mestizos and
natives who were
most vocal in
suggesting reforms
during De la Torres

- They were Fathers

Gomes, Burgos,
Zamora, Agustin
Mendoza, Mariano
Lopez and Feliciano
- All were given hurried
trials and the three
priests were executed
in a garrote
- It had led to a more
discontent mestizos and
- It gave rise to the
formation of the
Propaganda Movement