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CHALLENGE OF THE 19

CENTURY

The 1.advancements
of industrialization, 2.
the wide acceptance
of the concept of
democracy, 3. the
spirit of liberalism
and the 4. growing
salutary (beneficial)
effects of nationalism
were gradually
affecting the
Philippines during the
19th century

TH

1. The Challenge of
Industrialization
-. Industrialization
rapidly gained
momentum in the 2nd
half of the 9th century
-. Industrial Revolution
had taken its path
towards development
-. The use of steel, the
discovery of oil,
gasoline and
electricity, invention
of combustion engine
triggered the
motorized age

- Safer, faster and more


comfortable means of
transportation were
constructed
- Faster means of
communication like
telephone and
telegraph enabled
people to have better
contacts
- Closer communication
between the
Philippines and Spain
was now feasible
(possible)

- The Philippines as
a source of raw
materials and as
market of
finished products
was eventually
drawn into the
orbit of
international
trade after 1834
- This marked a
change in the
economic and

- The struggle for the


recognition of farmer
and worker was
imminent (about to
happen)
- The oppression of the
working class
(proletariat) by the
bourgeois (capitalist)
gained support to
socialist philosophers
- Socialism was
expressed through
the works of Karl
Marx with his book
the Communist
Manifesto

- The Filipinos were aware


of these matters like Jose
Rizal and Juana Luna
- Although socialism was
gaining popularity, the
Filipinos in Europe were
more attracted to the
manifestations of
democracy and
nationalism
- Filipinos believed in the
ideas of adoption of a
constitution that
guaranteed natural and
civil rights
- The ideas of popular
suffrage and setting up a
parliament

2. The Altered Position


of the Catholic Church
- The Catholic Church in
Europe was a powerful
influential institution
in the 19th century
- The Church has been
identified with the
monarchy and
aristocracy
- The church therefore
was considered an
adversary of the young
Republican states and
recently unified
countries

- The French viewed the


Church as a threat to
their newly
established
republican state
- In Spain, the liberals
considered the Church
an enemy of reforms
- Other countries
sought to curtail the
Churchs influence, to
breakdown its
political power, and
destroy its traditional
control over
education

- A movement was
established called
anti-clericalism
- To maintain what was
left of its power and
influence, Pope Leo
XIII accepted the
demands of modern
society without
surrendering its
dogmas (beliefs)
- The Italian
Parliamentary
curtailed the Papal
sovereign authority in
the Vatican

- Rizal and other Filipino


leaders were exposed to
these reforms and
movements
- The Philippines was
opened to world trade
and a new breed of
middle class emerged
- The once obedient and
passive Filipino now
became aggressive in his
struggle for his rights
- Isolated Philippines
activated its citizens into
a revolution of change
and economic
adjustments

3. The Philippines
is Drawn within
the Orbit of
World Trade
- The beneficial
effects of
economic
liberalism in
Europe and US
convinced Spain
to abandon
mercantilism
- It reluctantly

- Spain opened the


Philippine ports to
foreign trades starting
with Manila in 1834,
followed by Iloilo,
Zamboanga, Cebu,
Legaspi and Tacloban
- The presence of foreign
traders and their
investments in the
Philippines led to
prosperity
- These developments
encourage social
mobility and interaction
among the people
facilitating closer
understanding and unity

- These
conveniences
abetted
(assisted) the
peoples
awareness of
the changes
that would
give them a
better life

4. The New Breed of


Native Middle Class
- The 19th century
economic and social
motivation affected a
marked improvement
in the standard of
living of indios and
mestizos
- This group became
the foundation of a
growing middle class
- They were able to
send their children to
schools in Manila and
Europe

- By this time,
Philippine
education began
to share the
existing liberals
in Europe
- The Educational
Reform Decree
in 1859 ordered
the
establishment of
public primary
schools

- The Jesuits
opened a
secondary school
subsidized by the
government
- The Jesuits had
been influential
in disseminating
general primary
education
- Improving
methods of
instruction and

- Natives had gone to


school and small group
of college students was
influenced by modern
ideas
- Contacts with social and
political developments
in Europe and liberalism
was gradually felt after
the opening of the Suez
Canal
- Liberal ideas like
equality, freedom of
speech, representation,
and sovereignty had felt
by Filipinos

5. Initial Response to
the 19th Century
Challenges
- Inspired by the
prosperous
developments in
Europe, Filipino
members of the
educated middle
class as well as
religious, began to
work for reforms
- Their spirit and drive
for immediate
change was due to
racial discrimination

- The first united move


against racial
discrimination was
made by native clergy
- They demand for the
right to administer
parishes (issue of
secularization)
- The firs to champion
the cause of the native
clergy was a Spanish
mestizo, Padre Pedro
Pelaez
- He was the
ecclesiastical governor
of the Philippines in
1862

- Father Pelaez
used the pulpit
(Church) and
the press to
expose and
criticized the
racial
discrimination
against the
native clergy
- Unfortunately
his fight ended
with his death

- Father Jose A. Burgos


continued father
Pelaezs unfinished
mission
- He worked for clerical
equality and
secularization of
parishes
- The unification of
Filipino clergy was
strengthened by the
sense of identity- that
of being a native
Filipino clergy fighting
for the right to
administer the parishes

6. Futile Spanish Attempts


to Initiate Reforms
- Governor General Manuel
Pavia (1854) and
Governor General Carlos
Ma de la Torre (18691871) warned the Spanish
government and
suggested certain
reforms in the Philippines
- Governor General Rafael
Izqiuerdo (1871-1873), on
the other hand, blamed
higher education as the
motivating factor of these
anxieties

- He sought to prohibit
any further ordination
of Filipino priests
- He suggested that all
native troops be
replaced by Spanish
soldiers
- But the Spanish
government could not
agree on policies to
counteract the
surging (flowing) rise
of nationalistic
sentiments of the
Filipinos

- The political instability


in Spain also added the
growing discontent of
the natives
- With the deposed of
Isabella II, Spain
created a Provisional
(liberal) Government
- They appointed Gov.
Gen. Carlos Ma de la
Torre in the Philippines
- He initiated reforms
and tried to curtail the
abuses of alcaldes
mayores

- However, the liberal


in Spain was
deposed by the
conservatives
- De la Torre was
replaced by
Governor Izquierdo
- He restored strict
censorship of the
press, prohibited
political discussions
and stopped the
secularization of the
native priests

- These restrictions had


added the
dissatisfactions of the
Filipinos
- Mutiny in Cavite
erupted on January
20, 1872
- The mutineers led by
Sergeant La Madrid
admirably showed
their fighting spirits
- Without food and
support, however, the
mutineers had to hoist
the white flag of
surrender

7. Filipino Sentiment of
Nationality Aroused
- When the news of
Cavity mutiny reached
Manila, the arrest of
liberal intellectuals
was ordered
- Among those arrested
were mestizos and
natives who were
most vocal in
suggesting reforms
during De la Torres
regime

- They were Fathers


Gomes, Burgos,
Zamora, Agustin
Mendoza, Mariano
Lopez and Feliciano
Lopez
- All were given hurried
trials and the three
priests were executed
in a garrote
- It had led to a more
discontent mestizos and
natives
- It gave rise to the
formation of the
Propaganda Movement