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Giant molecule

structures
CHM 474

Overview
Bonding

Ionic

Covalent

Metallic

Structure

Giant
ionic

Simple
Giant
molecular covalent

Giant
Metallic

Example

Sodium
chloride

Water

Diamond

Iron

Bonding and structure explains the properties of


a substance!

Macromolecule Crystals
A macromolecule is a big molecule that
contains a network of covalent bonds
binding its particles. The particles are
non-metal
atoms.
Examples
of
macromolecules are graphite, diamond,
silicon, silicon carbide, silica and boron
Substances with
macromolecular
structures are always
solids at room
conditions

Giant Covalent Structures

Diamond

Graphite

Macromolecules..
Long chains of molecules
containing a very large number of
atoms
Examples: plastics, proteins, some
carbohydrates
Higher m.p./b.p. than simple
molecules due to much stronger
van der Waals forces

general knowledge about


allotropes.
Allotropes are different forms of the same
element with their atoms arranged
differently from one another. They exhibit
different behavior and characteristics. The
conditions that changes allotropic forms
are pressure, temperature and light. For
example, for carbon to turn into diamond,
we have to heat graphite to a very high
temperature under great pressure . It is to
simulate the conditions 140-190 kilometers
down in the Earths mantle where
diamonds are formed.

ALLOTROPES
Allotropy

(Gr. allos, other, and tropos,

manner)
is

a behaviour exhibited by certain


chemical elements: these elements can
exist in two or more different forms,
known as allotropes of that element. In
each different allotrope, the element's
atoms are bonded together in a
different manner

Allotropes of
carbon

Diamond
One

of the
allotropes of carbon

Allotropes:
Isotopes:

Diamond is one form


of the element carbon.

Different (structural) forms of the


same element

Atoms of the same element with the


same number of protons but different number of
neutrons

Diamond
Has

a giant covalent structure


Giant network of carbon atoms held
together by covalent bonds in a
tetrahedral arrangement
These four carbon atoms
form a tetrahedron.

Diamond
Each

carbon is joined to four


other carbon atoms by
strong covalent bonds.
Each carbon has four
covalent bonds.

Properties of Diamond
Very

high M.P. and B.P.


(Diamond melts at about 3500C)
Hardest natural substance
Reason:
Carbon atoms are held together in a giant
rigid structure by strong covalent bonds.
A lot of energy is required to break these
strong covalent bonds.

Properties of Diamond
Does

not conduct
electricity
All

electrons are held


in the covalent bonds.
No ions or free
electrons to conduct
electricity
Insoluble

in water

DIAMOND

Carbon has an electronic arrangement of


2,4. In diamond, each carbon shares
electrons with four other carbon atoms forming four single bonds
In the crystal of diamond,
each
carbon
atom
is
covalently bonded to four
other carbon atoms with
CCC bond angles of 109.5o.
The basic unit in diamond is
tetrahedron where each
carbon can be made a
centre of a tetrahedron.

Uses of Diamond
Used

in cutting other hard


solids (because of its
hardness)
E.g. Diamond-tipped drills to
cut through rock

The physical properties of diamo

1.

has a very high melting point (almost 4000C). Very


strong carbon-carbon covalent bonds have to be
broken throughout the structure before melting
occurs.

2.

is very hard. This is again due to the need to break


very strong covalent bonds operating in 3dimensions.

3.

doesn't conduct electricity. All the electrons are


held tightly between the atoms, and aren't free to
move.

4.

is insoluble in water and organic solvents. There are


no possible attractions which could occur between

Graphite

Within the layer


Each carbon atom is joined to three
other carbon atoms by strong
covalent bonds.
Arranged in rings of six atoms

Structure of Graphite
Arrangement
of carbon
atoms in one
layer

Arrangement
of layers
Strong
covalent
bond

Strong
covalent
bond
Weak force
between
layers

GRAPHITE

Graphite is made up of parallel layers


(sheets) of carbon atoms arranged in
hexagons

Each carbon atom has a coordination


number of 3 which means that it is
bonded to three other carbon atoms. The
geometry is trigonal planar with the CCC
bond angles of 120o

Covalent
bonds

Van der Waals


forces

GRAPHITE

Graphite has a
layer
structure
which is quite
difficult to draw
convincingly in
three
dimensions. The
diagram
below
shows
the
arrangement of
the
atoms
in
each layer, and
the
way
the
layers
are

The bonding in graphite


Each carbon atom uses 3 of its electrons to form
simple bonds to its 3 close neighbours.
That leaves a fourth electron in the bonding
level. These "spare" electrons in each carbon
atom become delocalised over the whole of
the sheet of atoms in one layer.
The hexagonal layers of graphite are 3.41 apart
and held by weak attractive forces called the
Van der Waals forces. These weak forces are
easily broken, which explains the slippery or
soft nature of graphite. This enables graphite
to be used as solid lubricants as well as
pencils

The physical properties of graphite


1.

has a high melting point, similar to that


of diamond. In order to melt graphite, it
isn't enough to loosen one sheet from
another. You have to break the covalent
bonding throughout the whole structure.

2.

has a soft, slippery feel, and is used in


pencils and as a dry lubricant for things
like locks. You can think of graphite
rather like a pack of cards - each card is
strong, but the cards will slide over each
other, or even fall off the pack altogether.
When you use a pencil, sheets are rubbed
off and stick to the paper.

The physical properties of


graphite
3. has a lower density than diamond. This is
because of the relatively large amount of
space that is "wasted" between the sheets.
4. is insoluble in water and organic solvents for the same reason that diamond is
insoluble.
Attractions
between
solvent
molecules and carbon atoms will never be
strong enough to overcome the strong
covalent bonds in graphite.
5. conducts electricity. The delocalised electrons
are free to move throughout the sheets. If a
piece of graphite is connected into a circuit,
electrons can fall off one end of the sheet and
be replaced with new ones at the other end.

Properties of Graphite
The

only non-metal that


conducts electricity

Reason:
Each carbon atom has
one electron that is
not used in bonding.
Free to move Able to
conduct electricity

Uses of Graphite
Pencil

lead: Made of graphite


and clay
Since it is soft, it flakes off and
stick to paper when we write.
Lubricant (for hot machines)
It does not decompose at high
temperatures.

Physical Properties of
Giant Covalent

Physical state
Substances
At

room temperature, all


substances with a giant covalent
structure are solids.
Strong covalent bonds make it hard.
M.P.

and B.P.

High

M.P. and B.P. because of its


strong covalent bonds

Physical Properties of
Giant Covalent
Solubility in water
Substances
Insoluble

Electrical

in water

conductivity

Do

not conduct electricity (except


graphite!)

Graphite

Diamond

1.
a)

What is the bonding structure of the


compound/element formed by :
Sodium Atoms
Giant Metallic Structure (Metal Metal)

b)

Chlorine and Potassium


Giant Ionic Structure

c)

(Metal Non-metal)

Carbon and Oxygen

Simple Molecular Structure


(Non-metal Non-metal)
Van der Waals Attraction between molecules

d)

Carbon (in form of diamond)


Giant Covalent Structure

Bonding Structure

(Non-metal Non-metal)

2.

Map the compound/element to their


melting point & boiling point.

Strong bond / Giant metallic structure

Sodium

Potassium
Strong
bond / Giant ionic structure
chloride

Carbon Dioxide

3550 oC /4827 oC
98oC/883oC

Diamond

770 oC /1420 oC

Weak Van Der Waals Attraction

- 78 oC / - 57 oC

Strong bond / Giant covalent structure

Melting point / Boiling point

What are the types of attractive forces present in each of the


following substances? Show how the physical properties are
related to their structure and bonding.
(a) Dry ice
(b) Sodium chloride

Answer

(a) In dry ice, the atoms are joined together within the molecules by
strong covalent bonds while only weak van der Waals forces exist
between molecules. The melting and boiling points of dry ice are low
since only weak van der Waals forces are needed to be overcome
during the processes of melting and boiling. Besides, dry ice
consists of simple molecules with no mobile electrons. Thus, it does
not conduct electricity. Carbon dioxide is only slightly soluble in water
because it is non-polar in nature.

(b) Strong ionic bonding exists between oppositely charged ions


throughout the whole lattice of a sodium chloride crystal. Thus, the
melting and boiling points of sodium chloride are very high.
Moreover, sodium chloride is hard since the ions are closely packed
and strong ionic bonds hold the ions together. It is soluble in water
due to the solvation of ions (i.e. the attraction between the ions and
water molecules which are polar) and is insoluble in non-polar
solvents. Sodium chloride conducts electricity in the molten or
aqueous state due to the presence of mobile ions in these states.
Back

(b) Describe briefly how the structures of the following


substances are related to their physical properties.
-Quartz

Answer

Quartz is a substance with a giant covalent structure. In the


quartz lattice, each silicon atom is bonded tetrahedrally to four
neighbouring oxygen atoms whereas each oxygen atom is
bonded to two neighbouring silicon atoms. This gives rise to a
tetrahedral diamond-like structure. As the atoms are held
together by strong covalent bonds, a large amount of energy is
required to overcome the strong covalent bonds in the
processes of melting and boiling. Thus, quartz has high melting
and boiling points. Besides, quartz is hard and rigid as the atoms
are fixed in their positions by strong covalent bonds. Since there
are no mobile electrons, quartz is a poor conductor of heat and
electricity. Quartz is insoluble in both polar and non-polar
solvents