Sie sind auf Seite 1von 16

# Conservation of Energy

Chapter One
Section 1.3

Alternative Formulations

CONSERVATION OF ENERGY
(FIRST LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS)
An important tool in heat transfer analysis, often
providing the basis for determining the temperature
of a system.
Alternative Formulations
Time Basis:
At an instant
or
Over a time interval

Type of System:
Control volume
Control surface

## APPLICATION TO A CONTROL VOLUME

At an Instant of Time:
Note representation of system by a
control surface (dashed line) at the boundaries.
Surface Phenomena
g

E in E out :
,

## rate of thermal and/or mechanical energy transfer across the control

surface due to heat transfer, fluid flow and/or work interactions.

Volumetric Phenomena
g

Eg :
g

rate of thermal energy generation due to conversion from another enegy form
(e.g., electrical, nuclear, or chemical); energy conversion process occurs within the system.

E st :

Conservation
ofgEnergy
g
g

E in E g E out

g
dEst

E st
dt

(1.11a)

## Each term has units of J/s or W.

Over a Time Interval

## Ein Eg Eout Est

Each term has units of J.

(1.11b)

Closed System

## Special Cases (Linkages to Thermodynamics)

(i) Transient Process for a Closed System of Mass (M) Assuming Heat Transfer
to the System (Inflow) and Work Done by the System (Outflow).

Q W U

(1.11c)

At an instant
g

q W

dU
dt

(1.11d)

Example 1.3

## Example 1.3: Application to thermal response of a conductor with Ohmic

heating (generation):

## Involves change in thermal energy and for an incompressible substance

dU dU t
dT

Mc
dt
dt
dt
Heat transfer is from the conductor (negative q )
g

Example 1.4

## Example 1.4: Application to isothermal solid-liquid phase change in a container:

Latent Heat
of Fusion

U U1at M hsf

Open System

(ii) Steady State for Flow through an Open System without Phase Change or
Generation:

At an Instant of

2
Time:
m u pv V
gz q m u pv V
2

pv flow work
u pv i enthalpy
For an ideal gas with constant specific heat:
ii io c p Ti To
For an incompressible liquid:
ui uo c Ti To

pv i pv o 0

V 2

0
2
i
2 o
gz i gz o 0

gz W 0
2
o

(1.11e)

## THE SURFACE ENERGY BALANCE

A special case for which no volume or mass is encompassed by the control surface.
Conservation Energy (Instant in Time):
g

Ein E out 0

(1.12)

## Applies for steady-state and transient conditions

With no mass and volume, energy storage and generation are not pertinent to the energy
balance, even if they occur in the medium bounded by the surface.
Consider surface of wall with heat transfer by conduction, convection and radiation.

qconv
0
qcond

T1 T2
4
h T2 T 2 T24 Tsur
0
L

Methodology

## METHODOLOGY OF FIRST LAW ANALYSIS

On a schematic of the system, represent the control surface by
dashed line(s).

## Identify relevant energy transport, generation and/or storage terms

by labeled arrows on the schematic.

## Problem 1.43: Thermal processing of silicon wafers in a two-zone furnace.

Determine (a) the initial rate of change of the wafer
temperature and (b) the steady-state temperature.

SCHEMATIC

## E&in E&out E&st

or, per unit surface area
, c qcv
, u qcv
, l cd

d Tw
dt

4
4 T 4
4 h T T h T T cd d Tw
Tsur

T
w
sur
,
c
w
u w

l w

,h
dt

## 0.65 5.67 108 W / m 2 K 4 15004 300 4 K 4 0.65 5.67 10 8 W / m 2 K 4 3304 3004 K 4

8 W / m 2 K 300 700 K 4 W / m 2 K 300 700 K
2700 kg / m3 875 J / kg K 0.00078 m d Tw / dt i

d Tw / dt i 104 K / s

## Problem: Silicon Wafer (cont.)

4
4
0.65 15004 Tw,ss
K 4 0.65 3304 Tw,ss
K4

Tw,ss 1251 K

## Problem 1.48: Cooling of spherical canister used to store reacting chemicals.

Determine (a) the initial rate of change of the canister temperature,
(b) the steady-state temperature, and (c) the effect of convection

SCHEMATIC:

## Problem Cooling of Spherical Canister

1000

Temperature, T(K)

900
800
700
600
500
400
300
100

400

800

2000

6000 10000