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Conservation of Energy

Chapter One
Section 1.3

Alternative Formulations

CONSERVATION OF ENERGY
(FIRST LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS)
An important tool in heat transfer analysis, often
providing the basis for determining the temperature
of a system.
Alternative Formulations
Time Basis:
At an instant
or
Over a time interval

Type of System:
Control volume
Control surface

CV at an Instant and over a Time Interval

APPLICATION TO A CONTROL VOLUME


At an Instant of Time:
Note representation of system by a
control surface (dashed line) at the boundaries.
Surface Phenomena
g

E in E out :
,

rate of thermal and/or mechanical energy transfer across the control


surface due to heat transfer, fluid flow and/or work interactions.

Volumetric Phenomena
g

Eg :
g

rate of thermal energy generation due to conversion from another enegy form
(e.g., electrical, nuclear, or chemical); energy conversion process occurs within the system.

E st :

rate of change of energy storage in the system.

Conservation
ofgEnergy
g
g

E in E g E out

g
dEst

E st
dt

(1.11a)

Each term has units of J/s or W.


Over a Time Interval

Ein Eg Eout Est


Each term has units of J.

(1.11b)

Closed System

Special Cases (Linkages to Thermodynamics)


(i) Transient Process for a Closed System of Mass (M) Assuming Heat Transfer
to the System (Inflow) and Work Done by the System (Outflow).

Over a time interval

Q W U

(1.11c)

At an instant
g

q W

dU
dt

(1.11d)

Example 1.3

Example 1.3: Application to thermal response of a conductor with Ohmic


heating (generation):

Involves change in thermal energy and for an incompressible substance

dU dU t
dT

Mc
dt
dt
dt
Heat transfer is from the conductor (negative q )
g

Generation may be viewed as electrical work done on the system (negative W)

Example 1.4

Example 1.4: Application to isothermal solid-liquid phase change in a container:

Latent Heat
of Fusion

U U1at M hsf

Open System

(ii) Steady State for Flow through an Open System without Phase Change or
Generation:

At an Instant of

2
Time:
m u pv V
gz q m u pv V
2

pv flow work
u pv i enthalpy
For an ideal gas with constant specific heat:
ii io c p Ti To
For an incompressible liquid:
ui uo c Ti To

pv i pv o 0

For systems with significant heat transfer:

V 2

0
2
i
2 o
gz i gz o 0

gz W 0
2
o

(1.11e)

Surface Energy Balance

THE SURFACE ENERGY BALANCE


A special case for which no volume or mass is encompassed by the control surface.
Conservation Energy (Instant in Time):
g

Ein E out 0

(1.12)

Applies for steady-state and transient conditions


With no mass and volume, energy storage and generation are not pertinent to the energy
balance, even if they occur in the medium bounded by the surface.
Consider surface of wall with heat transfer by conduction, convection and radiation.

qconv
qrad
0
qcond

T1 T2
4
h T2 T 2 T24 Tsur
0
L

Methodology

METHODOLOGY OF FIRST LAW ANALYSIS


On a schematic of the system, represent the control surface by
dashed line(s).

Choose the appropriate time basis.

Identify relevant energy transport, generation and/or storage terms


by labeled arrows on the schematic.

Write the governing form of the Conservation of Energy requirement.

Substitute appropriate expressions for terms of the energy equation.

Solve for the unknown quantity.

Problem: Silicon Wafer

Problem 1.43: Thermal processing of silicon wafers in a two-zone furnace.


Determine (a) the initial rate of change of the wafer
temperature and (b) the steady-state temperature.

SCHEMATIC

Problem: Silicon Wafer (cont.)

E&in E&out E&st


or, per unit surface area
, h qrad
, c qcv
, u qcv
, l cd
qrad

d Tw
dt

4
4 T 4
4 h T T h T T cd d Tw
Tsur

T
w
sur
,
c
w
u w

l w

,h
dt

0.65 5.67 108 W / m 2 K 4 15004 300 4 K 4 0.65 5.67 10 8 W / m 2 K 4 3304 3004 K 4


8 W / m 2 K 300 700 K 4 W / m 2 K 300 700 K
2700 kg / m3 875 J / kg K 0.00078 m d Tw / dt i

d Tw / dt i 104 K / s

Problem: Silicon Wafer (cont.)

4
4
0.65 15004 Tw,ss
K 4 0.65 3304 Tw,ss
K4

8 W / m 2 K Tw,ss 700 K 4 W / m 2 K Tw,ss 700 K 0


Tw,ss 1251 K

Problem Cooling of Spherical Canister

Problem 1.48: Cooling of spherical canister used to store reacting chemicals.


Determine (a) the initial rate of change of the canister temperature,
(b) the steady-state temperature, and (c) the effect of convection
on the steady-state temperature.

Problem Cooling of Spherical Canister

SCHEMATIC:

Problem Cooling of Spherical Canister

Problem Cooling of Spherical Canister


1000

Temperature, T(K)

900
800
700
600
500
400
300
100

400

800

2000

Convection coefficient, h(W/m^2.K)

6000 10000