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AUTOMATIC FLIGHT

CONTROL SYSTEM
(AFCS)

PURPOSE: To develop the Student


Instructor Pilots understanding of the
Automatic Flight Control System
NEED: You will be instructing this
subject in the near future

TOPICS OF DISCUSSION
Auto Flight Control System
What is Stability?
Stability Augmentation System
TRIM
Flight Path Stabilization
Malfunction Analysis

WHAT IS AFCS?
AFCS enhances the stability and
handling qualities of the UH60
helicopter. It is comprised of four
subsystems:
Stability Augmentation System (SAS)
Trim Systems
Flight Path Stabilization (FPS)
Stabilator (previously discussed)

UH-60 NOSE COMPARTMENT COMPONENTS


#1 AND #2
SIGNAL DATA
CONVERTERS

KY 58
FM #1

STABILATOR
COMPARATOR
TEST PANEL

SAS 2/FPS
COMPUTER

ASN 43
GYRO MAGNETIC
COMPASS
DOPPLER
ASN 128
#2
VERTICAL
GYRO

Instuments
Communications
SAS/FPS
Navigation
NVG Lighting
Aircraft Survivability Equipment
Pilot Warning and Limitation Equipment

KY 58
FM #2

AN/ARN 123V
VOR/ILS/MARKER BEACON

DIMMING
CONTROL
NVG LIGHT

PILOT'S
TURN RATE
GYRO

KY 58
UHF

APR
39

SAS 1
AMP
Y
A
W

P
R
O
C
E
S
S
O
R

ROLL

SAS 2
RATE GYROS
IF EMI MODIFIED
GYROS WILL BE
INCLOSED IN ONE
BOX.

ROTOR
OVERSPEED
RESET

AUDIBLE
WARNING
SIGNAL UNIT

ARN 89 DIRECTION
FINDER SET (ADF)
DIMMING
CONTROL
NVG LIGHT

#1
VERTICAL
GYRO

COPILOT'S
TURN RATE
GYRO

ver 1.0
9/97

WHAT IS STABILITY?

Stability, in physics and


engineering, the property of a body
that causes it to return to its original
position or motion as a result of the
action of the so-called restoring
forces, or torques, once the body
has been disturbed from a condition
of equilibrium or steady motion.

STABILITY
AUGMENTATION SYSTEM
(SAS)

Purpose: Provide dynamic stability


through short term rate dampening in
the pitch, roll, and yaw axis.
SAS systems: SAS 1 & SAS 2
Control Authority: Each SAS has 5%
control authority, for a total of 10%
If one SAS is turned off or inop, the
other SAS doubles its gain but still
only has 5% control authority.

SAS 1
Components:
SAS1 amplifier (analog) is located in the
avionics compartment
Three SAS actuators

Input Signals:
Pitch - rate gyro in the #1 stabilator
amplifier
Roll - pilots (number 2) vertical gyro
Yaw - yaw rate gyro in the SAS1 amplifier
additional signals - #1 filtered lateral
accelerometer, airspeed transducer

Yaw
gyro

#1 pitch rate gyro


#2 vertical gyro
#1 lateral accl
a/s transducer

SAS 2
Components:
SAS2 is the SAS/FPS computer (digital)
Three SAS actuators

Input Signals:

Pitch - rate gyro in the #2 stabilator amplifier


Roll - roll rate gyro in the avionics compartment
Yaw - yaw rate gyro in the avionics
compartment

SAS 2
Additional Signals
#1 & #2 filtered lateral accelerometer
rate gyro in the #1 Stabilator
amplifier
air data transducer

#2 pitch rate gyro


Roll rate gyro
Yaw rate gyro
#1 & #2 lateral accl
Air data transducer

TRIM SYSTEM
Purpose: Provide a gradient force,
maintains position of the cyclic and tail rotor
controls
Components:
two electromechanical actuators, and one
electrohydromechanical actuator
TRIM REL switch on the cyclic, and pedal micro
switches on the directional control pedals
monitored by the SAS/FPS computer

Yaw Trim
Proper operation requires that the Boost
be on and pressurized.
Electromechanical actuator that
incorporates a slip clutch in the event
the actuator jams. (80 lbs)
Trim/FPS hardover will result in 1/4 inch
pedal movement
Reference is changed by pressing micro
switches on the pedals and release.

Roll Trim
Electromechanical actuator with slip
clutch. Force required to override the
clutch is 13 lbs.
Located on the cabin top under the
control access.
Roll Trim/FPS hardover will result in 1/2
inch cyclic displacement.
Reference is reset using the trim release
switch or stick trim switch.

Pitch Trim
Hydroelectromechanical actuator
that operates in conjunction with
the SAS/FPS computer.
Located on the cabin top above the
pitch boost servo.
Hydraulic pressure is 1000 lbs.
Pitch Trim/FPS hardover results in
about 1/2 inch cyclic displacement.

Airspeed transducer
#1 collective position sensors

FLIGHT PATH
STABILIZATION
Purpose: Enhances static stability
through long term rate dampening
in the pitch, roll, and yaw axis.
Components: SAS/FPS computer,
and three trim actuators
Control Authority: When coupled
with trim, 100% control authority

FLIGHT PATH
STABILIZATION
The following systems must be on
and operational for FPS to function
100%
SAS 1 and/or SAS 2
Boost
Trim
Stabilator in AUTO mode enhances
FPS operation, but is not required

FLIGHT PATH
STABILIZATION
FPS provides the following functions:
BELOW

60 KIAS

ABOVE

Attitude Hold

Pitch Axis Attitude Hold/


Airspeed Hold

Attitude Hold

Roll Axis

Heading Hold Yaw Axis

Attitude Hold
Heading Hold or
Turn Coordination

Airspeed transducer
#1 collective position sensor

#1 pitch rate
#1 vertical gyro
gyro
#1 vertical gyro
ASN 43
#1 lateral accl
Airspeed transducer
#1 collective position sensor

MALFUNCTION
ANALYSIS

AUTO FLIGHT CONTROL


SAS 1

SAS 2

TRIM

FPS

ON

ON

ON

ON

FAILURE

ADVISORY

BOOST

ON

R
E
S
E
T

R
E
S
E
T

POWER ON RESET

9.29.1

SAS Failure With No


Failure/Advisory Indication.
SAS 1 switch - Off.

If condition persists:

SAS 1 switch - On.


SAS 2 switch - Off.
If malfunction still persists:

SAS 1 and FPS switchs - Off.

AUTO FLIGHT CONTROL


SAS 1

SAS 2

TRIM

FPS

ON

ON

ON

ON

FAILURE

ADVISORY

BOOST

ON

R
E
S
E
T

SAS2

POWER ON RESET

R
E
S
E
T

9.29.2

SAS2 Failure Advisory Light On.

Power On Reset switches - Simultaneously press and then release.

SAS OFF

AUTO FLIGHT CONTROL


SAS 1

SAS 2

TRIM

FPS

ON

ON

ON

ON

FAILURE

ADVISORY

BOOST

ON

R
E
S
E
T

R
E
S
E
T

POWER ON RESET

9.29.3

SAS OFF Caution Light On.

FPS switch - Off.

SAS OFF

AUTO FLIGHT CONTROL


SAS 1

SAS 2

TRIM

FPS

ON

ON

ON

ON

FAILURE

ADVISORY

BOOST

ON

R
E
S
E
T

R
E
S
E
T

POWER ON RESET

FLT PATH STAB

AUTO FLIGHT CONTROL


SAS 1

SAS 2

TRIM

FPS

ON

ON

ON

ON

FAILURE

ADVISORY

BOOST

ON

R
E
S
E
T

A /S

POWER ON RESET

R
E
S
E
T

9.29.4

FLT PATH STAB Caution Light On.

POWER ON RESET switches - Simultaneously press


and then release.

WARNING
If the airspeed fault advisory light is illuminated,
continued flight above 70 KIAS with the stabilator in
the AUTO MODE is unsafe since a loss of the airspeed
signal from the remaining airspeed sensor would result
in the stabilator slewing full down.

9.29.5

Pitch, Roll or Yaw/Trim Hardover.

POWER ON RESET switches - Simultaneously press and then release.


If failure returns, control affected axis manually.

9.29.6

Trim Actuator Jammed.

LAND AS SOON AS PRACTICABLE.