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You are on page 1of 31

Summary of Data

- Dispersion

Data - Dispersion

The last chapter was based on

calculating averages from sets of data

Just the average alone does not give

the full picture though

The next chapter looks at measures of

dispersion, how spread out the data is

Data - Dispersion

Range and Quartiles

The Quartiles, Q1, Q2 and Q3 split the data into 4 parts, with 25% of the

information in each

Lowest

Value

25%

Q1

Q2

25%

Q3

25%

25%

the midpoint of the term and the term

above. If not, round up and find the

corresponding term.

Q2 = n/2

Q3 = 3n/4

For continuous data

chapter 2)

Highest

Value

PL

CW

GF

LB

Inter-quartile range

Upper Quartile Lower Quartile

Q3 Q1

3A

Data - Dispersion

Range and Quartiles

7, 9, 4, 6, 3, 2, 8, 1, 10, 15, 11

Putting the data in order

1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 15

Range 15 1 = 14

Lower Quartile

n

4

11

4

Upper Quartile

3n

4

33

4

Inter-quartile Range

3

8.25 (9th term)

10

10 3 = 7

3A

Data - Dispersion

Range and Quartiles

Rebecca records the number of CDs in

the collections of students in her year.

The results are shown in the table

opposite. Calculate the Inter-quartile

range (IQR).

Q1 = n

Q3 = 3n

95

4

285

4

38

IQR = Q3 Q1

= 38 37

=1

37

No.

Students,

f

Cumulative

Frequency

35

36

17

20

37

29

49

38

34

83

39

12

95

Discrete

3A

Data - Dispersion

Range and Quartiles

The length of time spent on the internet

each evening by a group of students is

shown in the table below. Calculate the

Inter-quartile range.

Q1 = n

4

Q1 =

LB +

31.5 +

Q1 = 32.74

70

4

17.5 term

th

PL

x CW

GF

15.5

x 2

25

Time

(mins)

No.

Students

Cumulative

Frequency

30-31

32-33

25

27

34-36

30

57

37-39

13

70

31.5

33.5

Continuous

3A

Data - Dispersion

Range and Quartiles

The length of time spent on the internet

each evening by a group of students is

shown in the table below. Calculate the

Inter-quartile range.

Q3 = 3n

4

Q3 =

LB +

33.5 +

Q3 = 36.05

210

4

52.5 term

th

PL

x CW

GF

25.5

x 3

30

Time

(mins)

No.

Students

Cumulative

Frequency

30-31

32-33

25

27

34-36

30

57

37-39

13

70

33.5

36.5

Continuous

3A

Data - Dispersion

Range and Quartiles

The length of time spent on the internet

each evening by a group of students is

shown in the table below. Calculate the

Inter-quartile range.

Q1 = 32.74

Q3 = 36.05

Time

(mins)

No.

Students

Cumulative

Frequency

30-31

32-33

25

27

34-36

30

57

37-39

13

70

IQR Q3 Q1

36.05 32.74

3.31

Continuous

3A

Data - Dispersion

Percentiles

A Percentile is similar to a quartile. The 70th percentile of a set of data will be

the value that has 70% of the data before it. It would normally be written P 70.

The 62nd percentile will be the value that has 62% of the data before it, P 62.

xn

To calculate Px, you find the value of the

th term

100

31n

For the 31st percentile 100

90n

For the 90 percentile

100

th

The Quartiles are effectively percentiles Q1 = P25

Q2 = P50

Q3 = P75

3B

Data - Dispersion

Percentiles

Height

Students

Cumulative

Frequency

150-160

160-170

21

25

170-180

32

57

180-190

66

190-200

70

boys was measured and the data put into

the table opposite. Calculate the 90th

percentile, the 10th percentile and the

10% to 90% Inter-percentile range.

P90 = 90n

100

P90 = LB +

180 +

6300

100

63rd term

PL

x CW

GF

6

9

10

3B

Data - Dispersion

Percentiles

Height

Students

Cumulative

Frequency

150-160

160-170

21

25

170-180

32

57

180-190

66

190-200

70

boys was measured and the data put into

the table opposite. Calculate the 90th

percentile, the 10th percentile and the

10% to 90% Inter-percentile range.

P10 = 10n

100

P10 =

LB +

160 +

700

100

7th term

PL

x CW

GF

3

21

10

3B

Data - Dispersion

Percentiles

The height, in cm of 70 eighteen year old

boys was measured and the data put into

the table opposite. Calculate the 90th

percentile, the 10th percentile and the

10% to 90% Inter-percentile range.

Height

Students

Cumulative

Frequency

150-160

160-170

21

25

170-180

32

57

180-190

66

190-200

70

The 10% to 90% Inter-percentile

range P90 P10

186.67 161.43

25.24cm

3B

Data - Dispersion

Variance and Standard Deviation

Variance and Standard Deviation are measures of how far away the data is

spread from the mean. If the mean is x and an observation is x, then the

observations dispersion from the mean is x x.

( x x) 2

n

dispersions from the mean

(squaring removes any

negative values)

Number of

observations

However, a formula which is more commonly used, especially with larger sets of

data, is;

The mean of the

x

2

n

Variance

squares

The square of

the mean

Variance .

3C

Data - Dispersion

Variance and Standard Deviation

Important point:

The Standard Deviation tells you the range from the mean which

contains around 68% of the data (if data is normally disributed)

For example, if 100 students have a mean height of 150cm and a

standard deviation of 10cm.

150

140

130

one Standard Deviation

160

170

two Standard Deviations

3C

Data - Dispersion

Variance and Standard Deviation

Given that for x;

x 42 x

720

n5

Deviation of x.

x2

n

x

n

720 42

2

5 5

2 144 70.56

Variance

Standard Deviation

2 73.44

8.57

(2dp)

3C

Data - Dispersion

Variance and Standard Deviation

Use the formula to calculate the variance and

standard deviation of the following numbers

3, 4, 6, 2, 8, 8, 5

x 36 x

Total

x2

16

36

64

64

25

36

218

218

x2

n

x

n

218 36

2

7 7

2 31.14 26.45

Variance

Standard Deviation

2 4.69

2.17

(2dp)

3C

Data - Dispersion

Variance and Standard Deviation from a Table

As with the averages from Chapter 2, you need to be able to calculate the

Variance and Standard Deviation from a frequency table, grouped or ungrouped.

This was the formula from before

x2

n

x

n

Sum of frequency

times x2

Variance

Sum of frequency

times x

fx

fx

f

Sum of frequency

The difference reflects the fact that each value of x will appear many

times, rather than just once or a few times

3D

Data - Dispersion

Variance and Standard Deviation from a Table

Calculate the Variance and Standard Deviation of a set of data with the

following values already calculated.

fx 224

fx 8731

fx

f f

fx 2

8731 224

25 25

25

Variance

Standard Deviation

2 268.9584

16.40 (2dp)

3D

Data - Dispersion

Variance and Standard Deviation from a Table

Sue records the time spent in town at lunchtime

(mins) of students in her year. The results are in the

table. Calculate the Standard Deviation of the time

spent out of school.

fx 4096

fx 154050

fx

fx

f

154050 4096

109

109

f 109

No.

students

(f)

fx

fx2

35

105

3675

36

17

37

(3 x 35)

(3 x 352)

612

22032

(17 x 36)

(17 x 362)

29

1073

39701

38

34

1292

49096

39

26

1014

39546

109

4096

154050

2 1.19805...

= 1.20 (2dp)

Total

3D

Data - Dispersion

Variance and Standard Deviation from a Table

Andy recorded the lengths of telephone calls he

made over the course of a month. Calculate an

estimate of the Standard Deviation of his calls.

fx 247.5

fx 3018.75

27

fx

f f

fx 2

3018.75 247.5

27

27

Length

Calls, f

Midpoint

(x)

0-5

2.5

5-10

15

7.5

10-15

15-20

fx

fx2

10

25

112.5

843.75

12.5

62.5

781.25

17.5

35

612.5

20-25

22.5

25-30

27.5

27.5

756.25

Total

27

247.5

3018.75

(4 x 2.5) (4 x 2.52)

(15 x 7.5) (15 x 7.52)

2 27.78

5.27 (2dp)

3D

Data - Dispersion

Coding

As with averages, coding can be used to make data easier to work with.

However, there is something extra to remember

If you have a set of data with a range of 15, and reduce every number

by 2, what will happen to the range?

Nothing!

Range measures the spread of data, and if all the numbers are 2 less,

the spread will not have changed

It is exactly the same for Standard Deviation. Because it measures the

spread of data, any addition/subtraction in the coding will not need to

be undone.

Any division or multiplication will have to be uncoded as normal

3E

Data - Dispersion

Coding

Use the following code to calculate the Standard Deviation of this set of data:

150, 160, 170, 180, 190

x

y

10

Code

x 85

2

x2

n

x 1455

2

x

n

1455 85

5

5

n 5

Total

2 2

(2dp)

x2

15

225

16

256

17

289

18

324

19

361

85

1455

10 so we must undo

this

1.41

x 10

14.14

(2dp)

3E

Data - Dispersion

Coding

Use the following code to calculate the Standard Deviation of this set of data:

150, 160, 170, 180, 190

Code

y x 100

50, 60, 70, 80, 90

x 350

x

n

25500 350

5

5

x2

x 25500

n 5

Total

x2

50

2500

60

3600

70

4900

80

6400

90

8100

350

25500

2 200

14.14

(2dp)

as we only subtracted!

3E

Data - Dispersion

Coding

Use the following code to calculate the Standard Deviation of this set of data:

150, 160, 170, 180, 190

Code

x 100

y

10

5, 6, 7, 8, 9

x 35

2

x2

n

x 255

2

x

n

255 35

5 5

2 2

1.41

n 5

(2dp)

Total

x2

25

36

49

64

81

35

255

the divide by 10

x 10

14.14

(2dp)

3E

Data - Dispersion

Coding

Use the code below to calculate the Standard Deviation of this table of data.

x 7.5

5

Call

length

Calls, f

Midpoint

,x

fy

fy2

0-5

2.5

-1

-4

5-10

12

7.5

10-15

12.5

1.06 (2dp)

15-20

17.5

12

by 5 only

20-30

25

3.5

3.5

12.25

Total

26

11.5

34.25

Code y

fy 2

fy

f

34.25 11.5

26

26

1.12

2

x5

5.29 (2dp)

(f)

(fy)

(fy2)

Summary

We have now finished chapter 3

We have seen how to calculate range and Interquartile range including using Interpolation from a

table

We have learnt how to calculate Percentiles and

Inter-Percentile range

We have calculated Variance and Standard Deviation

from a table

We have also used coding to simplify calculations

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