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Chapter 7

Medical Imaging

Medical Ultrasonography
Ultrasound: Acoustical waves above the range of human hearing
< 20 Hz
Infrasonic
20 Hz ~ 20 kHz Audible
> 20 kHz
Ultrasonic
1 MHz (deep organ) ~ 15 MHz (surface) is used for medical ultrasound
Nominal frequency is 3.5 MHz

Sound wave behaves like light wave


Reflection
Refraction
Diffraction

Piezoelectric transducer: Mechanical vibrations are produced when electric


voltage is applied along specified direction. Converse is also true.
Quartz
Lead zirconate titanate (PZT)
Sodium Potassium titrate (Rochelle salt)
Ammonium dihydrogen phosphate
Zinc oxide, etc

Basics of USG
Transmission velocity of ultrasound is different in different organ
Waves encounter regions of non-homogeneities and partially reflected (echo).
Reflected waves provide information on the internal structural details of the medium
(organ).

Density
(gm/cm3)

Velocity
(m/s)

Acoustic Impedance

Air

0.001

330

0.0004

Bone

1.85

3360

7.80

Muscle

1.06

1570

1.70

Fat

0.93

1480

1.40

Blood

1.00

1560

1.50

Water

~0.97

1490

1.48

Soft tissue

~ 0.98

1500

1.60

Material

106 (Rayl)

Scanning Modes
A Scan: amplitude of the signal
B Scan: brightness for signal amplitude
Modified B Scan transducer is fixed arrayed, source is moved back and forth
M Scan: Motional objects (heart). A scan with successive looks at the target created
by scanning the time base vertically. Displays as brightness.

Magnetic Resonance Imaging


MRI units use relatively strong magnetic fields to determine the
distribution of hydrogen nuclei in human body to visualize
anatomic structure of organ
Images in slices of 2 ~ 10 mm thick in transverse, sagittal and coronal planes

MRI depends on magnetic spin properties of atomic nuclei

Nuclei with even number of nuclei (He: 2P+2N, C: 6P+6N) have spin
moment I = 0; individual spin and magnetic moments cancel each other

Nuclei with even mass but odd charge (odd P + odd N) have I = integral of
basic moment

Nuclei with odd mass (odd P + even N) have I = basic moment (1H, 13C,
31
P have I = , 23Na, 35Cl, 39K have I = 3)
Third category of materials behave like tiny bar magnets under the influence of
magnetic filed. Nuclei get oriented parallel or anti parallel to the direction of
magnetic field. The resultant magnetic vector lies along the axis of precession.

MRI
Magnetic moments has 2 states:
state: M1 =
state: M1 = -
Hydrogen nuclei is most suitable due to high concentration in the body
Energy of interaction between applied magnetic filed (B 0) and nuclear magnetic
moment () is
E = - B0 = - hM1B0/2
nuclear gyromagnetic ratio
Nuclear transitions occur for resonance absorption at resonant frequency (called
Larmor frequency)
0 = B0

MRI
Instrumentation
Image Production

Questions?
Comments!
Thank You !!!