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Building

Utilities 2

Principle
of
Electricit
y

Building
Electricity 2
Utilities

In terms of natural resources electricity is an expensive form of energy


Electricity flow trough wires on other conductors
Voltage is equivalent to pressure; wire resistance to pipe friction; and
electric current on flow of electrons to water droplets.
Energy from Greek word Energeta means work.
A capacity to make things happen.
Two types of Energy sources:
1. RENEWABLE (naturally replenished)
Solar
Wind
Lightning
Hydro
Geothermal
Biomass
2. NON-RENEWABLE (natural resource which can not be re-grown)
Fossils fuel
Coal
Oil/ Petroleum
Natural Gas (Methane)

Building
Ampere (abbreviation
Utilities
2
A)

It is the basic unit for measuring flow of current the unit flowing is the
ELECTRIC CHARGED called COULOMB. An ampere is equivalent to a
flow of one coulomb per second.
One source of direct current is the battery which coverts chemical
energy into electric energy.
Ohms ()
It is the basic unit for measuring flow of resistance through a wire.
Depends on the wire materials. Metals like copper and aluminum have
low resistance and classified as a CONDUCTOR.
Ohms Law

E (volts) required to cause a flow of current I


(ampere) through a wire with resistance R (ohms) is given by: E = IR
I = = A = AMP
Power P
States that the voltage

Is measured in watts and is the product of volts and amperes.


Large amount of powers is measured in kilowatts (KW)
A unit of

1000 W, or megawatts (MW), a unit of

or

Building
Utilities
2
Power Transmission
power I usually

transmitted at very high voltage


to minimize the power loss over distances.
Circuit Arrangement
a) Series Circuit a series circuit is one in which the same current flows
through all parts of the circuit.

Example of Series Circuits


Christmas Lights/ if one light is out the whole circuit
cannot
work.
Signage W series of lights.

Building
Utilities
2 Circuit When two or more branches on loads in a circuit
b.) Parallel
are connected between the same two points.
30 AMPS

30 AMPS 30 A

15
A

A
B

PICTORIAL

SCHEMATI
C

ARCHITECTURAL
PLAN

Building
Utilities
2 Whenever the flow of electric current takes place at a
Direct Current
constant rate, practically unvarying and in the same direction around the
circuit.
Graphic Representation of DC voltages with positive and negative
polarity.

Alternating Current
Whenever the flow of current I periodically varying in time and in
direction.
Alternating current I produced commercially by an AC generator called
an alternator.

Energy
Is the technical for the more common expression - work.
In terms of power, it is the product of power and time.

Building
Watt
Utilities
2

Is the unit of electric power (w)


A larger unit of 1000 watts is the kilowatts (kw)
Electric Service Is normally tapped onto the utility lines at a mutually
agreeable point at or beyond the property line.

KWH METER
SIZE OF MAIN
WIRE

PANEL BOARD
(CIRCUIT
BREAKER)
GROUND
LINE

Panel board Serves basically the same function as a switchboard.


Conductors The current is conducted through the electrical system,
corresponding to the piping in the hydraulic analogy .
Circuit breakers This is an electromechanical device that performs the
same protective function as a fuse in addition acts as a switch.

Building
Utilities
Cable tray2
is a continuous open support for approved cables.
Tray

Insulate
d Cable
Switches Is a device intended for on/off control of an electrical circuit
and is rated by current and voltage, duty poles and throw fusibility and
enclosure.
SINGLE (S1)
DOUBLE
(S2)
SWITCH
SWITCH
Wiring Device Device that are normally installed in the wall outlet
boxes, including receptacles, switches, dimmer etc.
Receptacles Identified by the number of poles and wires and whether or
not the device I designed for connection of a separate grounding wire.
Insulator used as supports and for additional protection for wires.

Building
Utilities 2

TYPE AC FLEXIBLE ARMORED


Flexible Metal CladCABLE
Cable(BX)
(BX) Most common types of cable run
without raceways. Trade name BX.
RHW Moisture and heat resistance rubber DWL
T Thermoplastic DL
TW Moisture Resistance Thermoplastic DWL
THHN Heat Resistance Thermoplastic
THW Moisture and Heat Resistance Thermoplastic

Close raceways included conduit pipe, surface raceways and under


floor ducts which are first installed, then the wiring is inserted and pulled
in later.

Building
Utilities
2
A.) Steel Conduit
The purpose of conduits is to:
a. Protect the enclosed wiring from mechanical injury and corrosion.
b. Provide a grounded metal enclosure for the wiring in order to avoid
hazard.
c. Provide a ground path.
d. Protect surrounding against fire hazard
e. Support the conductors
B.) Rigid Metallic or Raceway
4 Ways in which steel conduit is manufactured
a. Hot d.p. galvanized (dipped in molten zinc)
b. Enameled (coated with corrosion resistant enamel)
c. Sherardized (coated with zinc dust)
d. Plastic covered
The nominal trade sizes of conduits are:

Building
Utilities 2

Heat and
Moisture in
the
Atmosphere
and Human

Building
Metabolism low grade burning process sufficient to maintain a body
Utilities
2
temperature of
98.6 F (37C)
The metabolism unit corresponds approximately to 360 British
thermal
unit per hour (BTuh).
Women tend to have maximum levels about 30% lower.
Metabolic Rate at different typical activities:
Metabolic rate in MET units (met. metabolic)
Resting
-0.7 to 1.2
Walking 2 to 4 mph -2.00 to 3.8
Basketball
-5.00 to 7.6
Exercises (Calisthenics) -3.00 to 4.00
Ex.
For a person sleeping, the heat given off is
- 0.7 x 360 = 252 Btuh
A basketball player in action generates and loses 7.
- 7.6 x 360 = 2136 Btuh
Heat lost from the body by several different methods.
- By dry bulb (air) temperature.
Temperature of surrounding surfaces
MRT Mean radiant temperature
RH Relative humidity and air motion

Building
Utilities 2
THERMAL EQUILIBRUM AND COMFORT (Thermal Environment)
It becomes apparent that the thermal Environment maybe regulated to
permit an easy and comfortable rate of loss for the heat that I generated
by humans for any given activity.
The term environmental comfort has taken on a broad meaning, they
include item such as aesthetics and acoustics.
Factors that can be controlled by ACU systems.
a. Temperature of the surrounding air
b. Mean radiant temperature of the surrounding surface
c. The relative humidity of the air.
d. Motion of the air
e. Odors
f. Dust

Building
Sun direct through
glass
Utilities
2

a. Very
Poor

a. Good Facing
South

b. Poor
High
planting

c. Good Facing South


High and
low
planting

b. Good Facing East or


West

Exterior
Baffles

c. Good Facing West or


South

Increasing the number of people occupying a space already adjusted to


pro thermal conditions. ACU
Proper location is necessary

Building
TYPES OF COMPRESSOR
Utilities
2
Compressor Is considered the heart of the refrigerator system.
It is a pump like the heart in the circulatory system of the human
body.
Types of compressor
1. Reciprocating compressors are categorized by the compressors
housing and by the drive mechanisms.
2.3.3. Condenser is a heat exchange device similar to the evaporator
that rejects the heat from the system absorbed by the evaporator.
TWO TYPES OF CONDENSER
2. Water Cooled Condenser
3. Tube Condenser
Evaporator absorbed the heat in to the refrigeration system

Building
REFRIGERATION COOLING SYSTEM
Utilities
2
Refrigerated air conditioning is similar to the commercial refrigeration
because the same components are:
1. The evaporator
2. The compressor
3. The condenser
4. The metering device
TYPES OF AIR CONDITIONING
1. Package air conditioning the four components are assembled into
two basic types of equipment for air conditioning purposes:
- Package equipment
- Split system equipment
Package equipment has all the components built into one cabinet;
hence, it is also called self-contained equipment. Air is ducted to and from
the equipment.
Split system air conditioning the condenser is remote from the
evaporator and uses interconnecting refrigerant lines.