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Group 3
1.Septyarista M.
2.Dika Resty F.
3.Nugroho Habibi

1. Addressee as an influence on
People use considerably more standard forms to those
they dont know well, and more vernacular forms to
their friends.
Age of Addressee
Uttered with high pitch and a sing-song intonation there
is little doubt about the appropriate addressee of
People generally talk differently to children (short and
grammatically simple) and to adults (more complex

Social Background of Addressee

The addressee or audience is very important influence
on a speakers style.
The most convincing evidence of all comes from the
behaviour of the same newsreader on different stations.

2. Accomodation Theory
A. Speech Convergence
Converging towards the speech of another person and usually this is
a polite speech strategy.

B. How do speakers accomodate?

- Multilingual countries
people accomodate to others by selecting the code that is most
comfortable for their addresse.
-Bilingual countries
people accomodate to others by using one of their bilingual

C. Speech Divergence
Tends to happen when a person wants to show his /her
cultural distinctiveness, social status, ethnic identity, etc.
Deliberately choosing a language not used by ones addresse.
Using a higher frequency of vernacular forms.
People who aspire to a higher social status will diverge upwards
from the speech of those from the same social class.
Speech divergence does not always reflect a speakers
negative attitudes towards the addresse.
We know where is going but were denied

D. Accomodation problems
It is possible to overdo convergence and offend listeners. Over
convergent behaviour may be perceived as patronishing and
In general, then, reactions to speech convergence and divergence
depend on the reasons people attribute for the convergence or

3. Context, style and class

The formal setting where the social role of participants override their personal
relationship in determining the appropriate linguistic form (style)


The basis for the distinctions between the styles was the amount of attention
people were paying to their speech
People consistently used more vernacular features in describing situations
where they had been in danger of death, or recounting the details of fights
they had seen


There are some strategies that have been used in order t o capture peoples most
relaxed or vernacular speech style :
-Topic manipulation
-Taping groups
- Choosing a very comfortable or informal setting
Some people shift style to be more formal or more vernacular, in order to be more
accepted by their interlocutors
Hypercorrection is the exaggeration of some lower class speakers in imitating
middle class standard speech

4. Style in non-Western societies

Japanese is one of a number of language with a special
grammatical contrasts for expressing politnes and respect for
other. Japanese speakers assess their status in relation to their
addressees on the basis of such factors as family background,
gender and age. The choice of appropriate style involves not only
pronounciation, but also word forms and syntax.
Knowledge of the complexities of stylistic variation in country
like japan reflects a persons educational level and social status.
Better-educated people have grether control of the various style.
So the social status of speaker can be deduced from the skill with
which they select and use the various styles of japanese.

Javanese is another example of style in non-western societies which

illustrates the complexity of variation which can be found in in
language. There are three words for house in javanese language
that is omah, grija and dalem. Once you have selected the
approprite stylistic level, you must follow the rule fof which forms
may occur which.
Taking account of your relationship to the addresssee in the context.
As elsewhere, too, solidarity and relative ststus are important in
assessing the relationship. The result may be that each of the
participants selected a different level of javanese. If i am an
ordinary educated citizen speaking to a high goverment official. I
will use the highest lelev to express respect, but the official will use
only lower level to me. Two high ststus javanes, on other hand, will
use both level high to each other.
Javanese provides a graphic example of a language where the
stylistic choices are much more clear-cut than in english. The cooccure rules can be explicity specified.

5. Register
Register is kind of jargon which a group of specialist often
develop to talk about their speciality. It could be described as an
occupational style.
Some linguists describe this kind of language variaton as
register variation.
Others use term register more narrowly to describe the
specific vocabulary associated with different occupational groups.

Sports announcer talk

When people describe a sporting event, the language they use
is quite clearly distinguishable from language used in other
The most obvious distinguishing feature is generally the
vocabulary, but the grammar is equally distinctive.

Syntactic reduction
There is no loss of meaning as a result of this syntactic
reduction, since the omitted elements are totally predictable in
the context.
This feature of sports announcers often omit the subject noun or
Syntactic inversion
Reversal or inversion of the normal word order is another
feature of sports announcer talk. This device allows the
announcer to foreground or focus on the action and provides him

Heavy noun modification

People rather than action are the focus of interest at certain
points during the spots announcers spiel.
Routines and formulas
An interesting feature of sports commentaries, including racecalling (horse race), is the use of routines to reduce the memory
burden on the speaker.