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Computer networks

Name: K.SUDHA
Designation: Lecturer
Department: Electrical and Electronics Engineering
Subject code: CS2361
Year: III
Unit: I
Title: Introduction to computer networks

Introduction to Computer Networks

Computer Networks
Computer
network
connects two or more
autonomous
computers.

The computers can be


geographically
located anywhere.

Introduction to Computer Networks

LAN, MAN & WAN


Network in small geographical Area (Room,
Building or a Campus) is called LAN (Local
Area Network)
Network in a City is call MAN (Metropolitan
Area Network)
Network spread geographically (Country or
across Globe) is called WAN (Wide Area
Network)

Introduction to Computer Networks

Applications of Networks
Resource Sharing
Hardware (computing resources, disks, printers)
Software (application software)
Information Sharing
Easy accessibility from anywhere (files,
databases)
Search Capability (WWW)
Communication
Email
Message broadcast
Remote computing
Distributed processing (GRID Computing)

Introduction to Computer Networks

Network Topology
The
network
topology
defines
the way in which
computers,
printers, and other
devices
are
connected.
A
network
topology
describes the layout
of the wire and
devices as well as
the paths used by
data transmissions.

Introduction to Computer Networks

Bus Topology
Commonly referred
to as a linear bus,
all the devices on a
bus topology are
connected by one
single cable.

Introduction to Computer Networks

Star & Tree Topology


The star topology is the most
commonly used architecture
in Ethernet LANs.
When installed, the star
topology resembles spokes in
a bicycle wheel.
Larger networks use the
extended star topology also
called tree topology. When
used with network devices
that filter frames or packets,
like bridges, switches, and
routers,
this
topology
significantly
reduces
the
traffic on the wires by
sending packets only to the
wires of the destination host.

Introduction to Computer Networks

Ring Topology
A frame travels around the
ring, stopping at each node. If a
node wants to transmit data, it
adds the data as well as the
destination address to the
frame.
The
frame
then
continues
around the ring until it finds
the destination node, which
takes the data out of the frame.
Single ring All the devices on
the network share a single cable
Dual ring The dual ring
topology allows data to be sent
in both directions.

Introduction to Computer Networks

Mesh Topology
The mesh topology
connects all devices
(nodes) to each other
for redundancy and
fault tolerance.
It is used in WANs to
interconnect
LANs
and
for
mission
critical networks like
those used by banks
and
financial
institutions.
Implementing
the
mesh
topology
is
expensive
and
difficult.

Introduction to Computer Networks

Network Components
Physical Media
Interconnecting Devices
Computers
Networking Software
Applications

Introduction to Computer Networks

Networking Media
Networking media
can
be
defined
simply
as
the
means
by
which
signals (data) are
sent
from
one
computer
to
another (either by
cable or wireless
means).

Introduction to Computer Networks

Networking Devices
HUB,
Switches,
Routers,
Wireless
Access
Points,
Modems etc.

Introduction to Computer Networks

Computers: Clients and


Servers
a
client/server

In
network
arrangement,
network services are
located
in
a
dedicated computer
whose only function
is to respond to the
requests of clients.

The server contains


the
file,
print,
application, security,
and other services in
a central computer
that is continuously
available to respond
to client requests.

Introduction to Computer Networks

Networking Protocol:
TCP/IP

Introduction to Computer Networks

Applications
E-mail
Searchable Data (Web
Sites)
E-Commerce
News Groups
Internet Telephony
(VoIP)
Video Conferencing
Chat Groups
Instant Messengers
Internet Radio

Network Architecture
Provides a general, effective, fair, and robust
connectivity of computers
Provides a blueprint
Types
OSI Architecture
Internet Architecture

OSI ARCHITECTURE

Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) model is a reference


model developed by ISO (International Organization for
Standardization) in 1984
OSI model defines the communications process into Layers
Provides a standards for communication in the
network
Primary architectural model for inter-computing and Inter
networking communications.
network communication protocols have a structure based
on OSI Model

OSI Architecture

Direct Links: Outline


Physical Layer
Link technologies
Encoding

Link Layer

Framing
Error Detection
Reliable Transmission (ARQ protocols)
Medium Access Control:

Existing protocols: Ethernet, Token Rings, Wireless

Link Technologies
Cables:

Cat 5 twisted pair, 10-100Mbps, 100m


Thin-net coax, 10-100Mbps, 200m
Thick-net coax, 10-100Mbps, 500m
Fiber, 100Mbps-2.4Gbps, 2-40km

Leased Lines:
Copper based: T1 (1.544Mbps), T3 (44.736Mbps)
Optical fiber: STS-1 (51.84Mbps), STS-N (N*51.84Mbps)

Link Technologies
Last-Mile Links:
POTS (56Kbps), ISDN (2*64Kbps)
xDSL: ADSL (16-640Kbps, 1.554-8.448Mbps), VDSL
(12.96Mbps-55.2Mbps)
CATV: 40Mbps downstream, 20Mbps upstream
Wireless Links: Cellular, Satellite, Wireless Local Loop

FRAMING
An efficient data transmission technique
It is a message forwarding system in which data
packets, called frames, are passed from one or many
start-points to one

Approaches
Byte oriented Protocol(PPP)
BISYNC
Binary Synchronous Communication
DDCMP
Digital Data Communication Message Protocol

Bit oriented Protocol(HDLC)


Clock based Framing(SONET)

Byte oriented Protocol(PPP)


BISYNC FRAME FORMAT
SYH

SYH

SOH

Header

STX

ETX
Body

PPP Frame Format


Flag

Address

Control

Protocol

Payload

Flag

CRC

DDCMP Frame Format

SYN

SYN

Class

Count

Header

Body

CRC

Bit Oriented Protocol(HDLC)

Collection of Bits
1.HDLC
High-Level Data Link Control
2.Closed Based Framing(SONET)
Synchronous Optical Network

HDLC Frame Format


Beginning
sequence

Header

Body

CRC

Bit Stufffing
After 5 consecutive 1s insert 0
Next bit is 0 stuffed removed
Next bit is 1 end of frame or erorr

Ending
sequence

Closed Based Framing(SONET)


STS-1 Frame
9 rows of 90 byte each
First 3 byte for overhead rest contains data
Payload bytes scrambled- exclusive OR
Supports Multiplexing
Payloads

9 rows

90 columuns

ERROR DETECTION
Detecting Errors In Transmission
Electrical Interference, thermal noise
Approaches
Two Dimensional Parity
Internet Checksum Algorithm
Cyclic Redundancy Check

Two Dimensional Parity


7 bits of data

8 bits including parity

Number of 1s

even

odd

0000000 (0)

00000000

100000000

1010001 (3)

11010001

01010001

1101001 (4)

01101001

11101001

1111111 (7)

11111111

01111111

Transmission sent using even


parity:
A wants to transmit: 1001
A computes parity bit value: 1^0^0^1 = 0

A adds parity bit and sends: 10010

B receives: 10010 B computes parity: 1^0^0^1^0 =


0
B reports correct transmission after observing
expected even result.

Transmission sent using odd


parity:

A wants to transmit: 1001


A computes parity bit value: ~(1^0^0^1) = 1
A adds parity bit and sends: 10011
B receives: 10011
B computes overall parity: 1^0^0^1^1 = 1
B reports correct transmission after observing
expected odd result.

Reliable Transmission
Deliver Frames Reliably
Accomplished by Acknowledgements and Timeouts
ARQ-Automatic Repeat Request

Mechanism:
Stop and Wait
Sliding Window
Concurrent Logical Channels

Stop And Wait ARQ


The source station transmits a single frame and then
waits for an acknowledgement (ACK).
Data frames cannot be sent until the destination
stations reply arrives at the source station.
It discards the frame and sends a negative
acknowledgement (NAK) back to the sender
causes the source to retransmit the damaged frame in
case of error

Acknowledgements &
Timeouts
Sender

Receiver

Timeout

Timeout

Timeout

Receiver

(a)

(c)

Receiver

Sender

Receiver

Timeout

Timeout

Timeout

Sender

Timeout

Time

Sender

(b)

(d)

Stop & wait sequence


numbers
Timeout

Timeout

Fram
e

0
ACK

Fram
e

0
ACK

(c)

Sender
Timeout

Receiver

Timeout

Sender

Receiver
Fram

Sender

e0

0
ACK

Fram
e

0
ACK

Receiver
Fram
e

0
ACK

Fram

e1

1
ACK

Fram
e

(d)

0
ACK

(e)

Simple sequence numbers enable the client to discard


duplicate copies of the same frame
Stop & wait allows one outstanding frame, requires two
distinct sequence numbers

Stop And Wait

Sliding Window

bi-directional data transmission protocol used in the


data link layer (OSI model) as well as in TCP

It is used to keep a record of the frame sequences


sent

respective acknowledgements received by both the


users.

Sliding Window: Sender

Assign sequence number to each frame (SeqNum)


Maintain three state variables:
send window size (SWS)
last acknowledgment received (LAR)
last frame sent (LFS)

Maintain invariant: LFS - LAR <= SWS


Advance LAR when ACK arrives
SWS
Buffer up to SWS frames

LAR

LFS

Sequence Number Space

SeqNum field is finite; sequence numbers wrap around


Sequence number space must be larger then number of
outstanding frames
SWS <= MaxSeqNum-1 is not sufficient

suppose 3-bit SeqNum field (0..7)


SWS=RWS=7
sender transmit frames 0..6
arrive successfully, but ACKs lost
sender retransmits 0..6
receiver expecting 7, 0..5, but receives the original incarnation of
0..5

SWS < (MaxSeqNum+1)/2 is correct rule


Intuitively, SeqNum slides between two halves of sequence
number space

Sliding Window: Receiver


Maintain three state variables

receive window size (RWS)


largest frame acceptable (LFA)
last frame received (LFR)
Maintain invariant: LFA - LFR
RWS<= RWS

LFR

LFA

Frame SeqNum arrives:

if LFR < SeqNum < = LFA


accept
if SeqNum < = LFR or SeqNum > LFA
discarded
Send cumulative ACKs send ACK for largest frame such
that all frames less than this have been received

Ehernet
local-area network (LAN) covered by
the IEEE 802.3.
two modes of operation:
half-duplex
full-duplex modes.
.

Three basic elements :


1. the physical medium used to carry Ethernet
signals between computers,
2. a set of medium access control rules embedded
in each Ethernet interface that allow multiple
computers to fairly arbitrate access to the shared
Ethernet channel,
3. an Ethernet frame that consists of a standardized
set of bits used to carry data over the system

IEEE 802.5 Format

Frame Format IEEE 802.5

IEEE 802.3 MAC Data Frame


Format

Wireless
The process by which the radio waves are propagated
through air and transmits data
Wireless technologies are differentiated by :
Protocol
Connection typePoint-to-Point (P2P)
SpectrumLicensed or unlicensed

Types
Infrared Wireless Transmission

Tranmission of data signals using


infrared-light waves
Microwave Radio

sends data over long distances (regions,


states, countries) at up to 2 megabits
per second (AM/FM Radio)
Communications Satellites
microwave relay stations in orbit around the earth.

UNIT III

Packet Switching

Is a network communications method


Groups all transmitted data, irrespective of content, type,
or structure into suitably-sized blocks, called packets.
Optimize utilization of available link capacity
Increase the robustness of communication.
When traversing network adapters, switches and other
network nodes
packets are buffered and queued, resulting in variable
delay and throughput, depending on the traffic

Types
Connectionless
each packet is labeled with a connection ID
rather than an address.
Example:Datagram packet switching

connection-oriented
each packet is labeled with a destination
address
Example:X.25 vs. Frame Relay

Star Topology

Source Routing
0 Switch 1
3

1
2 Switch 2
2

3 0 1

1
2

1 3 0
0

Host A
0 1 3
1

0 Switch 3
3
2

Host B

Virtual Circuit Switching


Explicit connection setup (and tear-down)
phase
Subsequence packets follow same circuit
Sometimes called connection-oriented
0 Switch 1
model
3

2
5

Analogy:
phone call
Each switch
maintains a
VC table

3
11

2 Switch 2
1
0

Host A
7
1

0 Switch 3
3
2

Host B

Datagram Switching
No connection setup phase
Each packet forwarded independently
Sometimes called connectionless
model
Host D

Analogy: postal
system
Each switch
maintains a
forwarding
(routing) table

3
Host C

Host E

0 Switch 1
1
2

Host F
3

2 Switch 2
1
0

Host A

Host G
1

0 Switch 3 Host B
3
2
Host H

Virtual Circuit Model


Typically wait full RTT for connection setup before sending
first data packet.
While the connection request contains the full address for
destination
each data packet contains only a small identifier, making the
per-packet header overhead small.
If a switch or a link in a connection fails, the connection is
broken and a new one needs to be established.
Connection setup provides an opportunity to reserve
resources.

Datagram Model
There is no round trip delay waiting for connection setup; a
host can send data as soon as it is ready.
Source host has no way of knowing if the network is capable
of delivering a packet or if the destination host is even up.
Since packets are treated independently, it is possible to
route around link and node failures.
Since every packet must carry the full address of the
destination, the overhead per packet is higher than for the
connection-oriented model.

Bridges and Extended


LANs
LANs have physical limitations (e.g., 2500m)
Connect two or more LANs with a bridge
accept and forward strategy
level 2 connection (does not add packet header)
A

C
Port 1
Bridge
Port 2
X

Ethernet Switch = Bridge on Steroids

Spanning Tree Algorithm


A

Problem: loops

B
B3
C

B5
D

B2

B7

K
F

B1
G

H
B6

B4

I
J

Bridges run a distributed spanning tree algorithm


select which bridges actively forward
developed by Radia Perlman
now IEEE 802.1 specification

Algorithm Details
Bridges exchange configuration messages
id for bridge sending the message
id for what the sending bridge believes to be
root bridge
distance (hops) from sending bridge to root
bridge
Each bridge records current best configuration
message for each port
Initially, each bridge believes it is the root

Algorithm Details
Bridges exchange configuration messages
id for bridge sending the message
id for what the sending bridge believes to be
root bridge
distance (hops) from sending bridge to root
bridge
Each bridge records current best configuration
message for each port
Initially, each bridge believes it is the root

Thank u