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CHAPTER 1

RESPIRATION

THE HUMAN BREATHING


MECHANISM
Gas exchange in lungs is called breathing. This
exchange involves the taking in and letting out
of air.

Adaptation of alveoli for


efficient gas exchange
Large surface area
The lungs have millions of alveoli to provide a large
surface area for gas exchange

Very thin walls


The wall of each alveolus is one cell thick to provide a
very short distance for the diffusion of gases

Moist inner surface


To let oxygen dissolve in the moisture before diffusing
across the alveolar wall

Surrounded by numerous blood capillaries


Help to transport gases to and from alveoli quickly

Mechanism of human
breathing
The breathing mechanism consists of 2 phases:
Taking in of air ------ Inhalation
Letting out of air ---- Exhalation

Comparison between inhalation


and exhalation
Inhalation
Diaphragm flattens
Intercostal muscles
contract
Ribcage moves upwards
and outwards
Volume of thoracic cavity
increases
Air pressure decreases
Air flows into lungs

Exhalation
Diaphragm arches
upwards
Intercostal muscles relax
Ribcage moves
downwards and inwards
Volume of thoracic cavity
decreases
Air pressure increases
Air is forced out of the
lungs

Composition of air in
respiration
Content
Oxygen
Carbon dioxide
Nitrogen
Water vapour
Temperature

Inhaled air
21 %
0.04 %
78 %
Variable
Variable

Exhaled air
16 %
6%
78 %
Saturated
37 C

The transport of oxygen in


human body
The diffusion of oxygen from the alveoli into the blood
capillaries
Air that reaches alveoli is called alveolar air. It is rich
in oxygen and poor in carbon dioxide
The blood that reaches the capillaries surrounding the
alveoli is poor in oxygen and rich in carbon dioxide
Gas exchange takes place in the lungs by diffusion
Oxygen diffuses from alveoli into red blood cells in the
capillaries
At the same time, the red blood cells in the capillaries
release carbon
dioxide which diffuses into alveoli
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=1J
8KFmoylEs

The transport of oxygen by blood


Red blood cells contain oxygen carrying pigment
called haemoglobin
Oxygen combines with haemoglobin to form
oxyhaemoglobin
Oxygen + haemoglobin oxyhaemoglobin

The diffusion of oxygen from the blood capillaries


into the body cells
Oxygen has a higher concentration in the
capillaries than in body cells
Carbon dioxide has a higher concentration in the
body cells than in capillaries
Oxyhaemoglobin releases oxygen which diffuses
into the body cells
Carbon dioxide diffuses into the blood at the same
time

Importance of healthy
respiratory system
Substances harmful to the respiratory system
Air pollutant
Cigarette smoke
Gases from factories

Harmful substances
Nicotine, tar
Sulphur dioxide,
nitrogen dioxide

Exhaust fumes
Haze

Carbon monoxide
Smoke, dust

Effects of harmful substances on the respiratory


system
Nicotine
Causes addiction to cigarette smoking
Causes rapid heartbeat, increases blood pressure and
rapid breathing
Diseases: emphysema, heart disease and stroke

Tar
Contains carcinogens (substances that cause cancer)
Irritates respiratory tract, causing smokers cough

Sulphur dioxide
Cause irritation of respiratory system
Cause both temporary and permanent damage to lungs

Carbon monoxide
Combines haemoglobin in the blood faster than
oxygen
Poisonous gas
Causes suffocation
Low concentration of carbon monoxide can
cause dizziness, headaches and fatigue
High concentration of carbon monoxide is fatal

Particulate matter (fine particles in the air)


Causes coughing, nasal congestion, watery
nose, constant sneezing

Diseases of respiratory
system
Asthma
Narrowing of bronchi and bronchioles due to
contraction of muscles
Difficult to breathe, wheezing and feeling tightness in
chest

Bronchitis
Inflammation of lining of bronchioles due to infection
by bacteria or viruses, or chemicals found in tobacco
smoke
Patients may turn blue especially at the lips and
fingers due to poor oxygenation of blood

Lung cancer
Emphysema
Structure of alveoli is broken down by coughing
Cannot take in enough oxygen and becomes
very shortness of breath.

Heart disease
Nicotine raises the blood pressure and increases
the level of bad cholesterol in blood
Suffer from stroke or heart attack

Diseases of respiratory
system
Respiratory system
disease

Description

Emphysema

Alveoli are damaged and destroyed

Asthma

Air passages are stimulated to narrow


suddenly by certain substances, causing
breathing difficulty.

Bronchitis

Inflammation of the bronchi

Pnenumia

Abnormal cells grow in the lungs

Aim: To study the effects of smoking on the human


respiratory system