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Biology

Definition
Bio Life
Logos study of
Includes life and all its processes
An interdisciplinary science - Needs
other sciences to fully explain and
understand

Biology as an Interdisciplinary
science

http://www.engeecon.com/biology/

Describe Living Organisms

Characteristics of Life

Organized
Acquire energy
Maintain homeostasis
Respond to environment
Reproduce and develop
Adapt

Organized
Nature always
follow a certain
order (process)

Emergent
properties result
of different systems
working together

http://www.fanpop.com/clubs/human-anatomy/images/10358268/title/humananatomy-photo

Acquire Energy
Producers
(Autotrophs)
creates its own
energy

Consumers
(Heterotrophs)
creates energy
from complex
substances

Autotrophs
A. Photoautotrophs
uses light to make
their own food

http://www.theroadtoanywhere.com/giraffeeating-tree-serengeti-tanzania-photo/

B. Chemoautotrophs
Uses inorganic
chemicals to make
their own food

http://content.time.com/time/specials/packages/article/0,28804,202
0806_2020804_2020794,00.html

Heterotrophs
A. Consumer eats
other organisms

B. Decomposer
(Saprophyte)

http://www.phschool.com/iText/biology/chapter8/se
ction1/content2.html

http://www.srl.caltech.edu/personnel/krubal/rainforest
/Edit560s6/www/plants/saprophytes.html

Maintain Homeostasis
State of
biological
balance

http://benmorristech.com/featured/jorge-luna-podcast-8-emotionalhomeostasis-part-2-of-homeostasis/

Respond
To stimuli from the
environment.
Chemotaxis
movement in
response to a
chemical stimulant.

http://uptondaily.com/2013/07/10/impala-jumps-into-car-full-oftourists-to-escape-two-hungry-cheetahs/

Reproduce and
Develop
Reproduce make
another organism like
itself
Unicellular
(prokaryotes) mitosis
or split in two
Multicellular
(eukaryotes) fertilization
Increases diversity of
life

Develop grow

https://www.google.com.ph/search?
q=images+of+impala&espv=2&biw=1366&bih=662&tbm=isch&tbo=u&sou
rce=univ&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwjLp5uaYjKAhUBJKYKHVr5DMAQsAQIGQ#imgrc=1aBiEzF8xNVDGM%3A

Adapt
Changes that make
an organism more
suited to a particular
environment.
Main cause of
evolution.

https://www.pinterest.com/pin/119345458849077788/

How did life start?

Early Earth
Prebiotic Earth
Pre before
Bio- life

http://www.terradaily.com/reports/Early_Earth_Absorbed_More_Sunlight_99
9.html

How Did Life Start?


Energy was common that resulted to
chemical reactions
Radiation from the sun
Lightning bolts

Energy fused elements in to


organic chemicals
Resulted to the common ancestor

Common
Ancestor
Single Celled
Chemoautotroph
All the
characteristics of life
All of life was derived
from this common
ancestor

Evolution

Stromatolite photosynthetic
cyanobacteria theorized to start the
increase of carbon dioxide in the
atmosphere

Adaptation
Migration
Natural Selection
Genetic Drift
Mutation

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Stromatolite#/media/File:Stromatolit
es_in_Sharkbay.jpg

Tree of Life

http://wordpress.mrreid.org/2011/10/26/dating-a-common-ancestor/

Levels of Classification
Domain

Eukarya

Kingdom

Animalia

Phylum

Chordota

Class

Mammalia

Order

Primates

Family

Homonidae

Genus

Homo

Species

H. sapiens

Two Domains of life


Prokarya -

singlecelled organisms

http://www.microregistrar.com/streptococcus-pyogenesgroup-a/

Eukarya multicellular
organisms

http://www.bbc.com/earth/story/20150929-why-are-we-the-onlyhuman-species-still-alive

Six Kingdom Systems

Bacteria
Archaea
Protista
Plantae
Fungi
Animalia

Carl Linnaeus Started


naming organisms
using the binomial
nomenclature.
Binomial
Nomenclature uses
latin words

Prokarya
Bacteria
Streptococcus pyogenes

http://www.microregistrar.com/streptococcus-pyogenesgroup-a/

Archaea
Halobacterium sp.

http://evobites.com/2014/11/10/chaib_evolution_
viral_life/

Eukarya
Protista-

Euglena

Plantae-

Nepenthes sp.

spirogyra

http://www.microscopyuk.org.uk/micropolitan/fresh/protozoa/

Fungi-

Amanita
phalloides

http://www.mykoweb.com/TFWNA/P-06.html

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pitcher_plant

Animalia -

Oryctolagus

cuniculus

https://newevolutiondesigns.com/75-free-hd-animals-

How did we come upon


the six kingdom
system?

Scientific Method

Observation
Hypothesis
Experimentation/Observations
Conclusion
Scientific Theory

Goal of Scientific Method


Understand our world in terms of
scientific theories
Scientific theories - concepts that join
together well supported and related
hypotheses

If possible to create laws

Observation
Nature is orderly, ergo natural laws
do not change
Use of all senses to see what
happens

Hypothesis
A statement based on scientific
observations
Starting point of scientific investigation
Made through inductive reasoning
Using isolated facts to make an
assumption
Cause and effect reasoning

Data that can be tested

Experiment/Observations
Uses deductive reasoning to prove
hypothesis
Based on hypothesis the scientist will
create an experimental design and
may make predictions of the result.
Control groups are always used
Results of the experiment are called
data

Experiment
Collect scientific data
Experimental design - should prove
or disprove your hypothesis
Parameters are set for reproducibility

Why reproducible?

Reproducibility
To test the validity in different
conditions
Same experiments give a larger base
of knowledge on the same subject
More studies done on the same
subject can result to the formation of
scientific theories and possibly laws

Conclusion
The result after data has been
properly analyzed

Why Study Nature at All?


Make Earth more habitable for us
Learn the "balance" of nature and coexist with its other inhabitants

http://www.allianceabroad.com/china/

Human Intervention without Proper


Knowledge of Nature

http://www.usgs.gov/faq/categories/9752/2605

http://www.nhptv.org/natureworks/nwep16b.htm

Humans are the master


of animals, but is a slave
to nature
Because our constant effort to
control nature, not understand it
may lead to our extinction as a
species

Next meeting...
Review of basic chemistry