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Flywheel

Department of Automobile
Engineering
PSG College of Technology

2/6/16
1

Flywheel
Necessity
In a combustion engine, & especially
in one with one or two cylinders,
energy is imparted to the crankshaft
intermittently, & in order to keep it
rotating at a fairly uniform speed
under a substantially constant load, it
is necessary to provide it with a
flywheel.
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Flywheel
In a single cylinder engine(4
Stroke), in which there is only one
power stroke in two revolutions of the
crankshaft, a considerable fraction of
energy generated per cycle is stored in
the flywheel, & the proportion thus
stored decreases with an increase in
the No. of cylinders
In a 4 cylinder engine about 40% of
the energy of the cycle is temporarily
stored.
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Flywheel
However,not all of this energy goes into
flywheel
During the 1st half of the power stroke,
when energy is being supplied in excess
by the burning gases, all of the
reciprocating parts of the engine are
being accelerated & absorb energy;
besides, the rotating parts other than the
flywheel also have some flywheel
capacity, & this reduces the proportion of
the energy of the cycle which must be
stored in the flywheel.
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Flywheel
In a 6 cylinder engine the proportion of
the energy which must be absorbed &
returned by the moving parts amounts to
about 20%.
The greater the No. of cylinders the
smaller
the
flywheel
capacity
required
per
unit
of
piston
displacement, because the overlap of
power strokes is greater & besides other
rotating parts of the engine have greater
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Flywheel
However, the flywheel has by far the
greatest inertia even in a multi cylinder
engine.
Aside from its principle function,
the fly wheel serves as a member
of the friction clutch, & it usually
carries also the ring gear of the
electric starter.
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Flywheel

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Flywhee
l

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Flywhee
l

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Flywheel
Energy accumulator
Energy re-distributor
A flywheel serves as a reservoir which
stores energy during the period when
the supply of energy is more than the
requirement & releases, it during the
period when the requirement of energy is
more than supply.
A flywheel helps to keep the crankshaft
rotating at a uniform speed
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Flywheel
In internal combustion engines,
the energy is developed during one
stroke and the engine is to run for the
whole cycle on the energy produced
during this one stroke.
the energy is developed, only during
power stroke which is much more than
the engine load; and no energy is being
developed during suction, compression
and exhaust strokes in case of 4 stroke
engines & during compression in case of
2 stroke engines.
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Flywheel

The excess energy developed during


power stroke is absorbed by the flywheel
and releases it to the crankshaft during
other strokes in which no energy is
developed, thus rotating the crankshaft
at a uniform speed.
When the flywheel absorbs energy, its
speed increases and when it releases, the
speed decreases. Hence a flywheel does
not maintain a constant speed, it simply
reduces the fluctuation of speed.
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Flywheel
The function of a governor in engine is entirely
different from that of a flywheel
Governor regulates the mean speed of
an engine when there are variations in the
load,e.g., when the load on the engine
increases it becomes necessary to increase the
supply of Working fluid. On the other hand,
when the load decreases, less working fluid is
required.
The governor automatically; controls the
supply, of working fluid to the engine with the
varying load condition and keeps the mean
speed
within certain limits.
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Flywheel
The flywheel does not maintain constant
speed
It simply reduces the fluctuation of speed.
A flywheel controls the speed
variations caused by the fluctuation
of the engine turning moment during
each cycle of operation.
It does not control the speed
variations caused by the varying
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Flywheel

Capacity & Diameter


The flywheel capacity of a given mass increases
with its distance from the axis of rotation ;
consequently, if the flywheel is made large in
diameter it need not be so heavy.
On the other hand there are two reasons for
limiting the diameter.
At high rpm, flywheel is subjected to disruptive or
bursting force, & by keeping down the diameter, the
F O S can be kept high.
As it is cast or cast & pressed steel housing, this
need not weigh so much if the diameter is smaller
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Flywhee
l
A Flywheel is given a high rotational
inertia; i.e., most of its weight is well out
from the axis

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Construction of
Flywheels

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Construction of Flywheels
The flywheels of smaller
size (up to 600 mm
diameter) are casted in one
piece.
The rim & hub are joined
together by means of web.
The holes in the web may
be made for handling
purposes.
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18

Construction of Flywheels
In case the flywheel
is of larger size (up to
2.5m diameter), the
arms are made
instead of web.
The number of
arms depends upon
the size of flywheel &
its speed of rotation.
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Construction of Flywheels

The split flywheels are above 2.5m


diameter & are usually casted in two
piece.
It has advantage of relieving shrinkage
stresses in arms due to unequal rate of
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Maximum Fluctuation of Speed


&
Coefficient of Fluctuation of Speed

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Flywhee
l

The Maximum Fluctuation of Speed


the difference between the maximum &
minimum speeds during a cycle. i.e.,
=(N1-N2)
Where, N1=Maximum speed in r.p.m. during the cycle,
N2=Minimum speed in r.p.m. during the cycle

The Coefficient of Fluctuation of


Speed is the ratio of the maximum
fluctuation of speed to the mean speed.
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Flywhee
l

N Mean Speed in r p m N1 N2 / 2

Coefficien t Fluctuation of Speed Cs

N1 N2 2 N1 N2
Cs

N1 N2
N

1 2 2 1 2

..... in terms of angular speeds


1 2

v1 v 2 2 v1 v 2

.... in terms of linear speeds


v1 v 2
v

The Cs is a limiting factor in the design of flywheel.


Coefficien t of Steadiness m 1/Cs
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Fluctuation of
Energy
The Fluctuation of Energy may
be determined by the turning
moment diagram for one
complete cycle of operation

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Flywhee
l
turning moment
is zero when
the crank angle
is zero
It rises to a
max. value
when crank
angle reaches
90 and it is
again zero
when crank
angle
is 180.
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25

Flywhee
l
work done=turning moment x angle turned
The area of the turning moment diagram
represents the work done per revolution
Engine is assumed to work against the mean
resisting torque,
Since it is assumed that
work done by the turning moment / revolution
=
work done against the mean resisting
torque
Therefore,
area of rectangle (aAFe) is proportional to work
done against the mean resisting torque.
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Flywhee
l
When crank moves from 'a' to 'p'
work done by the engine is = area aBp,
whereas the energy required = area
aABp.
In other words, the engine has done less
work than the requirement. This amount
of energy is taken from the flywheel and
hence the speed of the flywheel
decreases.
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Flywhee
l
Now the
crank moves from p to q,
work done by the engine = area pBbCq
requirement of energy = area pBCq
Therefore the engine has done more work
than the requirement.
This excess work is stored in the flywheel
and hence the speed of the flywheel
increases while the crank moves from p to q.
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Flywhee
l
Similarly when the crank moves from q to r,
more work is taken from engine than is
developed= area CcD.
To supply this loss, the flywheel gives up
some of its energy and thus the speed
decreases while the crank moves from q to r.
As the crank moves from r to s,
excess energy is again developed = area DdE
& the speed again increases.
As the piston moves from s to e,
again there is a loss of work & the speed
decreases.
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The variations of
energy above and
below the mean
resisting torque
line are called
fluctuation of
energy.
The areas BbC,
CcD, DdE etc.
represent
fluctuations of
energy.
Department of Automobile
Engineering
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Flywhee
l

2/6/16
30

Engine has a max. speed either at q or at s.


This is due to the fact that flywheel absorbs energy
while the crank moves from p to q and from r to s.
Engine has a minimum speed either at p or at r.
The reason is that flywheel gives out some of its
energy when the crank moves from a to p and q to
r.
The difference between the maximum and the
minimum energies is known as maximum
fluctuation of energy.
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Flywhee
l
Maximum
Speed

Speed

Mean
Spee
d

Crankangle

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Min.
Speed

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32

Flywhee
l

The Fluctuation of Energy the variation of


Energy above & below mean resisting torque
line.

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Flywhee
l

For a 4 Stroke IC Engine,


During suction stroke, since the pr. inside the
engine cylinder is less than the atmospheric pr., a
negative loop is formed
During compression stroke, the work is done on
the gases, there a higher negative loop is obtained
In the working stroke, the fuel burns & the gases
expand, therefore a large positive loop is formed
During exhaust stroke, the work is done on the
gases, therefore a negative loop is obtained

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34

Maximum Fluctuation of
Energy

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Maximum
Fluctuation of Energy

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Let Energy in flywheel at A E, then from fig.,


Energy at B E a1
Energy at C E a1 a 2
Energy at D E a1 a 2 a3
Energy at E E a1 a 2 a3 a 4
Energy at F E a1 a 2 a3 a 4 a5
Energy at G E a1 a 2 a3 a 4 a5 a 6
Energy at A
Let the Max. & Min. of these Energies is at B & E respective ly.

Maximum Fluctuation of Energy,


E E a1 E a1 a2 a3 a 4
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Coefficient of
Fluctuation of Energy

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Coefficien t of fluctuatio n of energy (CE )


CE

Max.Fluctuation of Energy
Work done per cycle

Max. Energy - Min. Energy


E
E

Work done per cycle


Tmean P 60
n
where, Angle turned in rad/sec 2 & 4 for 2 & 4st. I C Engines respective ly
& Tmean Mean torque in N - m
or Work done per cycle

P 60

2 N in rpm

P 60

2 N in rpm

P in watts
in rad/sec

P 60


n
in rad/sec
P in watts

n No. of working strokes/mi n N & N/2 for 2 & 4st. I C Engines respective ly
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Energy stored in a
flywheel

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Energy Stored in a Flywheel


Mean Kinetic Energy of Flywheel E
1
1
E I 2 mk 2 2 Nm or J
2
2
As speed changes from 1 to 2 ,
Max. fluctuation of Energy, E
1
1
2
2
E Max.K.E - Min.K.E I 1 I 2
2
2
2 1 2
2
2
2
I
I Cs mk Cs

where, Nmean (N1 N2 )/2, mean (1 2 )/2


or E 2E C

s
2

Cs (N1 N2 )/N (1 2 )// & I mk


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As thickness of rim is very small compared to diameter,

Radius of gyration k mean radius of Rim , R


E mR 2 2 Cs mv 2Cs

v R

From this mass of flywheel may be determined


in the above exp ression, o nly mass moment of inertia

of rim is considered& that of hub & arms neglected

Mass of flywheel rim , m vol. density 2R A


From this we may find c/s area of rim.
Assuming c/s area of rim to be rectangula r,
then A b t,
where,b width & t thickness of rim
Knowing b/t ratio usuallyb/t 2, b & t can be found out
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Example-1

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Example-1
The turning moment diagram for a
Petrol engine is drawn to following scales:
Turning moment, 1 mm =5 Nm; Crank angle, I
mm = 1;
The turning moment diagram repeats itself at
every half revolution of the engine and the areas
above and below mean turning moment line,
taken in order are 295, 685, 40, 340, 960, 270
mm2.
Determine the mass of 300 mm diameter
flywheel rim when the coefficient of fluctuation
of speed is 0.3% and the engine runs at 1800
r.p.m..
Also determine the cross-section of the rim
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Assume
density
of rim material as 7250 kg/m3. 44

Example-1
Solution;
Given:
= 7250 kg/m
3E; = I2Cs
Cs = 0.3% = = m.R2.2Cs
0.003;
m = V
D = 300 mm or
= .(D.A)
R = 150 mm
=
.(2R.A)
= 0.15 m;
A
=
b
x
t,
N =1800r.p.m.
b=2t
or
= 2 x 1800 /
60 =
188.5rad/s
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?

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Example-1

Mass of the flywheel (m kg)


As per given scale,
on the turning moment diagram,
1 mm2 = 5 Nm x 10 = 5 x(10 x /180) = 0.087
Nm
Max. fluctuation of energy = E = m.R2.2Cs
Let the total energy at A = E,
from fig., Energy at B = E + 295
Energy at C = E + 295 - 685 = E - 390
Energy at D = E - 390 + 40 = E - 350
Energy at E = E - 350 - 340 = E - 690
Energy at F = E - 690 + 960 = E + 270
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Energy at G = E + 270 - 270 =E=Energy at
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Example-1
:. Maximum energy =E+295 at B&
Minimum energy =E-690 at E
Maximum fluctuation of energy,
i.e. E =Max. energy Min. energy
=(E + 295) - (E - 690) = 985 mm2
=985 x 0.087=86 Nm
Also, Maximum fluctuation of energy,
i.e. E = 86 =m.R2.2Cs
=m (0.15)2 (188.5)2 (0.003) = 2.4xm

:. m = 86/2.4 = 35.8 kg
Ans.

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Example-1
Cross-section of the flywheel rim
Mass of the flywheel rim, m =Vol. x density
=(A x 2R) x
Let, Width of rim, b=2 x t, thickness of rim
:. Cross-sectional area of rim, A=b x t = 2t x t
= 2 t2
mass of the flywheel rim (m) = 35.8 = A x 2Rx

=2 t2 X2 x 0.15 x 7250
=13668 t2
:. t2 =35.8/13668 =0.0026
or t =0.051 m = 51mm.Ans.
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& b =2 t =2 x 51 = 102 mm.Ans.

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Example2

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Example-2
A single cylinder, single acting,4
stroke oil engine develops 20 kW at
300 r.p.m.
The work done by the gases during
expan. stroke is 2.3 times the work done
on the gases during the compression and
work done during the suction and exhaust
strokes is negligible.
The speed is to be maintained within
1%. Determine the mass moment of
inertia of the flywheel.
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Solution;
Given:
P = 20kW
=20x 103 W;
N=
300r.p.m. or
=
2x300/60
=31.42rad/s
Cs=1% or
1- 2=
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Example-2

E=
I2Cs

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51

Example-2
Mass moment of inertia, I
Maximum fluctuation of energy,
E Ix 2 xCs
Mean torque transmitte d by engine,
3

Px60 20x 10 x60


Tmean

636.5 Nm
2N
2 300
workdone/c ycle Tmean X 636.5 X 4 8000 Nm
also, workdone per cycle P 60 /n

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20 10 60 / 150 8000 Nm
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52

Example-2
let,
W work done during comprn. stroke
C

& W work done during expn. stroke


E

Net workdone workdone per cycle WE WC


8000Nm WE WE /2.3

or

0.565WE

WE 8000/0.565

14160Nm
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Example-2
The work done during expan. stroke
is shown by triangle ABC in Fig., in which
base AC = radians & height BF =Tmax

:. Work done during expansion stroke,


WE =14160 =(1/2) X X Tmax = 1.571
Tmax
Or

Tmax= 14160/1.571 = 9013 Nm

Height above the mean torque line,


BG = BF - FG = Tmax- Tmean
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= 9013 - 636.5 = 8376.5 Nm

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54

Example-2
Area of leBDE (BG)2
from geometrica l relation,

,
2
le
Area of ABC BF
Max. fluctuatio n of energy (i.e. Area of le BDE),
(BG)2
(BG)2
i.e. E Area of ABC
WE
2
BF
BF 2
le

therefore from geomet


r
i
c
a
l
r
e
l
.
\
t
i
o
n,

(Tmax - Tmean )2
8376.5
E WE
14160
12230 Nm
2
2
9013
Tmax

Area of A lJDE (BG)2, we have

also, E may be calculated as follows, From si milar triangles BDE and BAC,

AC

BG
BF

8376.5
2 .92 rad
Tmax
9013
BF
le
(i.e., area of BDE) 1 / 2 x DE x BG 1 / 2 x 2 .92 x 8376 .5 12230 N-m

or DE
:. .

DE

BG

AC

(Tmax -Tmean )

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Example-2
Since the speed is to be maintained within 1%
of the mean speed, therefore total fluctuatio n
of speed 1 - 2 2 % 0.02
1 - 2
and coefficien t of fluctuatio n of speed, Cs
0.02

Let I Mass moment of inertia of the flywheel in kgm 2 .


We know that maximum fluctuatio n of energy, E
E I 2Cs
i.e.

12230 I 2Cs I (31.42) 2 0.02 19.74 I

I 12230/19.7 4 619.5kgm 2.......... .Ans


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Stresses in a Flywheel Rim

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Stresses in a Flywheel Rim


A flywheel, consists of a rim at which major
portion of mass or weight is concentrated.
Following types of stresses are induced in the
rim
1. Tensile stress due to centrifugal force,
2. Tensile bending stress caused by the
restraint
of the arms, and
3. The shrinkage stresses due to unequal rate
of
cooling of casting. This stress is taken care
of by a factor of safety.
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Stresses in a Flywheel
Rim
b = Width
of rim,
t
=Thicknes
s of rim,
A = Crosssectional
area of
rim = b x
t.
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Stresses in
Rim

1. Tensile stress due to centrifugal force


The tensile stress in the rim due
to the centrifugal force, assuming
that rim is unstrained by arms, is
determined in a similar way as a
thin cylinder subjected to internal pr..

Tensile stress,

t =.R2.2 =.v2

...(v = .R)

(when is in kg/m3 and v is in m/s, then t will be in


N/m2 or Pa)
Note: From the above expression the mean diameter (D)
of the
flywheel may be obtained by using the relation
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v=DN
/ 60
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Stresses in
Rim
2. Tensile bending stress caused by
restraint of the arms
The tensile bending stress in the rim due to the restraint
of arms is based on the assumption that each portion of
rim betn. a pair of arms behaves like a beam fixed at both
ends and uniformly loaded, Bending stress,
wl
M 12

Z
bt 6
2

(Substituting v /R)

bt 2 R 2R

n
12

6
bt 2

19.74 2 R 3

n2 t

2R
19
.
74
v

b
n2 t

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Stresses in
Rim

Now total stress in the rim, t b


If arms do not stretch & are placed very close together, then
centrifugal force will not set up stress in rim, i.e., t will be zero
On the other hand, if arms are stretched enough to allow free
expansion of the rim due to centrifuga l action, there will be no
restraint due to the arms, i.e., b will be zero.
The arms of a flywheel stretch about 3

th

of the amount

necessary for free expansion. Total stress in the rim,


2

3
1
3
1
19
.
74
v
R
4.935 R


2
2
v
v 0.75 2

t
b

2
4
4
n t
4
4

n t
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62

Example3

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Example-3

A multi-cylinder engine is to run at a constant load


at a speed of 600 r.p.m.On drawing the crank effort
diagram
to scale of 1 m = 250 Nm and 1 mm = 3,
The areas in mm2 above & below mean torque line
are: + 160,- 172, + 168,- 191, + 197,- 162 mm2
The speed is to be kept within 1% of the mean
speed of the engine. Calculate the necessary
moment of inertia of the flywheel.
Determine suitable dimensions for cast iron
flywheel with a rim whose breadth is twice its
radial thickness. The density of cast iron is 7250
kg/m3, and its working stress in tension is 6MPa.
Assume that rim contributes 92% of flywheel effect.
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Example-3
Solution. Given:
N =600 r.p.m.orE = I2Cs
2
=2 x 600/60
=62.84
rad/s;
t=.v
6
2
=7250 kg/mv3;=
=6
MPa
=6
x
10
N/m
t
(DN)/60

E = m.R2.2Cs
m = V = .(D.A)= .
(2R.A)
A = b x t,
b=2t
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Example-3

Moment of inertia of the flywheel


We know that,
Maximum fluctuation of energy, E=
Ix2xCs
Scale for the turning moment is
1 mm = 250 Nm & scale for the crank
angle is
1 mm = 3= 3x/180= /60 rad,
therefore
1 mm2 on the turning moment diagram
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Example-3

Let total energy at A = E. :. from Fig.,


Energy at B =E + 160
Energy at C =E + 160 - 172 = E - 12 Energy at D
=E - 12 + 168 =E + 156
Energy at E =E + 156 - 191 =E 35 (min. energy)
Energy at F = E - 35 + 197 =E + 162 (max. energy)
Energy at G =E + 162 - 162 = E =Energy at A
Max. fluctuation of energy,
E =Max. energy Min. energy
= (E + 162) - (E - 35) = 197 mm2
E =197 x 13.1=2581 N-m
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Example-3

Since the fluctuation of speed is1%


of the mean speed (),
therefore total fluctuation of speed,
1-2= 2% = 0.02
& coefficient of fluctuation of speed,
Cs =[(1-2)/] = 0.02
maximum fluctuation of energy, E,
E, = 2581 = I.2.Cs = I (62.84)2 0.02 =
79xI
:. I = 2581/79 = 32.7 kgm2..Ans
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Example-3

Dimensions of a flywheel rim


We know that, Mass of the flywheel rim,
m = Vol. x density =2R x A x = D x (b x t )x
b=2t (given)
Peripheral velocity (v) & mean diameter (D)
We know that, tensile stress, t=.v2
i.e., t=6 x 106=.v2 =7250 X v2
So,

v2 =(6 x 106)/7250 =827.6 or

=28.76 m/s

We also know that, peripheral velocity,v =


(DN)/60
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i.e.,PSG College
v=28.76
of Technology = (DN)/60 = (Dx600)/60 = 31.42

Example-3

Mass of flywheel rim


Since rim contributes 92% of flywheel effect,
:. Energy of flywheel rim, Erim = 0.92 x total Energy of
the flywheel, E
Max. fluctuation of energy, E= E x 2 Cs
i.e., E =2581 = E x 2 Cs =E x 2 x 0.02 = 0.04 E
:. E = 2581/ 0.04 = 64525 N-m
& Energy of flywheel rim, Erim = 0.92 E
(v=R) = 0.92 x 64525 = 59363 Nm
Also, Erim= (1/2)I2 = (1/2)mk22 = (1/2)mR22 = (1/2)xmxv2
i.e., 59363 = 1/2 x m x v2 = 1/2 x m (28.76)2 = 413.6
m
:. m = 59363/413.6 = 143.5 kg
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Example-3
The mass of the flywheel rim may also
be obtained by using following relations.
Since the rim contributes 92% of the flywheel effect,
Irim = 0.92xIflywheel or m.k2= 0.92 x 32.7 =30 kgm2
Since radius of gyration, k =R =D/2 = 0.915/2
=0.4575m,
i.e., m=(30/k2) =(30/0.45752)
=(30/0.2092)=143.5kg
( E)

= 0.92 ( E )flywheel
m. V2.CS = 0.92 ( E )flywheel
m (28.76)2x0.02= 0.92x 2581
16,55xm = 2374.5
or Department of Automobile
m = 2374.5/16.55= 143.5kg
rim

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Example-3
m = 59363/413.6 = 143.5
kg
Also, mass of the flywheel rim,
m= (b x t )x D x &
b=2t
(given)
143.5 = b x t x D x
=2 t X t X x 0.915 x 7250 = 41686 t2
t2 = 143.5/41686 =0.00344
t =0.0587 say 0.06 m =60 mm
Ans.
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Example4

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Example-4
An otto cycle engine develops 50 kW at
150 r.p.m. with 75 explosions per minute.
The change of speed from the commencement
to the end of power stroke must not exceed 0.5%
of mean on either side.
Design a suitable rim section having width
four times the depth so that the hoop stress does
not exceed 4 MPa.
Assume that the flywheel stores 16/15 times
the
energy stored by the rim and that the workdone
during power stroke is 1.40 times the workdone
during the cycle. Density of rim material is 7200
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Example-4
Solution.
Given:
P =50 kW
=50 X 103W;
N=
150r.p.m.;
n =75 ;
t =4 MPa
=4 x 106 N/m2;

=7200
kg/m3
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Example-4
We know that, Mass of the flywheel rim,
m =Vol. x density=2R x A x
i.e., m=(b x t )x D x
&
[b=4t (given)]
Further, Energy of the flywheel rim,
Erim= (1/2)I2 = (1/2)mk22 = (1/2)mR22
(v=R)
= (1/2)xmxv2
[Erim=(15/16)E given]
And Max. fluctuation of energy, E= E x 2 Cs
& hoop Stress=t=v2 & v=DN/60
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Example-4
Tmean transmitted by the engine or flywheel.
Power transmitted, P= (2xxNxTmean)/60
i.e., 50x103= (2xx150xTmean)/60 =15.71 Tmean
Tmean= 50 x 103/15.71= 3182.7 N-m
Workdone/cycle = Tmeanx = 3182.7 x 4 =
40000 Nm
{Or

The workdone per cycle for a 4 stroke engine,


Workdone l cycle =[(Px60)/(No. of explosions/min)]
=(Px60)/n = (50000x60)/75=40000 Nm}

:. Workdone during power stroke


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=1.4xWorkdone/cycle
=1.4x40000 =
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Example-4
The workdone during power stroke is shown
by le ABC in Fig
in which base AC = radians and height BF =
Tmax
:. Workdone during working stroke= 1/2xXTmax
= 1.571 Tmax
:. Also Workdone during working stroke=56000
Nm
:.
Tmax=(56000/1.571) =35646Nm
Height above the mean torque line,
DepartmentBG
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= BF-FG = Tmax-Tmean
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Example-4
Since the area BDE (shown shaded in Fig)
above the mean torque line represents
max. fluctuation of energy ( E), from
Area of le BDE (BG)2
geometrica l relation

le
Area of ABC (BF )2
Maximum fluctuation of energy (i.e., area of triangle BDE),
2
(BG)
Area of le BDE E Area of triangle ABC x
(BF )2

56000 x

32463.3

35646

E 56 000 x 0.83 46480 Nm

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Example-4
Mean diameter of the flywheel (D)
Hoop stress, t=v2
i.e.,
:.

4 x 106= .v2 = 7200 X v2


v2 =4 X 106/7200 = 556
or v = 23.58 m/s

Peripheral velocity, v = DN/60


i.e.,
23.58 = DN/60 = Dx150/60 =7.855
D
D =23.58/7.855
D=3 m
Ans.
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Example-4
Cross-sectional dimensions of the rim
Cross-sectional area of the rim,
A=b x t= 4t x t =4t2 (b=4t..given)
Since N1 - N2 = 0.5% N either side, (..given)
:. total fluctuation of speed,
N1 - N2 = 1% of mean speed =0.01 N
& coefficient of fluctuation of speed,
Cs. = (N1 - N2)/N = 0.01
E = Total energy of the flywheel.
Maximum fluctuation of energy ( E),
46480 = Ex 2 Cs = E x 2 x 0.01 = 0.02 E
:.
E = 46480/0.02 =2324 x 103 Nm
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Example-4
Since the energy stored by the flywheel is
16/15 times the energy stored by rim,

Therefore the energy of the rim,


Erim = (16/15)E= (16/15)x 2324 x 103 = 2178.8 x
103Nm
Also
Erim= (1/2)xmxv2
i.e., 2178.8 X 103 = (1/2)xmx(23.58)2 =278xm
:.
m = 2178.8 x103 / 278 =7837 kg
Also, mass of the flywheel rim, m= A x D x
i.e., 7837 = A x D x =4 t 2 X X 3 x 7200
=271469 t2
or t2 = 7837 / 271469 = 0.0288
or tDepartment
= 0.17
m = 170 mm
Ans.
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b =4 t =4 x 170 = 680 mm Ans.


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Example-5

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Example-5
Design a cast iron Flywheel for a 4 stroke Diesel Engine Developing
36.8kW at 800rpm. The hoop stress in the material is not to exceed
3.92N/mm 2 . The total fluctuation of speed is to be limited to 4%
of mean speed. It may be assumed that the work done during the
1
power stroke is 1 times the average work done during the whole
3
cycle.The maximum torque on the shaft is twice the mean torque.
The Safe shear stress for shaft and key may be taken as
39.23N/mm 2 . Density of cast iron may be taken as 7200kg/m 3 .
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Solution :

Example-5

Given, Cast iron Flywheel


Power 36.8kw @ 800rpm
Hoop stress in material 3.92N/mm 2
Fluctuation of speed K s 0.04
1
Work done during power stroke 1 ave. work done
3
during the whole cycle
Tmax 2Tmean
Safe shear stress f s 39.23N/mm 2
Density of cast iron 7200kg/m 3
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E = I2Cs
t=.v2
v = (DN)/60
E = m.R2.2Cs
m = V = .(D.A)= .
(2R.A)
A = b x t,
b=2t
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Example-5

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Example-5
2 N Tmean
We know that,
Power
kW
60000
Power 60000 36.8 60000

Tmean

439.27Nm
2 N
2 800
But Tmax 2 Tmean 2 439.27 878.54Nm
3

ds
ref., eqn.3.1 in data hand book

fs
16
878.54 16
3
ds
39.23 10 6
ds 0.049m 49mm 50mm
i.e., ds , shaft diameter is 50mm
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Example-5

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ref., eqn.17.8 in data hand book

Example-5

Boss diameter or hub diameter 2 ds 2 50 100mm

ref ., eqn.17.8 in data hand book ,

Work done/cycle Turning momentTmean Angle turned


439.27 720 0 439.27 4 5520Nm
1
Work done during power stroke 1 Work done/cycle
3
1
5520 1 7360Nm
3
Fluctuation of energy
E Max.Energy Min.Energy
5520
7360
5980Nm
4

Boss diameter d

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Also, E I Cs

Example-5

Mean angular speed & C s coefficien t of fluctuatio n of speed

E 5980 I 0.04 2 N

60

I 21.30N.m.s ec 2

As Hoop stress max V 2 , density & V velocity of rim


Also

3.92 10 6 7200 V 2
or V 23.33m/s
D Nmax
V
,
60

(total fluctuatio n of speed limited to 4% of mean speed, Nmax 1.02N)

V 23.33 D 1.02N

or

D 0.5460m

60
i.e., Mean dia. of rim D 546mm

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Example-5

We know that,

I mass momemt of inertia about axis of rotation


mass of flywheel radius of gyration mk 2
2

{k mean radius of rim, R for thin rimmed wheel}


2

W D
W 0.546
i.e., I 21.3

g 2
9.81
2
Weight, W 2803N

Weight , W

2803
2803
further, V rim

0.0397m 3
density, w
g 7200 9.81
let, b 4t
Also, V rim 2R Area D b t ,
0.0397 0.546 4t t t 0.0761m

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Example-5
or

t 76.1mm,
b 4t 4 76.1
304.4mm

Outside diameter of the flywheel Dmean t 0.546 0.0761


0.6221m 622.1mm
Inside diameter of the flywheel Dmean t 0.546 0.0761
0.4699m 469.9mm
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Stresses in Flywheel
Arms

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Stresses in Flywheel Arms

Following stresses are induced in the arms


of a flywheel
Tensile stress due to centrifugal force
acting on the rim.
Bending stress due to torque transmitted
from the rim to the shaft or from the shaft
to the rim.
Shrinkage stresses due to unequal rate of
cooling of casting. These stresses are
difficult to determine.
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Stresses in Flywheel Arms

Tensile stress due to centrifugal force


Due to the centrifugal force acting on
the rim, the arms will be subjected to
direct tensile stress whose magnitude is,
:. Tensile stress in the arms,
t1= (3/4)t= (3/4)xv2

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Stresses in Flywheel Arms

Bending stress due to torque


transmitted
T =Maximum torque transmitted by the
shaft,
Z = Section modulus for the c/s of arms
&
R =Mean radius of rim
r =Radius of the hub
n =Number of arms
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Stresses in Arms
Load at the mean radius of the rim, F T

Load on each arm


Rn
& max. bending moment which lies on the arm
T
at the hub,
i.e.,
M
(R - r)
Rn
M
T
Bending stress in arms,
b1
(R - r)
Z Rn Z
Total tensile stress in the arms at the hub end,

t1 b1

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Design of Flywheel
Arms

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D/n of Arms
The c/s of the arms is usually elliptical
with major axis as twice the minor axis,
& it is desgnedned for max. bending stress.

2
x b1 a1
.......1
32
We know that maximum bending moment,

Section modulus,

T
M
(R - r)
Rn
MaximumBen ding stress in arms,
M
T
b
(R - r)....... 2
Z Rn Z
Assuming a1 2 b1, arms dimensions obtained by equations (1) & (2)
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Design of Shaft, Hub and


Key

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Design of Shaft, Hub and Key


The diameter of shaft for flywheel is
obtained from the maximum torque transmitte d.

3
Maximum torque transmitte d, Tmax
d1
16
where,
d1 Diameter of the shaft, &

Allowable shear stress for the material of shaft.


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Shaft, Hub and Key

The hub is designed as a hollow shaft, for


the maximum torque transmitte d.
Max. torque transmitte d,

Tmax

4
4

d d1

16
d

where, d Outer diameter of hub, &


d1 Inner diameter of hub or diameter of shaft.
Hub diameter is usually taken as twice the shaft dia.
& Hub length from 2 to 2.5 times the shaft diameter.
It is generally taken equal to width of therim.
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Design of Shaft, Hub and


Key

A standard sunk key is used for the shaft & hub.


The length of key is obtained by considering the
failure of key in shearing.
d1
Torque transmitte d by shaft, Tmax Lx w x x
2
where,
L Length of the key,
&

Shear stress for the key.materi al


d1 Diameter of shaft.

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Example-6

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Example-6
Design and draw a cast iron flywheel
used for a four stroke I.C engine
developing180 kW at 240 r.p.m.
The hoop or centrifugal stress developed
in the flywheel is 5.2 MPa, the total
fluctuation of speed is to be limited to 3%
of the mean speed. The work done during
the power stroke is 1/3 more than the
average work done during the whole cycle.
The max. torque on shaft is twice the
mean torque. The density of cast iron is
7220 kg/m3.
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Example-6
Solution. Turning moment diagram of
Given:
a 4 stroke engine is shown
P =180kWin Fig.
=180X 103W;
N = 240r.p.m.;
t = 5.2MPa
= 5.2x 106N/m2;
Nl - N2 = 3% N;
= 7220 kg/m3
.

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Example-6

Maximum fluctuation of energy ( E)


Mean torque transmitte d by the flywheel,
3

Px 60 180x 10 x 60
Tmean

7161 Nm
2 N
2 240
workdone/c ycle Tmean x 7161 x 4 90000 Nm
workdone / cycle may also be obtained as , Workdone / cycle P 60 ,
n
where n No. of working strokes / min . For 4 stroke engine, n N / 2
:.

3
180
x
10
x 60
Work done / cycle
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90000 Nm
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109

Example-6
Since workdone during power stroke is 1/3 times

more than average workdone during whole cycle,


Workdone during the power (or working) stroke
90000 1 x 90000 120000 Nm
3
Workdone during the power stroke is shown by ale ABC in Fig.
in which,
base AC radians
& height BF Tmax

Workdone during power stroke 1 x X Tmax


2
1 x X Tmax 120000
2
Tmax 120000x 2 76384 Nm

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Example-6

Height above the mean torque line,


BG BF - FG Tmax - T mean

76384 - 7161 69223 Nm


Since the area BDE shown shaded in Fig. above the mean
torque line represents the max. fluctuationof energy ( E),

from geometrica l relation,

Area of le BDE
(BG)2
:
,
le
2
Area of ABC
(BF)

Max. fluctuation of energy, E Area of le BDE


2
(BG)
Area of le ABC x
(BF)2

(69223) 2
120000
98555 Nm
2
(76384)
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Example-6
1. Diameter of the flywheel rim
Hoop stress developed in the flywheel rim,

t 5.2 x 10 6 .V 2 7220 X V 2

V 2 5.2 X 10 6 /7220 720

or
v 26.8 m/s
Peripheral velocity,
D N D 250
v 26.8

13.1 D
60
60

D 26.8/13.1 2.04 m ... Ans.


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Example-6

2. Mass of the flywheel rim

Angular speed of the flywheel rim, 2xN

60
2x250 25.14 rad/s
60
N1 - N2
& Coefficien t of fluctuatio n of speed, Cs
0.03
N
Max. fluctuatio n of energy,
E 98555 m.R 2 . 2 , Cs

E 98555 m 2.04

(25.14) 2 0.03 19.73m

m 98 555/19.73 4995 kg .....Ans.


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Example-6

3. Cross - sectional dimensions of rim


Let
&

t Depth or thickness of rim in metres,


b Width of the rim in metres 2 t(Assume)

Cross - sectional area of the rim, A b t 2 t t 2 t 2


Massof the flywheel rim,

m 4995 A x D x
m 2 t 2 2.04 x 7220 92556 t 2

or

t 2 4995/92556 0.054
t 0.232 say 0.235 m

or

t 235 mm
......Ans.
b 2 t 2 235 470 mm... Ans

&
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Example-6
4. Diameter and length of hub
Let

d1 Diameter of shaft,

d Diameter of hub, d & l Length of hub,


4. Diameter and length of hub
Since
Tmax 2 x Tmean , Max. torque acting on the shaft,
Let d Diameter of hub, d1 Diameter of shaft,
& L Length of the hub.

Tmax 2 x Tmean 2 x 7161 14322 Nm 14322 x 103 N - mm


Since max. torque on shaft is twice the mean torque,
max. torque acting on the shaft, . .
...(Assume )

..
TfIIlJJ C 2 x TmtlQJ I 2 x 7161 14322 N - m 14 322 x 103 N - mm

Also, maximum torque acting on the shaft,

3
3
T max 14322 x 10 (d1 ) 40 (d1 ) 3 7.855 (d1 ) 3
16
16
(Taking 40 MPa 40 N/mm 2 )
or d 122 say 125mm .......Ans.
1
We know that , d 2 d1 2 x 125 250 mm 0.25 m
We know that the maximum torque acting on the shaft (T fIIlJJC),
1t . 1t 14 322 x 103 - X ' t (d )3 -x 40 (d )3 78SS (d )3
. 16 116 1. 1
...(Taking ' t 40 MPa 40 N/mm2)
: . (dl)3 14 322 x 10317.8SS 1823 x 103

or d1 122 say 12Smm Ans.


The diameter of the hub is made equal to twice the diameter of shaft and length of hub is
equal to width of the rim.

,
. ....... - - - (~' d).. d 2 dl 2 x 125 250 mm 0 ~ 25 m
and I b 470 mm 0.47 mm ADS.

&

I b 470 mm 0.47 mm........Ans


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Example-6

5. Cross sectional dimensions


of elliptical arms

Let n Number of arms 6 ...(Assume )


a1 Major axis, b1 Minor axis 0.5 a1 ...(Assume )

b Bending stress for material of arms


15 MPa 15 N/mm 2 ...(Assume )
max. bending moment in arm at the hub end,
which is assumed as cantilever is given by,
T
T
14322
M
(R - r)
(D - d)
(2.04 - 0.25) Nm
Rn
Dn
2.04 6
2094.5 Nm 2094.5 x 10 3 Nmm
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Example-6

Cross sectional dimensions


of elliptical arms.....

The section modulus for the cross - section of the arm.

b1 (a1 )2 0.5a1(a1 )2 0.05 (a1 )3


32
32
We know that the bending stress ,
Z

M 2094.5x 10 3
41 890 103
b 15

3
Z
0.05 (a1 )
(a1 )3

or

&

(a1 )3 41 890 x 10 3 /15 2793 x 10 3

a 140 mm ....Ans.
1
b 0.5 a 0.5 x 140 70 mm ....Ans
1
1

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Example-6
6. Dimensions of key
The standard dimensions of rectangula r sunk key
for a shaft of diameter 125 mm are as follows :

Width of key
w 36 mm ........An s
& thickness of key 20 mm ......Ans
Length of key (L) is obtd. by considering failure of key in shearing.

Max. torque transmitte d by the shaft ,


d1
125
3
Tmax 14322 x 10 L w L x 36 x 40 x
90 10 3 L
2
2
L 14322 x 10 3 / 90 10 3 159 say 160 mm ....Ans.
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Example-6
Check for total stress in rim which
should not be greater than 15 MPa.
We know that, total stress in the rim,
4.935 R
v 0.75

2
n t

2.04

4.935

2
2 N/m2
7220 26.8 0.75

6 2 0.235

5.18 x 10 6 (0.75 0.595) 6.97 x 10 6 N/m2 6.97 MPa


2

Since is less than 15 MPa, design is safe.


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