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310 Aufrufe119 SeitenDR Flywheel

Feb 06, 2016

© © All Rights Reserved

PPTX, PDF, TXT oder online auf Scribd lesen

DR Flywheel

© All Rights Reserved

Als PPTX, PDF, TXT **herunterladen** oder online auf Scribd lesen

310 Aufrufe

DR Flywheel

© All Rights Reserved

Als PPTX, PDF, TXT **herunterladen** oder online auf Scribd lesen

- Combustion
- Flywheel Presentation
- moment of inertia
- Flywheel
- Acceleration Test Method for a High Performance 2s Racing Engine
- JSS 4210-16
- Experiment 1
- Flywheel
- Flywheel
- Turning Moment Diagram & Flywheel
- engineeringethics-171128012545
- Amoroso-Flywheel Energy Storage.doc
- Volante de Inercia-3
- EME Notes IC Engines
- V8 Engine Manual
- Heat Engines ME111 PPT
- vaayu finalcapstonereport
- Producergasengine-1905-mathrich
- GE6251-Basic Civil and Mechanical Engineering
- Combustion Engines

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Department of Automobile

Engineering

PSG College of Technology

2/6/16

1

Flywheel

Necessity

In a combustion engine, & especially

in one with one or two cylinders,

energy is imparted to the crankshaft

intermittently, & in order to keep it

rotating at a fairly uniform speed

under a substantially constant load, it

is necessary to provide it with a

flywheel.

Department of Automobile

Engineering

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2/6/16

2

Flywheel

In a single cylinder engine(4

Stroke), in which there is only one

power stroke in two revolutions of the

crankshaft, a considerable fraction of

energy generated per cycle is stored in

the flywheel, & the proportion thus

stored decreases with an increase in

the No. of cylinders

In a 4 cylinder engine about 40% of

the energy of the cycle is temporarily

stored.

Department of Automobile

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3

Flywheel

However,not all of this energy goes into

flywheel

During the 1st half of the power stroke,

when energy is being supplied in excess

by the burning gases, all of the

reciprocating parts of the engine are

being accelerated & absorb energy;

besides, the rotating parts other than the

flywheel also have some flywheel

capacity, & this reduces the proportion of

the energy of the cycle which must be

stored in the flywheel.

Department of Automobile

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PSG College of Technology

2/6/16

4

Flywheel

In a 6 cylinder engine the proportion of

the energy which must be absorbed &

returned by the moving parts amounts to

about 20%.

The greater the No. of cylinders the

smaller

the

flywheel

capacity

required

per

unit

of

piston

displacement, because the overlap of

power strokes is greater & besides other

rotating parts of the engine have greater

Department of Automobile

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5

Flywheel

However, the flywheel has by far the

greatest inertia even in a multi cylinder

engine.

Aside from its principle function,

the fly wheel serves as a member

of the friction clutch, & it usually

carries also the ring gear of the

electric starter.

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6

Flywheel

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7

Flywhee

l

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8

Flywhee

l

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9

Flywheel

Energy accumulator

Energy re-distributor

A flywheel serves as a reservoir which

stores energy during the period when

the supply of energy is more than the

requirement & releases, it during the

period when the requirement of energy is

more than supply.

A flywheel helps to keep the crankshaft

rotating at a uniform speed

Department of Automobile

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2/6/16

10

Flywheel

In internal combustion engines,

the energy is developed during one

stroke and the engine is to run for the

whole cycle on the energy produced

during this one stroke.

the energy is developed, only during

power stroke which is much more than

the engine load; and no energy is being

developed during suction, compression

and exhaust strokes in case of 4 stroke

engines & during compression in case of

2 stroke engines.

Department of Automobile

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2/6/16

11

Flywheel

power stroke is absorbed by the flywheel

and releases it to the crankshaft during

other strokes in which no energy is

developed, thus rotating the crankshaft

at a uniform speed.

When the flywheel absorbs energy, its

speed increases and when it releases, the

speed decreases. Hence a flywheel does

not maintain a constant speed, it simply

reduces the fluctuation of speed.

Department of Automobile

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12

Flywheel

The function of a governor in engine is entirely

different from that of a flywheel

Governor regulates the mean speed of

an engine when there are variations in the

load,e.g., when the load on the engine

increases it becomes necessary to increase the

supply of Working fluid. On the other hand,

when the load decreases, less working fluid is

required.

The governor automatically; controls the

supply, of working fluid to the engine with the

varying load condition and keeps the mean

speed

within certain limits.

Department of Automobile

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13

Flywheel

The flywheel does not maintain constant

speed

It simply reduces the fluctuation of speed.

A flywheel controls the speed

variations caused by the fluctuation

of the engine turning moment during

each cycle of operation.

It does not control the speed

variations caused by the varying

Department of Automobile

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14

Flywheel

The flywheel capacity of a given mass increases

with its distance from the axis of rotation ;

consequently, if the flywheel is made large in

diameter it need not be so heavy.

On the other hand there are two reasons for

limiting the diameter.

At high rpm, flywheel is subjected to disruptive or

bursting force, & by keeping down the diameter, the

F O S can be kept high.

As it is cast or cast & pressed steel housing, this

need not weigh so much if the diameter is smaller

Department of Automobile

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15

Flywhee

l

A Flywheel is given a high rotational

inertia; i.e., most of its weight is well out

from the axis

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16

Construction of

Flywheels

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17

Construction of Flywheels

The flywheels of smaller

size (up to 600 mm

diameter) are casted in one

piece.

The rim & hub are joined

together by means of web.

The holes in the web may

be made for handling

purposes.

Department of Automobile

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18

Construction of Flywheels

In case the flywheel

is of larger size (up to

2.5m diameter), the

arms are made

instead of web.

The number of

arms depends upon

the size of flywheel &

its speed of rotation.

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19

Construction of Flywheels

diameter & are usually casted in two

piece.

It has advantage of relieving shrinkage

stresses in arms due to unequal rate of

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20

&

Coefficient of Fluctuation of Speed

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21

Flywhee

l

the difference between the maximum &

minimum speeds during a cycle. i.e.,

=(N1-N2)

Where, N1=Maximum speed in r.p.m. during the cycle,

N2=Minimum speed in r.p.m. during the cycle

Speed is the ratio of the maximum

fluctuation of speed to the mean speed.

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22

Flywhee

l

N Mean Speed in r p m N1 N2 / 2

N1 N2 2 N1 N2

Cs

N1 N2

N

1 2 2 1 2

1 2

v1 v 2 2 v1 v 2

v1 v 2

v

Coefficien t of Steadiness m 1/Cs

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23

Fluctuation of

Energy

The Fluctuation of Energy may

be determined by the turning

moment diagram for one

complete cycle of operation

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24

Flywhee

l

turning moment

is zero when

the crank angle

is zero

It rises to a

max. value

when crank

angle reaches

90 and it is

again zero

when crank

angle

is 180.

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25

Flywhee

l

work done=turning moment x angle turned

The area of the turning moment diagram

represents the work done per revolution

Engine is assumed to work against the mean

resisting torque,

Since it is assumed that

work done by the turning moment / revolution

=

work done against the mean resisting

torque

Therefore,

area of rectangle (aAFe) is proportional to work

done against the mean resisting torque.

Department of Automobile

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26

Flywhee

l

When crank moves from 'a' to 'p'

work done by the engine is = area aBp,

whereas the energy required = area

aABp.

In other words, the engine has done less

work than the requirement. This amount

of energy is taken from the flywheel and

hence the speed of the flywheel

decreases.

Department of Automobile

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27

Flywhee

l

Now the

crank moves from p to q,

work done by the engine = area pBbCq

requirement of energy = area pBCq

Therefore the engine has done more work

than the requirement.

This excess work is stored in the flywheel

and hence the speed of the flywheel

increases while the crank moves from p to q.

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28

Flywhee

l

Similarly when the crank moves from q to r,

more work is taken from engine than is

developed= area CcD.

To supply this loss, the flywheel gives up

some of its energy and thus the speed

decreases while the crank moves from q to r.

As the crank moves from r to s,

excess energy is again developed = area DdE

& the speed again increases.

As the piston moves from s to e,

again there is a loss of work & the speed

decreases.

Department of Automobile

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29

The variations of

energy above and

below the mean

resisting torque

line are called

fluctuation of

energy.

The areas BbC,

CcD, DdE etc.

represent

fluctuations of

energy.

Department of Automobile

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Flywhee

l

2/6/16

30

This is due to the fact that flywheel absorbs energy

while the crank moves from p to q and from r to s.

Engine has a minimum speed either at p or at r.

The reason is that flywheel gives out some of its

energy when the crank moves from a to p and q to

r.

The difference between the maximum and the

minimum energies is known as maximum

fluctuation of energy.

Department of Automobile

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31

Flywhee

l

Maximum

Speed

Speed

Mean

Spee

d

Crankangle

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Min.

Speed

2/6/16

32

Flywhee

l

Energy above & below mean resisting torque

line.

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33

Flywhee

l

During suction stroke, since the pr. inside the

engine cylinder is less than the atmospheric pr., a

negative loop is formed

During compression stroke, the work is done on

the gases, there a higher negative loop is obtained

In the working stroke, the fuel burns & the gases

expand, therefore a large positive loop is formed

During exhaust stroke, the work is done on the

gases, therefore a negative loop is obtained

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34

Maximum Fluctuation of

Energy

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35

Maximum

Fluctuation of Energy

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36

Energy at B E a1

Energy at C E a1 a 2

Energy at D E a1 a 2 a3

Energy at E E a1 a 2 a3 a 4

Energy at F E a1 a 2 a3 a 4 a5

Energy at G E a1 a 2 a3 a 4 a5 a 6

Energy at A

Let the Max. & Min. of these Energies is at B & E respective ly.

E E a1 E a1 a2 a3 a 4

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37

Coefficient of

Fluctuation of Energy

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38

CE

Max.Fluctuation of Energy

Work done per cycle

E

E

Tmean P 60

n

where, Angle turned in rad/sec 2 & 4 for 2 & 4st. I C Engines respective ly

& Tmean Mean torque in N - m

or Work done per cycle

P 60

2 N in rpm

P 60

2 N in rpm

P in watts

in rad/sec

P 60

n

in rad/sec

P in watts

n No. of working strokes/mi n N & N/2 for 2 & 4st. I C Engines respective ly

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39

Energy stored in a

flywheel

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40

Mean Kinetic Energy of Flywheel E

1

1

E I 2 mk 2 2 Nm or J

2

2

As speed changes from 1 to 2 ,

Max. fluctuation of Energy, E

1

1

2

2

E Max.K.E - Min.K.E I 1 I 2

2

2

2 1 2

2

2

2

I

I Cs mk Cs

or E 2E C

s

2

Department of Automobile

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41

E mR 2 2 Cs mv 2Cs

v R

in the above exp ression, o nly mass moment of inertia

From this we may find c/s area of rim.

Assuming c/s area of rim to be rectangula r,

then A b t,

where,b width & t thickness of rim

Knowing b/t ratio usuallyb/t 2, b & t can be found out

Department of Automobile

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42

Example-1

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43

Example-1

The turning moment diagram for a

Petrol engine is drawn to following scales:

Turning moment, 1 mm =5 Nm; Crank angle, I

mm = 1;

The turning moment diagram repeats itself at

every half revolution of the engine and the areas

above and below mean turning moment line,

taken in order are 295, 685, 40, 340, 960, 270

mm2.

Determine the mass of 300 mm diameter

flywheel rim when the coefficient of fluctuation

of speed is 0.3% and the engine runs at 1800

r.p.m..

Also determine the cross-section of the rim

Department

of Automobile

when

the

width of the rim is twice of thickness.2/6/16

Engineering

PSG College of

Technology

Assume

density

of rim material as 7250 kg/m3. 44

Example-1

Solution;

Given:

= 7250 kg/m

3E; = I2Cs

Cs = 0.3% = = m.R2.2Cs

0.003;

m = V

D = 300 mm or

= .(D.A)

R = 150 mm

=

.(2R.A)

= 0.15 m;

A

=

b

x

t,

N =1800r.p.m.

b=2t

or

= 2 x 1800 /

60 =

188.5rad/s

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Collegetof =

Technology

m,

?

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45

Example-1

As per given scale,

on the turning moment diagram,

1 mm2 = 5 Nm x 10 = 5 x(10 x /180) = 0.087

Nm

Max. fluctuation of energy = E = m.R2.2Cs

Let the total energy at A = E,

from fig., Energy at B = E + 295

Energy at C = E + 295 - 685 = E - 390

Energy at D = E - 390 + 40 = E - 350

Energy at E = E - 350 - 340 = E - 690

Energy at F = E - 690 + 960 = E + 270

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Energy at G = E + 270 - 270 =E=Energy at

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46

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Example-1

:. Maximum energy =E+295 at B&

Minimum energy =E-690 at E

Maximum fluctuation of energy,

i.e. E =Max. energy Min. energy

=(E + 295) - (E - 690) = 985 mm2

=985 x 0.087=86 Nm

Also, Maximum fluctuation of energy,

i.e. E = 86 =m.R2.2Cs

=m (0.15)2 (188.5)2 (0.003) = 2.4xm

:. m = 86/2.4 = 35.8 kg

Ans.

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47

Example-1

Cross-section of the flywheel rim

Mass of the flywheel rim, m =Vol. x density

=(A x 2R) x

Let, Width of rim, b=2 x t, thickness of rim

:. Cross-sectional area of rim, A=b x t = 2t x t

= 2 t2

mass of the flywheel rim (m) = 35.8 = A x 2Rx

=2 t2 X2 x 0.15 x 7250

=13668 t2

:. t2 =35.8/13668 =0.0026

or t =0.051 m = 51mm.Ans.

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48

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Example2

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49

Example-2

A single cylinder, single acting,4

stroke oil engine develops 20 kW at

300 r.p.m.

The work done by the gases during

expan. stroke is 2.3 times the work done

on the gases during the compression and

work done during the suction and exhaust

strokes is negligible.

The speed is to be maintained within

1%. Determine the mass moment of

inertia of the flywheel.

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50

Solution;

Given:

P = 20kW

=20x 103 W;

N=

300r.p.m. or

=

2x300/60

=31.42rad/s

Cs=1% or

1- 2=

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1%

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Example-2

E=

I2Cs

2/6/16

51

Example-2

Mass moment of inertia, I

Maximum fluctuation of energy,

E Ix 2 xCs

Mean torque transmitte d by engine,

3

Tmean

636.5 Nm

2N

2 300

workdone/c ycle Tmean X 636.5 X 4 8000 Nm

also, workdone per cycle P 60 /n

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20 10 60 / 150 8000 Nm

2/6/16

52

Example-2

let,

W work done during comprn. stroke

C

E

8000Nm WE WE /2.3

or

0.565WE

WE 8000/0.565

14160Nm

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53

Example-2

The work done during expan. stroke

is shown by triangle ABC in Fig., in which

base AC = radians & height BF =Tmax

WE =14160 =(1/2) X X Tmax = 1.571

Tmax

Or

BG = BF - FG = Tmax- Tmean

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54

Example-2

Area of leBDE (BG)2

from geometrica l relation,

,

2

le

Area of ABC BF

Max. fluctuatio n of energy (i.e. Area of le BDE),

(BG)2

(BG)2

i.e. E Area of ABC

WE

2

BF

BF 2

le

r

i

c

a

l

r

e

l

.

\

t

i

o

n,

(Tmax - Tmean )2

8376.5

E WE

14160

12230 Nm

2

2

9013

Tmax

also, E may be calculated as follows, From si milar triangles BDE and BAC,

AC

BG

BF

8376.5

2 .92 rad

Tmax

9013

BF

le

(i.e., area of BDE) 1 / 2 x DE x BG 1 / 2 x 2 .92 x 8376 .5 12230 N-m

or DE

:. .

DE

BG

AC

(Tmax -Tmean )

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55

Example-2

Since the speed is to be maintained within 1%

of the mean speed, therefore total fluctuatio n

of speed 1 - 2 2 % 0.02

1 - 2

and coefficien t of fluctuatio n of speed, Cs

0.02

We know that maximum fluctuatio n of energy, E

E I 2Cs

i.e.

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56

Department of Automobile

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57

A flywheel, consists of a rim at which major

portion of mass or weight is concentrated.

Following types of stresses are induced in the

rim

1. Tensile stress due to centrifugal force,

2. Tensile bending stress caused by the

restraint

of the arms, and

3. The shrinkage stresses due to unequal rate

of

cooling of casting. This stress is taken care

of by a factor of safety.

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58

Stresses in a Flywheel

Rim

b = Width

of rim,

t

=Thicknes

s of rim,

A = Crosssectional

area of

rim = b x

t.

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59

Stresses in

Rim

The tensile stress in the rim due

to the centrifugal force, assuming

that rim is unstrained by arms, is

determined in a similar way as a

thin cylinder subjected to internal pr..

Tensile stress,

t =.R2.2 =.v2

...(v = .R)

N/m2 or Pa)

Note: From the above expression the mean diameter (D)

of the

flywheel may be obtained by using the relation

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2/6/16

v=DN

/ 60

Engineering

60

PSG College of Technology

Stresses in

Rim

2. Tensile bending stress caused by

restraint of the arms

The tensile bending stress in the rim due to the restraint

of arms is based on the assumption that each portion of

rim betn. a pair of arms behaves like a beam fixed at both

ends and uniformly loaded, Bending stress,

wl

M 12

Z

bt 6

2

(Substituting v /R)

bt 2 R 2R

n

12

6

bt 2

19.74 2 R 3

n2 t

2R

19

.

74

v

b

n2 t

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61

Stresses in

Rim

If arms do not stretch & are placed very close together, then

centrifugal force will not set up stress in rim, i.e., t will be zero

On the other hand, if arms are stretched enough to allow free

expansion of the rim due to centrifuga l action, there will be no

restraint due to the arms, i.e., b will be zero.

The arms of a flywheel stretch about 3

th

of the amount

2

3

1

3

1

19

.

74

v

R

4.935 R

2

2

v

v 0.75 2

t

b

2

4

4

n t

4

4

n t

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62

Example3

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63

Example-3

at a speed of 600 r.p.m.On drawing the crank effort

diagram

to scale of 1 m = 250 Nm and 1 mm = 3,

The areas in mm2 above & below mean torque line

are: + 160,- 172, + 168,- 191, + 197,- 162 mm2

The speed is to be kept within 1% of the mean

speed of the engine. Calculate the necessary

moment of inertia of the flywheel.

Determine suitable dimensions for cast iron

flywheel with a rim whose breadth is twice its

radial thickness. The density of cast iron is 7250

kg/m3, and its working stress in tension is 6MPa.

Assume that rim contributes 92% of flywheel effect.

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64

Example-3

Solution. Given:

N =600 r.p.m.orE = I2Cs

2

=2 x 600/60

=62.84

rad/s;

t=.v

6

2

=7250 kg/mv3;=

=6

MPa

=6

x

10

N/m

t

(DN)/60

E = m.R2.2Cs

m = V = .(D.A)= .

(2R.A)

A = b x t,

b=2t

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65

Example-3

We know that,

Maximum fluctuation of energy, E=

Ix2xCs

Scale for the turning moment is

1 mm = 250 Nm & scale for the crank

angle is

1 mm = 3= 3x/180= /60 rad,

therefore

1 mm2 on the turning moment diagram

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66

Example-3

Energy at B =E + 160

Energy at C =E + 160 - 172 = E - 12 Energy at D

=E - 12 + 168 =E + 156

Energy at E =E + 156 - 191 =E 35 (min. energy)

Energy at F = E - 35 + 197 =E + 162 (max. energy)

Energy at G =E + 162 - 162 = E =Energy at A

Max. fluctuation of energy,

E =Max. energy Min. energy

= (E + 162) - (E - 35) = 197 mm2

E =197 x 13.1=2581 N-m

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67

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68

Example-3

of the mean speed (),

therefore total fluctuation of speed,

1-2= 2% = 0.02

& coefficient of fluctuation of speed,

Cs =[(1-2)/] = 0.02

maximum fluctuation of energy, E,

E, = 2581 = I.2.Cs = I (62.84)2 0.02 =

79xI

:. I = 2581/79 = 32.7 kgm2..Ans

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Example-3

We know that, Mass of the flywheel rim,

m = Vol. x density =2R x A x = D x (b x t )x

b=2t (given)

Peripheral velocity (v) & mean diameter (D)

We know that, tensile stress, t=.v2

i.e., t=6 x 106=.v2 =7250 X v2

So,

=28.76 m/s

(DN)/60

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i.e.,PSG College

v=28.76

of Technology = (DN)/60 = (Dx600)/60 = 31.42

Example-3

Since rim contributes 92% of flywheel effect,

:. Energy of flywheel rim, Erim = 0.92 x total Energy of

the flywheel, E

Max. fluctuation of energy, E= E x 2 Cs

i.e., E =2581 = E x 2 Cs =E x 2 x 0.02 = 0.04 E

:. E = 2581/ 0.04 = 64525 N-m

& Energy of flywheel rim, Erim = 0.92 E

(v=R) = 0.92 x 64525 = 59363 Nm

Also, Erim= (1/2)I2 = (1/2)mk22 = (1/2)mR22 = (1/2)xmxv2

i.e., 59363 = 1/2 x m x v2 = 1/2 x m (28.76)2 = 413.6

m

:. m = 59363/413.6 = 143.5 kg

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Example-3

The mass of the flywheel rim may also

be obtained by using following relations.

Since the rim contributes 92% of the flywheel effect,

Irim = 0.92xIflywheel or m.k2= 0.92 x 32.7 =30 kgm2

Since radius of gyration, k =R =D/2 = 0.915/2

=0.4575m,

i.e., m=(30/k2) =(30/0.45752)

=(30/0.2092)=143.5kg

( E)

= 0.92 ( E )flywheel

m. V2.CS = 0.92 ( E )flywheel

m (28.76)2x0.02= 0.92x 2581

16,55xm = 2374.5

or Department of Automobile

m = 2374.5/16.55= 143.5kg

rim

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72

Example-3

m = 59363/413.6 = 143.5

kg

Also, mass of the flywheel rim,

m= (b x t )x D x &

b=2t

(given)

143.5 = b x t x D x

=2 t X t X x 0.915 x 7250 = 41686 t2

t2 = 143.5/41686 =0.00344

t =0.0587 say 0.06 m =60 mm

Ans.

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Example4

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Example-4

An otto cycle engine develops 50 kW at

150 r.p.m. with 75 explosions per minute.

The change of speed from the commencement

to the end of power stroke must not exceed 0.5%

of mean on either side.

Design a suitable rim section having width

four times the depth so that the hoop stress does

not exceed 4 MPa.

Assume that the flywheel stores 16/15 times

the

energy stored by the rim and that the workdone

during power stroke is 1.40 times the workdone

during the cycle. Density of rim material is 7200

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PSG College of Technology

Example-4

Solution.

Given:

P =50 kW

=50 X 103W;

N=

150r.p.m.;

n =75 ;

t =4 MPa

=4 x 106 N/m2;

=7200

kg/m3

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Example-4

We know that, Mass of the flywheel rim,

m =Vol. x density=2R x A x

i.e., m=(b x t )x D x

&

[b=4t (given)]

Further, Energy of the flywheel rim,

Erim= (1/2)I2 = (1/2)mk22 = (1/2)mR22

(v=R)

= (1/2)xmxv2

[Erim=(15/16)E given]

And Max. fluctuation of energy, E= E x 2 Cs

& hoop Stress=t=v2 & v=DN/60

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Example-4

Tmean transmitted by the engine or flywheel.

Power transmitted, P= (2xxNxTmean)/60

i.e., 50x103= (2xx150xTmean)/60 =15.71 Tmean

Tmean= 50 x 103/15.71= 3182.7 N-m

Workdone/cycle = Tmeanx = 3182.7 x 4 =

40000 Nm

{Or

Workdone l cycle =[(Px60)/(No. of explosions/min)]

=(Px60)/n = (50000x60)/75=40000 Nm}

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=1.4xWorkdone/cycle

=1.4x40000 =

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56000

N-m

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78

Example-4

The workdone during power stroke is shown

by le ABC in Fig

in which base AC = radians and height BF =

Tmax

:. Workdone during working stroke= 1/2xXTmax

= 1.571 Tmax

:. Also Workdone during working stroke=56000

Nm

:.

Tmax=(56000/1.571) =35646Nm

Height above the mean torque line,

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= BF-FG = Tmax-Tmean

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Example-4

Since the area BDE (shown shaded in Fig)

above the mean torque line represents

max. fluctuation of energy ( E), from

Area of le BDE (BG)2

geometrica l relation

le

Area of ABC (BF )2

Maximum fluctuation of energy (i.e., area of triangle BDE),

2

(BG)

Area of le BDE E Area of triangle ABC x

(BF )2

56000 x

32463.3

35646

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80

Example-4

Mean diameter of the flywheel (D)

Hoop stress, t=v2

i.e.,

:.

v2 =4 X 106/7200 = 556

or v = 23.58 m/s

i.e.,

23.58 = DN/60 = Dx150/60 =7.855

D

D =23.58/7.855

D=3 m

Ans.

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Example-4

Cross-sectional dimensions of the rim

Cross-sectional area of the rim,

A=b x t= 4t x t =4t2 (b=4t..given)

Since N1 - N2 = 0.5% N either side, (..given)

:. total fluctuation of speed,

N1 - N2 = 1% of mean speed =0.01 N

& coefficient of fluctuation of speed,

Cs. = (N1 - N2)/N = 0.01

E = Total energy of the flywheel.

Maximum fluctuation of energy ( E),

46480 = Ex 2 Cs = E x 2 x 0.01 = 0.02 E

:.

E = 46480/0.02 =2324 x 103 Nm

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Example-4

Since the energy stored by the flywheel is

16/15 times the energy stored by rim,

Erim = (16/15)E= (16/15)x 2324 x 103 = 2178.8 x

103Nm

Also

Erim= (1/2)xmxv2

i.e., 2178.8 X 103 = (1/2)xmx(23.58)2 =278xm

:.

m = 2178.8 x103 / 278 =7837 kg

Also, mass of the flywheel rim, m= A x D x

i.e., 7837 = A x D x =4 t 2 X X 3 x 7200

=271469 t2

or t2 = 7837 / 271469 = 0.0288

or tDepartment

= 0.17

m = 170 mm

Ans.

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Example-5

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84

Example-5

Design a cast iron Flywheel for a 4 stroke Diesel Engine Developing

36.8kW at 800rpm. The hoop stress in the material is not to exceed

3.92N/mm 2 . The total fluctuation of speed is to be limited to 4%

of mean speed. It may be assumed that the work done during the

1

power stroke is 1 times the average work done during the whole

3

cycle.The maximum torque on the shaft is twice the mean torque.

The Safe shear stress for shaft and key may be taken as

39.23N/mm 2 . Density of cast iron may be taken as 7200kg/m 3 .

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Solution :

Example-5

Power 36.8kw @ 800rpm

Hoop stress in material 3.92N/mm 2

Fluctuation of speed K s 0.04

1

Work done during power stroke 1 ave. work done

3

during the whole cycle

Tmax 2Tmean

Safe shear stress f s 39.23N/mm 2

Density of cast iron 7200kg/m 3

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E = I2Cs

t=.v2

v = (DN)/60

E = m.R2.2Cs

m = V = .(D.A)= .

(2R.A)

A = b x t,

b=2t

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Example-5

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88

Example-5

2 N Tmean

We know that,

Power

kW

60000

Power 60000 36.8 60000

Tmean

439.27Nm

2 N

2 800

But Tmax 2 Tmean 2 439.27 878.54Nm

3

ds

ref., eqn.3.1 in data hand book

fs

16

878.54 16

3

ds

39.23 10 6

ds 0.049m 49mm 50mm

i.e., ds , shaft diameter is 50mm

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Example-5

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90

Example-5

439.27 720 0 439.27 4 5520Nm

1

Work done during power stroke 1 Work done/cycle

3

1

5520 1 7360Nm

3

Fluctuation of energy

E Max.Energy Min.Energy

5520

7360

5980Nm

4

Boss diameter d

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91

Also, E I Cs

Example-5

E 5980 I 0.04 2 N

60

I 21.30N.m.s ec 2

Also

3.92 10 6 7200 V 2

or V 23.33m/s

D Nmax

V

,

60

V 23.33 D 1.02N

or

D 0.5460m

60

i.e., Mean dia. of rim D 546mm

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Example-5

We know that,

mass of flywheel radius of gyration mk 2

2

2

W D

W 0.546

i.e., I 21.3

g 2

9.81

2

Weight, W 2803N

Weight , W

2803

2803

further, V rim

0.0397m 3

density, w

g 7200 9.81

let, b 4t

Also, V rim 2R Area D b t ,

0.0397 0.546 4t t t 0.0761m

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93

Example-5

or

t 76.1mm,

b 4t 4 76.1

304.4mm

0.6221m 622.1mm

Inside diameter of the flywheel Dmean t 0.546 0.0761

0.4699m 469.9mm

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Stresses in Flywheel

Arms

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of a flywheel

Tensile stress due to centrifugal force

acting on the rim.

Bending stress due to torque transmitted

from the rim to the shaft or from the shaft

to the rim.

Shrinkage stresses due to unequal rate of

cooling of casting. These stresses are

difficult to determine.

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Due to the centrifugal force acting on

the rim, the arms will be subjected to

direct tensile stress whose magnitude is,

:. Tensile stress in the arms,

t1= (3/4)t= (3/4)xv2

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transmitted

T =Maximum torque transmitted by the

shaft,

Z = Section modulus for the c/s of arms

&

R =Mean radius of rim

r =Radius of the hub

n =Number of arms

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Stresses in Arms

Load at the mean radius of the rim, F T

Rn

& max. bending moment which lies on the arm

T

at the hub,

i.e.,

M

(R - r)

Rn

M

T

Bending stress in arms,

b1

(R - r)

Z Rn Z

Total tensile stress in the arms at the hub end,

t1 b1

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Design of Flywheel

Arms

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D/n of Arms

The c/s of the arms is usually elliptical

with major axis as twice the minor axis,

& it is desgnedned for max. bending stress.

2

x b1 a1

.......1

32

We know that maximum bending moment,

Section modulus,

T

M

(R - r)

Rn

MaximumBen ding stress in arms,

M

T

b

(R - r)....... 2

Z Rn Z

Assuming a1 2 b1, arms dimensions obtained by equations (1) & (2)

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Key

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The diameter of shaft for flywheel is

obtained from the maximum torque transmitte d.

3

Maximum torque transmitte d, Tmax

d1

16

where,

d1 Diameter of the shaft, &

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103

the maximum torque transmitte d.

Max. torque transmitte d,

Tmax

4

4

d d1

16

d

d1 Inner diameter of hub or diameter of shaft.

Hub diameter is usually taken as twice the shaft dia.

& Hub length from 2 to 2.5 times the shaft diameter.

It is generally taken equal to width of therim.

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Key

The length of key is obtained by considering the

failure of key in shearing.

d1

Torque transmitte d by shaft, Tmax Lx w x x

2

where,

L Length of the key,

&

d1 Diameter of shaft.

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105

Example-6

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Example-6

Design and draw a cast iron flywheel

used for a four stroke I.C engine

developing180 kW at 240 r.p.m.

The hoop or centrifugal stress developed

in the flywheel is 5.2 MPa, the total

fluctuation of speed is to be limited to 3%

of the mean speed. The work done during

the power stroke is 1/3 more than the

average work done during the whole cycle.

The max. torque on shaft is twice the

mean torque. The density of cast iron is

7220 kg/m3.

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Example-6

Solution. Turning moment diagram of

Given:

a 4 stroke engine is shown

P =180kWin Fig.

=180X 103W;

N = 240r.p.m.;

t = 5.2MPa

= 5.2x 106N/m2;

Nl - N2 = 3% N;

= 7220 kg/m3

.

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Example-6

Mean torque transmitte d by the flywheel,

3

Px 60 180x 10 x 60

Tmean

7161 Nm

2 N

2 240

workdone/c ycle Tmean x 7161 x 4 90000 Nm

workdone / cycle may also be obtained as , Workdone / cycle P 60 ,

n

where n No. of working strokes / min . For 4 stroke engine, n N / 2

:.

3

180

x

10

x 60

Work done / cycle

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120

90000 Nm

2/6/16

109

Example-6

Since workdone during power stroke is 1/3 times

Workdone during the power (or working) stroke

90000 1 x 90000 120000 Nm

3

Workdone during the power stroke is shown by ale ABC in Fig.

in which,

base AC radians

& height BF Tmax

2

1 x X Tmax 120000

2

Tmax 120000x 2 76384 Nm

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Example-6

BG BF - FG Tmax - T mean

Since the area BDE shown shaded in Fig. above the mean

torque line represents the max. fluctuationof energy ( E),

Area of le BDE

(BG)2

:

,

le

2

Area of ABC

(BF)

2

(BG)

Area of le ABC x

(BF)2

(69223) 2

120000

98555 Nm

2

(76384)

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111

Example-6

1. Diameter of the flywheel rim

Hoop stress developed in the flywheel rim,

t 5.2 x 10 6 .V 2 7220 X V 2

or

v 26.8 m/s

Peripheral velocity,

D N D 250

v 26.8

13.1 D

60

60

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112

Example-6

60

2x250 25.14 rad/s

60

N1 - N2

& Coefficien t of fluctuatio n of speed, Cs

0.03

N

Max. fluctuatio n of energy,

E 98555 m.R 2 . 2 , Cs

E 98555 m 2.04

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Example-6

Let

&

b Width of the rim in metres 2 t(Assume)

Massof the flywheel rim,

m 4995 A x D x

m 2 t 2 2.04 x 7220 92556 t 2

or

t 2 4995/92556 0.054

t 0.232 say 0.235 m

or

t 235 mm

......Ans.

b 2 t 2 235 470 mm... Ans

&

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114

Example-6

4. Diameter and length of hub

Let

d1 Diameter of shaft,

4. Diameter and length of hub

Since

Tmax 2 x Tmean , Max. torque acting on the shaft,

Let d Diameter of hub, d1 Diameter of shaft,

& L Length of the hub.

Since max. torque on shaft is twice the mean torque,

max. torque acting on the shaft, . .

...(Assume )

..

TfIIlJJ C 2 x TmtlQJ I 2 x 7161 14322 N - m 14 322 x 103 N - mm

3

3

T max 14322 x 10 (d1 ) 40 (d1 ) 3 7.855 (d1 ) 3

16

16

(Taking 40 MPa 40 N/mm 2 )

or d 122 say 125mm .......Ans.

1

We know that , d 2 d1 2 x 125 250 mm 0.25 m

We know that the maximum torque acting on the shaft (T fIIlJJC),

1t . 1t 14 322 x 103 - X ' t (d )3 -x 40 (d )3 78SS (d )3

. 16 116 1. 1

...(Taking ' t 40 MPa 40 N/mm2)

: . (dl)3 14 322 x 10317.8SS 1823 x 103

The diameter of the hub is made equal to twice the diameter of shaft and length of hub is

equal to width of the rim.

,

. ....... - - - (~' d).. d 2 dl 2 x 125 250 mm 0 ~ 25 m

and I b 470 mm 0.47 mm ADS.

&

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Example-6

of elliptical arms

a1 Major axis, b1 Minor axis 0.5 a1 ...(Assume )

15 MPa 15 N/mm 2 ...(Assume )

max. bending moment in arm at the hub end,

which is assumed as cantilever is given by,

T

T

14322

M

(R - r)

(D - d)

(2.04 - 0.25) Nm

Rn

Dn

2.04 6

2094.5 Nm 2094.5 x 10 3 Nmm

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Example-6

of elliptical arms.....

32

32

We know that the bending stress ,

Z

M 2094.5x 10 3

41 890 103

b 15

3

Z

0.05 (a1 )

(a1 )3

or

&

a 140 mm ....Ans.

1

b 0.5 a 0.5 x 140 70 mm ....Ans

1

1

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Example-6

6. Dimensions of key

The standard dimensions of rectangula r sunk key

for a shaft of diameter 125 mm are as follows :

Width of key

w 36 mm ........An s

& thickness of key 20 mm ......Ans

Length of key (L) is obtd. by considering failure of key in shearing.

d1

125

3

Tmax 14322 x 10 L w L x 36 x 40 x

90 10 3 L

2

2

L 14322 x 10 3 / 90 10 3 159 say 160 mm ....Ans.

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118

Example-6

Check for total stress in rim which

should not be greater than 15 MPa.

We know that, total stress in the rim,

4.935 R

v 0.75

2

n t

2.04

4.935

2

2 N/m2

7220 26.8 0.75

6 2 0.235

2

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