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ATOMIC STRUCTURE

Prepared by: Cherry Mar T. Tiempo

Objectives
• Trace the discoveries after Rutherford that
led to a quantum mechanical model of an
atom;
• Describe the quantum mechanical model
of an atom;
• Realize the tentative nature of a theory;
and
• Devise ways to facilitate own learning.

The Inadequacy of Rutherford’s Model

The Inadequacy of Rutherford’s Model
In his experiments, Rutherford bombarded alpha particles on very
thin metallic foils such as gold foil. In
order to record experimental
observations, he made use of circular screen coated with zinc
sulphide.

The Inadequacy of Rutherford’s Model .

James Maxwell (1831-1879) Man of light .

Niels Bohr (1885-1962) .

which is visible to the human eye and is responsible for the sense of sight. The word usually refers to visible light. .Nature of Light • What is light? Light is electromagnetic radiation within a certain portion of the electromagnetic spectrum.

. like a sound. • He stated that light.Christian Huygens (1629-1695) • A Dutch Mathematician and physicist • He was the first to study on the nature of light. is a wave motion.

. • According to this theory. • Formulated the corpuscular or particle theory of light. light is made up of very fast and very small particles which travel in straight lines.Sir Isaac Newton (1642-1727) • Opposed the idea of Huygens.

• In 1864. “if it shall be found that the velocity of propagation of electromagnetic disturbances is the same as the velocity of light…we have strong conclusion for believing that light is an electromagnetic radiation . • He wrote. Maxwell predicted that an alternating current in a circuit would radiate energy in the form of electromagnetic waves traveling through a vacuum at the speed of light.

Heinrich Hertz (1857-1894) • A German Physicist • Demonstrated by experiment the electromagnetic nature of light. . • Confirming Maxwell interpretation.

.20th Century Max Planck and Albert Einstein •Used the particle model to explain some properties of light which could not be explained by the wave theory.

• Einstein called the discrete energy packet as photons. . He called the packet of energy as quanta.Max Planck • Considered the electromagnetic radiation emitted by glowing object to occur in packets or pieces.

Albert Einstein • Theorized that the electromagnetic radiation (like light) has a characteristic of both a wave and a stream of particles. .

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Wave-Particle Duality of Nature • In 1924. -His equation states that the wavelength of a moving object is inversely proportional to its momentum. . -He postulated a formula for obtaining the wavelength of a moving body. Louis de Broglie -presented a theory for the hydrogen atom where the electron was considered a wave.

.Wave-Particle Duality of Nature • In 1924. .He won the Nobel prize for physics for his revolutionary theory on the wave nature of electron. Louis de Broglie -It was confirmed by the experiment of Lester Germer and Clinton Davisson.

However. .Wave-Particle Duality of Nature • States that “particles act like waves and waves like a particles. a massive particles has less wave properties while a particles with a little mass like an electron has more obvious wavelike properties”.

.Bohr’s Model • Bohrs took the nuclear atom and dressed it with Planck’s quantum attire. and borrowed Newton’s law of motion. • He then proposed the first workable theory of atomic structure. kept part of Maxwell’s theory.

Bohrs Postulates 1. The electron revolves around the nucleus in a circular orbits. A hydrogen atoms consists of a nucleus containing a proton and an electron. . There is a force of attraction between the nucleus and the electron. This force balances the centrifugal force on the electron.

it neither absorbs nor radiates energy. This is nonradiating state is called the stationary state. As long as the electron stays in that orbit. . But this is beyond the scope of this text. Only certain circular orbits are permitted.) The energy of the electron in a given orbit fixed.Bohrs Postulates 2. the radii of the orbit can be calculated. (In this postulate.

Bohrs Postulates 3. it must absorb or emit a quantity of energy exactly equal to the difference in energy between the two state are presented by the following equation. To do so. hf=E1-E2 Where h= Plancks constant f= frequency E1 and E2= respectively energy level bet. . Which an electron jumps. The electron may move from one stationary state to another.

• When an electron goes into a higher energy state. . it is said to be excited state.• Electron normally exist in the lowest energy state called the ground state.

The fixed energy level proposed by Bohrs was supported by the emission spectrum of Hydrogen .

Emission line Spectrum -Is a collection of narrow bands of light. . -the individual band light are called spectral lines.

g the rainbow (it represent all energy values) . e.• A Continuous Spectrum results when white light is passed through a prism.

it shows that only certain energies are allowed for the electron. .• Since hydrogen produces a line spectrum and not continuous spectrum.

.Line Spectrum • Is an “atomic fingerprint” because each element produces a unique set of spectral lines.

These refer to as sharp. • This became the second quantum number to represent the energy sublevel. d.Arnold Sommerfeld (1868-1951) • Introduces the concept of elliptical orbits to explain the splitting of spectral lines. . diffuse. and f . p. and fundamental lines in the emission spectra of the element. principal. • These energy sublevel are designated as s.

2. As the value of n increases. the energy of the electron increases. the orbit (shells) become longer (radius increases). Electron in n=1 orbit/shell have the lowest energy. 1.The main feature of Bohr’s Model include the ff. As a principal quantum number (n) increase. .

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3. n= 1 n= 2 n= 3 n= 4 n= 5 2 2(1 ) = 2 electrons 2 2(2 ) = 8 electrons 2 2(3 ) = 18 electrons 2 2(4 ) = 32 electrons 2 2(5 ) = 50 electrons . Thus. Each orbit/shell can hold a maximum of 2n 2 electrons.The main feature of Bohr’s Model include the ff.

In the “electron build-up”. 4. . electrons occupy first the innermost shell (one with the lowest energy). electron must 2 fill each shell to 2n capacity. etc. before proceedings to the next higher shell.The main feature of Bohr’s Model include the ff. As the atom is being “built”.

END .

_____ atomic model shows the existence of nucleus in the atom. nature of charge on the nucleus and the magnitude of charge on the nucleus. What is the pointed arrow . 2.Quiz 1.

5.Quiz 3. to explain the behavior of electron in the atom. Used the nature of light . 4. which is visible to the human eye and is responsible for the sense of sight. He considered the man of light. . refers to visible light.

Is a collection of narrow bands of light. He called the packet of energy as quanta. 7.Quiz 6. He was the first to study on the nature of light. 8. Formulated the corpuscular or particle theory of light. Opposed the idea of Huygens. . 9.

What are the sublevel energy introduces by Arnold Sommerfeld. . States that “particles act like waves and waves like a particles. 11-15. However. a massive particles has less wave properties while a particles with a little mass like an electron has more obvious wavelike properties.Quiz 10.

Answer .

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Quiz 1. _____ atomic model shows the existence of nucleus in the atom. nature of charge on the nucleus and the magnitude of charge on the nucleus. Answer. Rutherford .

Gold Foil .Quiz 2.

4. which is visible to the human eye and is responsible for the sense of sight. He considered the man of light. Used the nature of light . 5. refers to visible light. to explain the behavior of electron in the atom.Quiz 3. .

Opposed the idea of Huygens. 9. 8.Quiz 6. . He was the first to study on the nature of light. 7.Formulated the corpuscular or particle theory of light. Is a collection of narrow bands of light. ”. He called the packet of energy as quanta.

Quiz 10. a massive particles has less wave properties while a particles with a little mass like an electron has more obvious wavelike properties . However. States that “particles act like waves and waves like a particles.