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Pretreatment For Fabrics Before Dyeing

& Printing
TADM 405: Colouration Technology

Textile Preparation is the heart of the


textile dyeing, printing and finishing proc
esses because fibers, yarns or fabrics have
many impurities (i.e. cotton wax, starch, l
ubricants, silk sericin, wool oil etc.).

More than 60% of the faults on


textiles are due to poor preparation.

WHAT CAUSES IMPURITIES

The raw material in general contains


unwanted matter of fibres and the
impurities of fibres. This impurities is :
Natural impurities is the dirt is emerge
together on cotton.
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WHAT CAUSES IMPURITIES

Impurities from outside


Dirt coming from outsider, yarn or fabric ,
for example : oil, ,dust , parts of leaf,
branch, stains of oil from machine and
etc.
The addition of impurities
The addition material impurities for the
fluency of process for example : oil, starch
at warp of yarn, etc.

Typical pre-treatment of 100%


cotton involves
Singeing
Desizing (only for woven fabrics) by
conventional /enzymatic process
Scouring by conventional /enzymatic
process
Bleaching (only for pale or bright
shades)
Neutralization
Peroxide removal
Biopolishing
Mercerizing
Optical Brightening

100% Silk Fibers


1. Degumming (to get rid of nonfibrous materials (sericin))
2. Bleaching (to make the goods
whiter)

100% Wool Fibers


1. Carbonising (to remove leave, bark and
other parts of the plants from the wool fibers)
2. Scouring (to get rid of fat and oil from the
fibers)
3. Bleaching (to make the fibers whiter)

Singeing

During the spinning process, tiny fibre ends


protrude from the surface of the spun yarns hence
fabric woven from these yarns will have these tiny
fibre ends protruding from the surface. These
fibres interfere with printing of the fabric by
taking up parts of fine details of a design.
Singeing therefore is the process of burning out
projecting hairy fibres from the surface of the grey
fabric by passing the fabric through a gas flame.
Both sides of the fabric are burnt out by the
flame.
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Singeing

It helps in subsequent chemical process done to


the fabric. After dyeing or printing of singed
fabric, brightness and luster of colour and fabric
becomes better.
Singeing is a process applied to both yarns and
fabrics to produce an even surface by burning off
projecting fibres, yarn ends, and fuzz. This is
accomplished by passing the fibre or yarn over a
gas flame or heated copper plates at a speed
sufficient to burn away the protruding material
without scorching or burning the yarn or fabric.
(hairs) on the fabrics (these fibres normally come 10

Singeing

During this process, the fabric is passed over a


flame in a singeing machine at a high speed
( 70 100m/min).
When the fibres are singed (burnt off, the fabric
is left with a smooth and uniform surface.
This can also be done by using two flames thus
both sides of the fabric can be singed by
passing the fabric through the machine once.
The fabric is then dipped in water to extinguish
any residual sparks, squeezed between two
rollers and plaited.
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Singeing
The main Objectives for singeing is:
1.

To get rid of the small fibres


2. To make the fabrics smoother than before
3. To help the printing ink or dyestuff to make
clearer marks on the fabrics
4. To improve rubbing fastness and washing
fastness of the dyed or printed fabrics
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De-sizing

It is the process of removing starch materials


present in the grey fabric. Generally an enzyme
is used to degrade and remove the starch present
in the grey fabric.
If the size materials are not removed from the
grey fabrics, then the subsequent chemical
treatments on the fabric will be irregular, which
will cause defective dyeing and printing.
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De-sizing

The starch present in the size applied to the


warp yarns before weaving the cloth is
removed.
The degradation of the starch can be carried
out either by hydrolysis or oxidation.
Hydrolysis is done by using dilute mineral
acids or enzyme preparations.
In de-sizing the hydrolysis reaction is
carried out up to the stage of soluble
dextrin only and not further to aglucose.
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De-sizing

Acid de-sizing: 0.25% acid (hydrochloric


or sulphuric) is sufficient to solubilize the
starch at room temperature in a few hours.
If the concentration of the acid,
temperature and duration of the acid desizing treatment are increased, the desizing will takes place very rapidly, but
the cotton attacks the cotton also resulting
in the weakening of the fabric.
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De-sizing

Enzymatic de-sizing: certain enzymes are


used to liquefy (degrade the starch to a
soluble state).
The singed cloth is passed through hot
water then through 0.5 2% enzyme
solution kept at 60 - 70C.
The enzymes are active over a particular
temperature range and pH range beyond
which they get inactivated (destroyed).
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De-sizing

The enzymes hydrolyses the starch only


(not the cellulose)
On the other hand acid de-sizing attacks
cotton cellulose under suitable conditions
of time, temperature and acid
concentration.
Enzyme de-sizing is therefore safer than
acid de-sizing. (enzymes are however more
expensive than acids).
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De-sizing

Oxidative desizing
In oxidative desizing, the risk of damage to the
cellulose fibre is very high, and its use for desizing is
increasingly rare.
Oxidative desizing uses potassium or
sodium persulfate or sodium bromite as an oxidizing
agent.
Removal of water-soluble sizes
Fabrics containing water soluble sizes can be desized
by washing using hot water, perhaps containing wetting
agents (surfactants) and a mild alkali. The water
replaces the size on the outer surface of the fiber, and
absorbs within the fiber to remove any fabric residue. 18

Scouring

It is the process of removing natural impurities present in the


cotton fibre. The natural impurities are pectins, pectose, ash,
wax, mineral compounds, etc. if those impurities present in the
cotton fibres are not removed, then it will be difficult to dye or
print the fabric uniformly.
Normally caustic soda ash is used as the main reagent for the
scouring of cotton fabric.
The main purpose of scouring is to remove natural and added
chemicals of essentially hydrophobic character as completely
as possible and leave the fabric in a highly absorptive
condition.
This is done without the fabric undergoing significant chemical
or physical damage and it prepares the fabric for bleaching. 19

Scouring

Scouring is also referred to as kiering,


boiling out or kier boiling.
For large scale purposes, scouring is done
in a boiler also called a kier.
Scouring is done in a circulating hot
alkaline liquor containing a detergent to a
regularly packed column of de-sized cloth
usually under pressure for a prolonged
period (8 24 hrs.)
The composition, temperature of the liquor,
pressure in the kier and duration of the 20
boiling depends upon the nature of the

Objectives of scouring

To remove natural fat, wax, and oil materials


contained in the fabrics without damaging the
fibres
2. To accelerate dye and chemical absorption
of the fabrics
3. To improve the handle of the goods (softer)
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Main processes during Scouring

Saponification of fats into water soluble


soap and water miscible glycerin under
alkaline conditions.
Hydrolysis of protein into water soluble
degradation products
Dissolution or hydrolysis to ammonia of
simpler amino compounds
Conversion of pectose and pectin into
their soluble salts

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Main processes during


Scouring

Dissolution of mineral matter


Emulsification of unsaponifiable oils and
waxes
Removal of dirt particles

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Scouring
This can be achieved by using
sodium hydroxide and detergent at
boil for 20-30 minutes. Synthetic
fabrics and other protein fabrics ma
y use only sodium carbonate (weak
er alkali) instead.
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Bleaching

After the fabric has been de-sized and


scoured it is left in a more absorbent
condition. However the natural colouring
matter of cotton is still present in the fabric.
In order to obtain a white cloth (to enhance
the production of pure or pale shades
through printing or dyeing), the normal
practice is to discolourise the natural
colouring matter present in the cloth.
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Bleaching

The discolouring is achieved through bleaching using:


Dilute hypochlorite solution (sodium hypochlorite) at
room temperature usually under alkaline conditions.
Or

hydrogen peroxide under alkaline conditions in the


presence of stabilizers like sodium silicate at 80
85C
Or
Or

sodium chlorite under acidic conditions at the boil


peroxy compounds e.g. peracetic acid
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Bleaching Process
The process is to make the goods
whiter than before. This will help t
he goods to absorb more dyes and c
hemical and also make the dye on t
he goods brighter.
Normally, for cotton fabrics,
hydrogen peroxide in alkali solution

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Objectives of bleaching
To whiten the goods
To make the goods to be suitable for
dyeing and printing with pale or
bright shade
To be follow with adding optical
brightening agent process (super whit
e)
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Natural coloring matters present in silk are


associated mainly with sericin and hence
are eliminated during degumming. The
natural colouring matter of silk can be
roughly divided into yellow,greenand
brown pigments.
However the residual pigments are
adsorbed by fibroin and hence silk fabrics
made from yellow raw silk after
degumming are not white but have a
cream colour.
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Silk Bleaching
The bleaching process may be based on
reducing agents or oxidizing agents.
Reductive Bleaching
Predominantreducingagentsused are Sulphur
dioxide, sodium hydrosulphite and sodium or
zinc sulphoxylate formaldehyde.
Thematerialbleachedwith reducing agents
tends to re-oxidise and the original color may
be restored. Hence oxidizingbleachingis most
preferred.
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Oxidative Bleaching
The oxidative agents used are
potassium permanganate,
sodium perborate,
sodium peroxide
Hydrogen peroxide.
The hydrogen peroxide is the
most preferred bleaching agent
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Bleaching of Wool
Wool exhibits by nature a pronounced yellow
colour and also on exposure to light, alkali or
by microbial degradation. Commercially, wool
bleaching is carried out using either an
oxidative or a reductive system, or a combined
oxidation/reduction process. Oxidative bleaching
in the dye bath is also possible.
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In general, oxidative bleaching


with hydrogen peroxide gives
superior whiteness over reductive
methods. Recent research also
revealed the use enzymes to
enhance the whiteness of bleached
wool.
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Mercerizing Process
This process is done to make the
cotton goods have more luster than bef
ore using sodium hydroxide solution in
cold condition and tension.
This will lead the cotton fibers to be
swollen and increased strength.
It will improve dye absorption of the
fibers. John Mercer was the first chem
ist in the world who found this pheno
menon in 1844. Therefore, the proces
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s was called Mercerizing

Caustizing Process
This is the process nearly
the same as mercerizing but
it uses lower concentration
of the hydroxide solution an
d without tension.

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Objectives
1. To make the goods more luster because
raw cotton fibers are ribbon-like. After thi
s process, the fibers change to cylindrical s
hape resulting more evenness reflected light
from the goods.

Before
After
2. To improve dyeability of the goods about
5-10%.
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Adding Optical Brightening Agent


The process is to add special dyestuff into
textile or paper to make them brighter
when looking at black-light light bulb or n
atural sunlight.
As the dyestuffs are colorless but using
UV light to excite these dyes. They will
reflect the light at the wavelength that hum
an can see (i.e. blue, violet). So the goods
look brighter and whiter.

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