Sie sind auf Seite 1von 37

Pretreatment For Fabrics Before Dyeing

& Printing
TADM 405: Colouration Technology

Textile Preparation is the heart of the

textile dyeing, printing and finishing proc
esses because fibers, yarns or fabrics have
many impurities (i.e. cotton wax, starch, l
ubricants, silk sericin, wool oil etc.).

More than 60% of the faults on

textiles are due to poor preparation.


The raw material in general contains

unwanted matter of fibres and the
impurities of fibres. This impurities is :
Natural impurities is the dirt is emerge
together on cotton.


Impurities from outside

Dirt coming from outsider, yarn or fabric ,
for example : oil, ,dust , parts of leaf,
branch, stains of oil from machine and
The addition of impurities
The addition material impurities for the
fluency of process for example : oil, starch
at warp of yarn, etc.

Typical pre-treatment of 100%

cotton involves
Desizing (only for woven fabrics) by
conventional /enzymatic process
Scouring by conventional /enzymatic
Bleaching (only for pale or bright
Peroxide removal
Optical Brightening

100% Silk Fibers

1. Degumming (to get rid of nonfibrous materials (sericin))
2. Bleaching (to make the goods

100% Wool Fibers

1. Carbonising (to remove leave, bark and
other parts of the plants from the wool fibers)
2. Scouring (to get rid of fat and oil from the
3. Bleaching (to make the fibers whiter)


During the spinning process, tiny fibre ends

protrude from the surface of the spun yarns hence
fabric woven from these yarns will have these tiny
fibre ends protruding from the surface. These
fibres interfere with printing of the fabric by
taking up parts of fine details of a design.
Singeing therefore is the process of burning out
projecting hairy fibres from the surface of the grey
fabric by passing the fabric through a gas flame.
Both sides of the fabric are burnt out by the


It helps in subsequent chemical process done to

the fabric. After dyeing or printing of singed
fabric, brightness and luster of colour and fabric
becomes better.
Singeing is a process applied to both yarns and
fabrics to produce an even surface by burning off
projecting fibres, yarn ends, and fuzz. This is
accomplished by passing the fibre or yarn over a
gas flame or heated copper plates at a speed
sufficient to burn away the protruding material
without scorching or burning the yarn or fabric.
(hairs) on the fabrics (these fibres normally come 10


During this process, the fabric is passed over a

flame in a singeing machine at a high speed
( 70 100m/min).
When the fibres are singed (burnt off, the fabric
is left with a smooth and uniform surface.
This can also be done by using two flames thus
both sides of the fabric can be singed by
passing the fabric through the machine once.
The fabric is then dipped in water to extinguish
any residual sparks, squeezed between two
rollers and plaited.

The main Objectives for singeing is:

To get rid of the small fibres

2. To make the fabrics smoother than before
3. To help the printing ink or dyestuff to make
clearer marks on the fabrics
4. To improve rubbing fastness and washing
fastness of the dyed or printed fabrics


It is the process of removing starch materials

present in the grey fabric. Generally an enzyme
is used to degrade and remove the starch present
in the grey fabric.
If the size materials are not removed from the
grey fabrics, then the subsequent chemical
treatments on the fabric will be irregular, which
will cause defective dyeing and printing.


The starch present in the size applied to the

warp yarns before weaving the cloth is
The degradation of the starch can be carried
out either by hydrolysis or oxidation.
Hydrolysis is done by using dilute mineral
acids or enzyme preparations.
In de-sizing the hydrolysis reaction is
carried out up to the stage of soluble
dextrin only and not further to aglucose.


Acid de-sizing: 0.25% acid (hydrochloric

or sulphuric) is sufficient to solubilize the
starch at room temperature in a few hours.
If the concentration of the acid,
temperature and duration of the acid desizing treatment are increased, the desizing will takes place very rapidly, but
the cotton attacks the cotton also resulting
in the weakening of the fabric.


Enzymatic de-sizing: certain enzymes are

used to liquefy (degrade the starch to a
soluble state).
The singed cloth is passed through hot
water then through 0.5 2% enzyme
solution kept at 60 - 70C.
The enzymes are active over a particular
temperature range and pH range beyond
which they get inactivated (destroyed).


The enzymes hydrolyses the starch only

(not the cellulose)
On the other hand acid de-sizing attacks
cotton cellulose under suitable conditions
of time, temperature and acid
Enzyme de-sizing is therefore safer than
acid de-sizing. (enzymes are however more
expensive than acids).


Oxidative desizing
In oxidative desizing, the risk of damage to the
cellulose fibre is very high, and its use for desizing is
increasingly rare.
Oxidative desizing uses potassium or
sodium persulfate or sodium bromite as an oxidizing
Removal of water-soluble sizes
Fabrics containing water soluble sizes can be desized
by washing using hot water, perhaps containing wetting
agents (surfactants) and a mild alkali. The water
replaces the size on the outer surface of the fiber, and
absorbs within the fiber to remove any fabric residue. 18


It is the process of removing natural impurities present in the

cotton fibre. The natural impurities are pectins, pectose, ash,
wax, mineral compounds, etc. if those impurities present in the
cotton fibres are not removed, then it will be difficult to dye or
print the fabric uniformly.
Normally caustic soda ash is used as the main reagent for the
scouring of cotton fabric.
The main purpose of scouring is to remove natural and added
chemicals of essentially hydrophobic character as completely
as possible and leave the fabric in a highly absorptive
This is done without the fabric undergoing significant chemical
or physical damage and it prepares the fabric for bleaching. 19


Scouring is also referred to as kiering,

boiling out or kier boiling.
For large scale purposes, scouring is done
in a boiler also called a kier.
Scouring is done in a circulating hot
alkaline liquor containing a detergent to a
regularly packed column of de-sized cloth
usually under pressure for a prolonged
period (8 24 hrs.)
The composition, temperature of the liquor,
pressure in the kier and duration of the 20
boiling depends upon the nature of the

Objectives of scouring

To remove natural fat, wax, and oil materials

contained in the fabrics without damaging the
2. To accelerate dye and chemical absorption
of the fabrics
3. To improve the handle of the goods (softer)

Main processes during Scouring

Saponification of fats into water soluble

soap and water miscible glycerin under
alkaline conditions.
Hydrolysis of protein into water soluble
degradation products
Dissolution or hydrolysis to ammonia of
simpler amino compounds
Conversion of pectose and pectin into
their soluble salts


Main processes during


Dissolution of mineral matter

Emulsification of unsaponifiable oils and
Removal of dirt particles


This can be achieved by using
sodium hydroxide and detergent at
boil for 20-30 minutes. Synthetic
fabrics and other protein fabrics ma
y use only sodium carbonate (weak
er alkali) instead.


After the fabric has been de-sized and

scoured it is left in a more absorbent
condition. However the natural colouring
matter of cotton is still present in the fabric.
In order to obtain a white cloth (to enhance
the production of pure or pale shades
through printing or dyeing), the normal
practice is to discolourise the natural
colouring matter present in the cloth.


The discolouring is achieved through bleaching using:

Dilute hypochlorite solution (sodium hypochlorite) at
room temperature usually under alkaline conditions.

hydrogen peroxide under alkaline conditions in the

presence of stabilizers like sodium silicate at 80

sodium chlorite under acidic conditions at the boil

peroxy compounds e.g. peracetic acid

Bleaching Process
The process is to make the goods
whiter than before. This will help t
he goods to absorb more dyes and c
hemical and also make the dye on t
he goods brighter.
Normally, for cotton fabrics,
hydrogen peroxide in alkali solution


Objectives of bleaching
To whiten the goods
To make the goods to be suitable for
dyeing and printing with pale or
bright shade
To be follow with adding optical
brightening agent process (super whit

Natural coloring matters present in silk are

associated mainly with sericin and hence
are eliminated during degumming. The
natural colouring matter of silk can be
roughly divided into yellow,greenand
brown pigments.
However the residual pigments are
adsorbed by fibroin and hence silk fabrics
made from yellow raw silk after
degumming are not white but have a
cream colour.

Silk Bleaching
The bleaching process may be based on
reducing agents or oxidizing agents.
Reductive Bleaching
Predominantreducingagentsused are Sulphur
dioxide, sodium hydrosulphite and sodium or
zinc sulphoxylate formaldehyde.
Thematerialbleachedwith reducing agents
tends to re-oxidise and the original color may
be restored. Hence oxidizingbleachingis most

Oxidative Bleaching
The oxidative agents used are
potassium permanganate,
sodium perborate,
sodium peroxide
Hydrogen peroxide.
The hydrogen peroxide is the
most preferred bleaching agent

Bleaching of Wool
Wool exhibits by nature a pronounced yellow
colour and also on exposure to light, alkali or
by microbial degradation. Commercially, wool
bleaching is carried out using either an
oxidative or a reductive system, or a combined
oxidation/reduction process. Oxidative bleaching
in the dye bath is also possible.

In general, oxidative bleaching

with hydrogen peroxide gives
superior whiteness over reductive
methods. Recent research also
revealed the use enzymes to
enhance the whiteness of bleached

Mercerizing Process
This process is done to make the
cotton goods have more luster than bef
ore using sodium hydroxide solution in
cold condition and tension.
This will lead the cotton fibers to be
swollen and increased strength.
It will improve dye absorption of the
fibers. John Mercer was the first chem
ist in the world who found this pheno
menon in 1844. Therefore, the proces
s was called Mercerizing

Caustizing Process
This is the process nearly
the same as mercerizing but
it uses lower concentration
of the hydroxide solution an
d without tension.


1. To make the goods more luster because
raw cotton fibers are ribbon-like. After thi
s process, the fibers change to cylindrical s
hape resulting more evenness reflected light
from the goods.

2. To improve dyeability of the goods about

Adding Optical Brightening Agent

The process is to add special dyestuff into
textile or paper to make them brighter
when looking at black-light light bulb or n
atural sunlight.
As the dyestuffs are colorless but using
UV light to excite these dyes. They will
reflect the light at the wavelength that hum
an can see (i.e. blue, violet). So the goods
look brighter and whiter.