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SOURCES OF DRUGS

Mr. Mehul G. Rana, Asst. Prof., SJTPC,


Rajkot.

Drugs can be obtained from:


1)Plant sources
2)Biological sources
3)Marine sources
4)Mineral sources
5)Tissue culture as source of drug

Mr. Mehul G. Rana, Asst. Prof., SJTPC,


Rajkot.

Drugs from plant source

Traditional medicine is an evolutionary process as


communities and individuals continue to discover new
techniques to heal the aliment that can renovate into medical
practices.

Rig Veda, Atharvaveda (around 1200 BC), Charak Samhita


and Sushruta Samhita (1000-500 BC) are the main classics
that give detailed descriptions of over 700 herbs.
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Mr. Mehul G. Rana, Asst. Prof., SJTPC,


Rajkot.

Drugs from plant source


More common plants have been collected and preserved
in Jammu.
The herbarium now contains about 1600 species and
16,000 mounted sheets.
The plants on earth divided in about 300 families and
10,500 genera.
At least 100-150 species of medicinal plants are cultivated
and about 30-40 of them are the large scale field crops.
They obtain in a crude form

Mr. Mehul G. Rana, Asst. Prof., SJTPC,


Rajkot.

As per WHO, Herbal Drugs is a part of plant or plant


which is not pressed other than drying and cutting.
Drugs which are described in Ayurvedic books are called
Ayurvedic drugs.
Organized crude drugs consist of a cellular organism in
the form of anatomical features. The simple medicines
prepared from these drugs are Herbal teas, extracts,
tinctures etc.

Mr. Mehul G. Rana, Asst. Prof., SJTPC,


Rajkot.

Unorganized drugs do not have the morphological or


anatomical organization as such. These are the product
which come directly in the market but their ultimate
sources remain the plant, animals or minerals.
These include products like
plant exudates as gums, resin, oleogum resins.
Plant juices like aloes,
dried extract of pale and black catechu, essential oils,
fixed oils, fats and waxes obtained from plant or
extracted from plant.

Mr. Mehul G. Rana, Asst. Prof., SJTPC,


Rajkot.

The drugs obtained from vegetable sources are


Digitalis, Vinca, Rauwolfia, Cinchona, Aloe Opium
etc.
Other pharmacologically active drugs are cinchonaquinine, raulfia - reserpine, vinca - vinblastin &
vincristine.

Mr. Mehul G. Rana, Asst. Prof., SJTPC,


Rajkot.

Biological sources of drugs

Fungi antibiotics
Algae agar & alginic acid
Lichens And Mosses has medicinal value
Land animals gelatin, wool fat, bees wax, sources of
hormones, vitamins and sera.
Bacteriophyta antibiotics, genetic engineering i.e.
production of human insulin and in the transformation of
higher plant cells by incorporation of part of the DNA of a
bacterial plasmid into plant genome.

Mr. Mehul G. Rana, Asst. Prof., SJTPC,


Rajkot.

Biological sources of drugs

Microbial sources killed cultures of bacteria and viruses


used to prepare vaccines like Diphtheria, Polio, Tetanus,
Typhoid, Rabies, Hepatitis B etc.

Mr. Mehul G. Rana, Asst. Prof., SJTPC,


Rajkot.

Drugs from marine origin

About five lakh species of marine organism have been


reported from the oceans and seas from various parts of the
world.
The marine flora and animal world are a rich source of
biologically active compounds.
A large number of sometimes-toxic metabolites have been
isolated and characterized from protozoan, sponges,
echinoderms, mollusks, sea snakes and fishes.

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Mr. Mehul G. Rana, Asst. Prof., SJTPC,


Rajkot.

Drugs from marine origin

A variety of compounds which possess known or novel


pharmacological activities in mammals and have exhibited
antimicrobial, antineoplastic, antiviral, antibiotic, antiinflammatory, prostaglandins, neurophysiological,
anticancer/cytotoxic, enzyme inhibitor and cardiovascular
agents.

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Mr. Mehul G. Rana, Asst. Prof., SJTPC,


Rajkot.

Drugs from marine origin

There are several well-known marine products that have


been in use for many years, such as cod and halibut liver
oils, spermaceti, protamine sulphate and seaweed
polysaccharides agar, Carrageenan and alginic acid, all of
these are generally known.

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Mr. Mehul G. Rana, Asst. Prof., SJTPC,


Rajkot.

Drugs from minerals origin


The drugs from mineral sources are Kieselguhr, Shilajit,
prepared chalk, Asbestos, Bentonite, Calamine, Talc etc.
Kieselguhr used for the filtration of oils, fats, syrup etc.
Chalk adsorbent and antacid
Shilajit general tonic and stimulant (4 forms i.e. iron,
copper, silver and gold Shilajit have been reported in ancient
Hindu literature)
the aphrodisiac Shilajit of authentic quality is an important
ingredient of Ayurvedic preparations meant for
strengthening immunizing system of human body.
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Mr. Mehul G. Rana, Asst. Prof., SJTPC,


Rajkot.

Tissue cultures as source of drugs


Tissue culture is in vitro cultivation of plant cell or
tissue under aseptic and controlled environmental
conditions, in liquid or an semisolid, well defined
nutrient medium for the production of primary and
secondary metabolites or to regenerate plant.
Primary metabolites are substances that are widely
distributed in nature, occurring in one form or
another in virtually all organisms and are needed
for general growth and physiological development,
because of their basic cell metabolism.
Examples are sugars, amino acids and fatty acids
Secondary metabolites are biosynthetically derived
from primary metabolites but are more limited in
distribution.
Examples are glycosides, alkaloids, flavonoids,
volatile oils, etc.

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Mr. Mehul G. Rana, Asst. Prof., SJTPC,


Rajkot.

PTC is used for biosynthesis of secondary


metabolites because they have impressive
biological activities like antimicrobial, antibiotic,
insecticidal, hormonal properties, flavors,
fragrances, colors, etc.
Most of the secondary metabolites are
accumulated after certain age or maturity of the
plant. It is difficult to increase the area under
plantation and growth of the plants takes its own
time. To meet the ever increasing demand ( eg.
Vincristine) the natural sources are not sufficient.
To overcome the all these hurdles the industry
requires alternative methods of assured supply of
uniform material throughout the year. Plant tissue
culture techniques offer an excellent alternative.
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Mr. Mehul G. Rana, Asst. Prof., SJTPC,


Rajkot.

Advantages of tissue culture:Useful compounds can be produced under controlled


conditions independent of climatic changes or soil
conditions.
Cultured cells would be free of microbes and insects.
The cells of any plants tropical or alpines could be
easily multiplied to yield their specific metabolites.
Automated control of cell growth and rational
regulations of metabolite process would reduce labour
costs and improve productivity.
Organic substances are extractable from callus
cultures.
CULTURE TYPES:
1) Callus & suspension culture
2) Meristem culture
3) Embryo culture
4) Ovary culture
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Mehul G. Rana, Asst. Prof., SJTPC,
5)Anther
culture Mr.6)
Pollen culture Rajkot.

The type of explant, hormonal combinations and


growth conditions play an important role in
maintenance of cultures.
Importance of tissue culture:
1. Shikonin antibacterial action and used as dye
2. Ginkolites increase blood circulation
3. Ginsengosites Tonic
4. Vincristine & Vinblastine blood cancer
5. Production of antibotics.
6. Production of secondary metabolites

Compound

Source

yield)
(%)

Ajmalicine

Catharanthus roseus

5.0

Berberine alkaloids

Berberis wilsonae

1.8

Diosgenin

Dioscorea deltoidea

7.8

Nicotine

Nicotiana tabacum

5.0

Mr. Mehul G. Rana, Asst. Prof., SJTPC,


Rajkot.

2.2

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Serpentine

Catharanthus roseus

Genetic engineering of plants


Recombinant DNA technology involves introduction of
foreign DNA into cultured plant cells to bring about
their genetic transformation.
This technology has been successful in isolating large
amount of pure genes that might be used to produce
better crops.
Genetic engineering in medicinal plant breeding:
1. Rapid multiplication of selected plants via in vitro
node, shoot, tip and meristem culture
2. Production of polyploids via in vitro chromosomes
doubling
3. Creation of new genetic variability
4. Introduction of desirable single gene
5. Production of virus - resistant plants by gene transfer

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Mr. Mehul G. Rana, Asst. Prof., SJTPC,


Rajkot.

Study Question

Describe in brief about sources of drugs.


Mention sources of drugs giving examples.
Write short note on tissue culture and its
application.
Define: Crude drugs, Ayurvedic drugs and
Herbal drugs, organized drugs, unorganized
drugs, primary metabolites and secondary
metabolites.

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Mr. Mehul G. Rana, Asst. Prof., SJTPC,


Rajkot.