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Mean

Median

Mode

Range

Average deviation

Variance

Standard deviation

Introduction to Notations

If variable X is the variable of

interest, and that n

measurements are taken;

then the notation X1, X2, X3, ,

Xn will be used to represent n

observations.

Sigma

Indicates summation of

Summation Notation

If variable X is the variable of interest,

and that n measurements are taken;

the sum of n observations can be

written as

n

X

=

X

+X

+

+X

i

1

2

n

i=1

Summation Notation

Upper limit of summation

Greek letter Sigma

n

X

=

X

+X

+

+X

i

1

2

n

i=1

Lower limit of summation

Rules of Summation

n

(X

+Y

)

=

X

+

Y

i

i

i

i

i=1

i=1

i=1

summation of the

sum of variables

is

the sum of

their

summations

variablesn is

(a

+b

++z

)

i

i

i

i=1

=

n

n

n

a

+

b

+

z

i=1 i

i=1 i

i=1 i

Rules of Summation

If c is a constant, then

n

cX

=

c

X

i

i

i=1

i=1

= c(X1+X2+ +Xn)

Rules of Summation

n

i=1 c = nc

The summation of a constant is

the product of upper limit of

summation n and constant c.

Statistics in Research

MEASURES OF CENTRAL

TENDENCY

Mean

The sum of all values of the

observations divided by the total

number of observations

The sum of all scores divided by the

total frequency

Population mean

= i=1

Xi

N

Sample mean x

=

X

i

i=1

n

Mean in an Ungrouped

Frequency

n

f

X

i

i

i=1

of the occurring score

n

= (f1X1+f2X2+ +fnXn)

n

Properties - Mean

The most stable measure of central

tendency

Can be affected by extreme values

Its value may not be an actual value in

the data set

If a constant c is added/substracted to

all values, the new mean will

increase/decrease by the same amount

c

Median

Positional middle of an array of data

Divides ranked values into halves

with 50% larger than and 50%

smaller than the median value.

If n is odd:

Md = X(n+1)/2

If n is even:

Md = Xn/2 + X(n/2)+1

2

Properties - Median

The median is a positional measure

Can be determined only if arranged in

order

Its value may not be an actual value in

the data set

It is affected by the position of items in

the series but not by the value of each

item

Affected less by extreme values

Mode

Value that occurs most frequently in

the data set

Locates the point where scores occur

with the greatest density

Less popular compared to mean and

median measures

Properties - Mode

It may not exist, or if it does, it may

not be unique

Not affected by extreme values

Applicable for both qualitative and

quantitative data

Statistics in Research

MEASURES OF

VARIABILITY AND

DISPERSION

Range

Measure of distance along the

number line over where data exists

Exclusive and inclusive range

Exclusive range = largest score smallest score

Inclusive range = upper limit - lower

limit

Properties - Range

Rough and general measure of

dispersion

Largest and smallest extreme values

determine the range

Does not describe distribution of

values within the upper and lower

extremes

Does not depend on number of data

Absolute Deviation

Average of absolute deviations of

scores from the mean (Mean

Deviation)

or the median (Median Absolute

Deviation)

MD = i=1 | Xi - X |

n

n

MAD = | Xi - Md |

i=1

Properties Absolute

Deviation

Measures variability of values in the

data set

Indicates how compact the group is

on a certain measure

Variance

Average of the square of deviations

measured from the mean

Population variance (2) and sample

variance (s2)

= i=1 ( Xi - )

2

N

n

s = ( Xi X )

2

i=1

n -1

s = n Xi - ( Xi )

2

i=1

i=1

n(n -1)

Properties Variance

Addition/subtraction of a constant c

to each score will not change the

variance of the scores

Multiplying each score by a constant

c changes the variance, resulting in a

new variance multiplied by c2

Standard Deviation

Square root of the average of the

square of deviations measured from

the mean square root of the

variance

Population standard deviation () and

sample standard deviation (s)

= i=1

( Xi - )

N

n

s = ( Xi X )

i=1

n -1

Why n-1?

Degrees of freedom

Measure of how much precision an

estimate of variation has

General rule is thatthe degrees of

freedom decrease as more parameters

have to be estimated

Xbar estimates

Using an estimated mean to find the

standard deviation causes the loss of ONE

degree of freedom

Properties Standard

Deviation

Most used measure of variability

Affected by every value of every

observation

Less affected by fluctuations and

extreme values

Properties Standard

Deviation

Addition/subtraction of a constant c

to each score will not change the

standard of the scores

Multiplying each score by a constant

c changes the standard deviation,

resulting in a new standard deviation

multiplied by c

Choosing a measure

Range

Data are too little or scattered to justify

more precise and laborious measures

Need to know only the total spread of scores

Absolute Deviation

Find and weigh deviations from the

mean/median

Extreme values unduly skews the standard

deviation

Choosing a measure

Standard Deviation

Need a measure with the best stability

Effect of extreme values have been

deemed acceptable

Compare and correlate with other data

sets

Statistics in Research

FREQUENCY

DISTRIBUTION

Raw data

74

72

72

72

73

73

73

73

74

50

79

79

77

77

78

59

79

79

79

57

69

68

66

66

68

65

68

68

68

63

72

71

69

69

70

69

71

71

71

69

53

50

50

50

50

50

51

52

53

72

76

75

75

75

75

75

76

76

76

74

62

60

59

60

60

77

62

62

62

77

82

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87

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84

96

91

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89

89

87

92

94

94

87

Array

50

50

50

50

50

50

51

52

53

53

57

59

59

60

60

60

62

62

62

62

63

65

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68

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96

Frequency Distribution

Table

Class Frequency

Number of observations within a class, f

Class Limits

End numbers of the class

Class Interval

Interval between the upper and lower

class limits, ie: [Xupper limit , Xlower limit ]

Frequency Distribution

Table

Class Boundaries

True limits of the class, halfway between class

limit of the current class and that of the

preceding/succeeding class, LCB and UCB

Class Size

Difference between UCB and LCB,

ie: XUCB - XLCB

Class Mark

Midpoint of the class interval, average value

of the upper and lower class limits, ie. Xupper limit

- Xlower limit

Constructing an FDT

Determine number of classes

Sturges Formula, K = 1 + 3.322 log n

Square Root, K = sqrt(n)

size, C = R/K

Round off C to a more convenient

number C

Constructing an FDT

Determine lower class limit

Lowest class should not be empty, must

contain the lowest value in the data set

limits by adding class size C to the

current lower class limit

Tally frequencies

Array

50

50

50

50

50

50

51

52

53

53

57

59

59

60

60

60

62

62

62

62

63

65

66

66

68

68

68

68

68

69

69

69

69

69

70

71

71

71

71

72

72

72

72

72

73

73

73

73

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74

74

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91

92

94

94

96

Class

Frequency Distribution

Table

Frequen

cy

LCB

UCB

RF

<CF

>CF

50-54

10

49.5

54.5

0.09

10

110

55-59

54.5

59.5

0.03

13

100

60-64

59.5

64.5

0.07

21

97

65-69

13

64.5

69.5

0.12

34

89

70-74

17

69.5

74.5

0.15

51

76

75-79

19

74.5

79.5

0.17

70

59

80-84

22

79.5

84.5

0.20

92

40

85-89

13

84.5

89.5

0.12

105

18

90-94

89.5

94.5

0.04

109

95-99

94.5

99.5

0.01

110

Other Terms

Relative frequency, RF

Class frequency divided by number of

observations, ie. RF = fi / n

RF = (fi / n) x 100%

Cummulative frequency

Shows accumulated frequencies of

successive classes, either from the

beginning (less than CF) or end (greater

than CF) of the FDT

Mean from an FD

K

X = i=1

fiXi

K

fi

i=1

Median from an FD

Md = LCBMd + C n/2 - <CFMd-1

fMd

where LCBMd = lower class boundary of median

class

<CFMd-1 = less than cumulative frequency

Mode from an FD

Mo = LCBMo + C

fMo - fMo-1

2fMo - fMo-1 - fMo+1

fMo, fMo-1, fMo+1 = frequency of modal class, class

preceding and

class succeeding the

FD

n

MD = fi |Xi - X|

i=1

n

where Xi =

class mark of the ith class

n = total number of observations; total

frequency, ie. n = fi

Variance from an FD

n

s = fi(Xi - X)

2

i=1

(n -1)

where Xi =

class mark of the ith class

n = total number of observations; total

frequency, ie. n = fi

Variance from an FD

n

s = n fiXi - ( fiXi )

2

i=1

i=1

n(n -1)

where Xi =

class mark of the ith class

n = total number of observations; total

frequency, ie. n = fi

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