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You are on page 1of 36

TECHNOLOGY

BY

PROF. P.K. SAHU

National Institute of Technology Rourkela

1

NITR

22nd June12

introduction

WHAT IS SPECTRUM ?

NITR

22nd June12

Features:

Spectrum of baseband spreads beyond expectation

Chip rate (fc) >> Data rate (fb)

Code Signal(Chip code) is also called an NRZ Signal and varies between 1 Volt

Chip code sequence is generated in a deterministic manner and is repetitive.

Sequence length is extremely long before repetition.

Sequence is truly random and hence known as PRN (Pseudo Random Noise) or PRBS (Pseudo Random

Binary Sequence)

Power Spectral Density is reduced by a factor of fb/fc

Spreading gain is fc/ fb

Bandwidth of BPSK signal is 2fb and bandwidth of Spread Spectrum signal is 2fc

Without

Spreading

f0fb

f0+f

With Spreading

f0- fc

f

0

f0+fc

CDMA Encoder:

Modulated chip

(product code)

Dat

a in

BM

BPSK

Mod.

RF

Mod.

N bit

CWG

IF

Carrie

r

RF

Osc.

HPA &

BPF

Up

Convert

er

NCWG: N Bit Code Word Generator

BPSK Mod: Binary Phase Shift Keying Modulator

HPA: High Power Amplifier

BPF: Band Pass Filter

To

Satelli

te

fc=7fb

+1

tb

Data

-1

+1 +1 +1

tb/7

t

+1 +1 +1

+1

Chip

code

+1

-1

-1

-1

-1

-1

-1

+1

+1 +1

+1

+1

+1 Product

code

-1

-1

-1

-1

-1

-1

-1

-1

CDMA Decoder:

From satellite

RF

Demod.

IF PSK

IF PSK

Bit

Decode

r

Corre-lator

CA & T

BM

Chip

code

BPF

Data

Out

PSK

Carrier

CPD

CA & T: Code Acquisition and Tracking

CPD: Coherent Phase Detector

BM: Balanced Modulator

Logic 0 = -1

Logic 1 = +1

1 1 1 -1 +1 -1 -1

Product Code

-1 -1 -1 1 -1 1

Recovered Chip

Code

Correlation

-1 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1

(-7 Volt = logic 0)

1

1

1 -1 1 -1 -1

1

1 1 1 -1

1 -1 -1

1 -1 1 -1 -1

1 1 1 -1

1 -1 -1

1111111

(+7 Volt = logic 1)

A spread spectrum signal cannot be demodulated accurately if the receiver does not possess a

de-spreading circuit that matches the code word generator in the transmitter.

Types of Spread Spectrum Signal:

Direct Sequence Spread Spectrum (DS-SS)

Frequency Hopping Spread Spectrum (FH-SS)

Hybrid Direct Sequence Frequency Hopping Spread Spectrum (DS-FH-SS)

In DS-SS, a bipolar (NRZ) data modulated carrier is linearly multiplied by the spreading signal in a

special balanced modulator called Spreading Correlator.

PSK Mod

n Bit EC

CS

Data

Source (fb)

Output

Amplifier

SC

To Tx

Input Data

Register

FCL/N

Devide by N

N=100 to

1000

FCL

System

Clock (FCL)

PSK Mod. N bit EC:

PSK Modulator n bit Encoder

SC: Spreading Correlator

Spreading

code

generator

FH-SS Technique:

I/P

FSK

Modulat

or

UP

Convert

er

O/P

Amplifi

er

SS O/P

Signal

Frequenc

y

Slots

f5

Frequenc

y

Synthesi

zer

Syste

m

Clock

Code

Sequenc

er

f4

f3

f2

1 2 3

Code

..N

Spreadin

g

Generato

r

f1

t1

t4

t2

t5

Time

Slots

t3

t1

t2

t3

t4

t5

0010

0100

0011

0101

0010

f2

f4

f3

f5

f2

Spread Spectrum

BSS

B

Spreading

Process

Spreading

Signal

This technique uses M different carrier frequencies those are modulated by the source signal.

At one moment, the signal modulates one carrier frequency, at the next moment, the signal modulates

another carrier frequency.

Though the modulation is done using one carrier frequency at a time, M frequencies are used in the long

run.

The bandwidth occupied by a source after spreading is BFHSS >> B

S (t ) 2 cos 0 (t T1 T2 )

S (t ) 2 PS g (t ) cos 0 (t )

S(t)

g(t

)

R(t)

Radar

r(t)

LPF

S(t-T1-T2)

C (t ) 2 PS Cos0t

AD

(D)

g(t D)

Int

g(t T1

T2)

vi (t ).gi (t )

vi (t )

d(t

)

In

t

2 PS cos 0t

g (t )

n(t )

g (t )

Sample

Switch

(Tb)

O/P

2 cos 0t

Vi (t ) g (t ) 2 Ps cos ot.d (t ) n(t ) g (t )

n(t) will be chopped in to chips and the output of the integrator will be a random signal and

hence the statistical properties of the noise gets unaffected due to Spread Spectrum.

Pe 1 2 erfc Eb

Let the under mention signal is used to interfere the Spread Spectrum (DS) signal.

n(t) is replaced by

Now

2 Pj cos(ot )

Vi (t ) 2 PS d (t ) g (t ) cos ot 2 Pj cos(ot )

V0 (t )

Ps d (t )(1 cos 20t ) Pj g (t )(1 cos 20t ) cos Pj g (t ) sin 20t sin

V0' (t ) PS d (t ) Pj g (t ) cos

14 2 43 1 44 2 4 43

Compressed

band

PSD of

Pj cos 2 sin f f c

Pj g (t ) cos

2 fc

f

f

c

Wideband

Gj ( f )

As integrator acts as a low pass filter and the cut-off frequency is 1/T b = fb,

then

Gj ( f )

Pj cos 2

2 fc

for f f b Q f b = f c

If the jamming signal would have been replaced by n(t) with two sided PSD of /2 ,

Then Pe would have been =

Now replace /2 by

1 2 erfc

Eb

Pj cos 2

2 fc

So,

Pe 1 2 erfc

Eb f c

Pj cos 2

Pe 1 2 erfc

PS Tb f c

Pj cos 2

Pe 1 2 erfc

PS f c

1

.

.

Pj f b cos 2

Ps f c

Pe 1 2 erfc 2

Pj

f b

1 2 erfc

PS

Pj

1 2 erfc

2 fc fb

Where Pjeff

15

NITR

Pj

2 f c fb

PS

Pjeff

Pj

2GP

2/10/16

Principle:

Transmission is simultaneous

Transmission is at same frequency without interference

Simultaneous transmission is not destructive even if collisions occur.

Each user is provided with distinctive PN code.

These codes are uncorrelated with one another.

Since all users are transmitting at a particular frequency in a given time, each receiver

will the same input waveform.

v(t)g1(t)

Analysis:

v01(t)

v01(t)

Int

(t )

Samples at each Tb

O/P

g1(t)

Input to each receiver:

2 cos(0t 1 )

k

V (t ) 2 PS g i (t )d i (t ) cos(ot i )

i 1

Where, k = no. of users.

Here PS = Power of transmitter by each user.

gi(t) = PN code of individual user

di(t) = Data of individual user

f0 = Carrier frequency

i = Random phase

Each PN sequence gi(t) has the same chip rate fc and di(t) has the same data rate fb.

A receiver needs k correlators to receive from each of the k users.

If the receiver has only one correlator then

Then

i 2

The integrator will drop the 2nd components of the equation and will retain

Then

PS d1 (t )

V01' PS d1 (t )

17

2 cos(0t 1 )

NITR

PS d1 (t )

2/10/16

Input at each receiver:

k

V (t ) 2 PS gi (t )di (t ) cos(ot i )

i 1

di(t) has same data rate fb

PS is same to all users

i is the random phase

At correlator 1:

k

V PS g1 (t ) g i (t ) d i (t ) cos(i 1 )

'

01

i 1

V (t ) PS d1 (t ) PS g1 (t ) gi (t )d i (t ) cos(i 1 )

'

01

i2

k

V (t ) PS d1 (t ) PS g1i (t ) cos 1i

'

01

i2

Substituting

PS f c

Pe 1 2 erfc 2

.

Pj f b

Pj (k 1) PS ,

1 fc

k 1 f b

Pe 1 2 erfc 2

for Pe 103 ,

2 fc

4.8 or GP 46

19 fb

FHSS Transmitter

FH

Spreader

Binar FSK or

y

PSK

Data

Mod.

BPF

Spread

Spectrum

Signal

C(t

)

Freq.

Synth.

PN

Sequen

ce

Chann

el

Table

for iT t (i 1)T , bi 1

SS Signal A cos 2 f 0 0.5(bi 1)f t.cos(2 f it )

FH-SS Receiver

FH

Spreader

Spread

Spectrum

Signal

PN

Sequen

ce

BPF

C(t

)

Freq.

Synth.

FSK or

BPSK

Demod.

Binar

y

Data

Chann

el

Table

demodulated to yield binary data.

Origin

al

Signal

Modulat

or

Spread

Signal

Frequency

Synthesiz

er

Generator

PRCG

Frequency

Table

A PRCG or PRN creates a K bit pattern for every hopping period T h.

The frequency table uses the pattern to find the frequency to be used for this hopping period and

passes to frequency synthesizer.

K bit pattern

110 011

K Bit

Freque

ncy

000

200 KHz

001

300 KHz

010

400 KHz

011

500 KHz

100

600 KHz

101

700 KHz

110

800 KHz

111

900 KHz

Hop

Frequency

Frequency Table

The frequency synthesizer creates a carrier of that frequency and the source signal modulates the

carrier signal.

FH-SS Cycles

Carrier

Frequency(K

Hz)

Cycle 1

Cycle 2

90

0

80

0

70

0

60

0

50

0

40

0

30

0

20

0

1

12

2

13

3

14

4

15

5

16

10

11

Hopping

Periods

Bandwidth Sharing

Time

Time

f4

f4

f3

f3

f2

f2

f1

f1

Frequency

FDM

Frequency

FHSS

The Basic FHSS technique for FSK or BPSK is as shown

below

TRANSMITTER

FH Spreader

Binary

Data

Modulatio Sd(t)

n

FSK/BPSK

BPF

SS Signal

S(t)

c(t)

FS

PNG

26

FT

FS-Frequency Synthesizer

FT- Frequency Table

PNG- Pseudo Noise Generato

RECEIVER

FH Despreader

SS Signal

S(t)

Sd(t)

c(t)

BPF

n

FSK/BPSK

FS

PNG

27

FT

FS-Frequency Synthesizer

FT- Frequency Table

PNG- Pseudo Noise Generator

f i f c (2i 1 M )f

Bandwidth required for MFSK signal

2M f

Where

M 2L

01

11

00

11

11

01

10

00

00

11

f c 3f

f c f

f c f

WD

f c 3f

Tb

Ts

28

Time

WD 2M f 2 4 f

( f c 4f ) ( f c 4f )

8f

using MFSK (M=4, K=2)

00

PN Seq.

MFSK Symbols

01

11

11

00

01

11

11

10

01

10

00

00

00

11

1

1

WD

1

0

WD

00

WS

0

1

WD

00

WD

10

00

Tb

11

Ts

29

Th Ts is a SFHSS Case

hereTh Ts

Th

01

11

PN Seq.

00

MFSK Symbols

11

01

10

00

10

00

11

1

10

1

11

1

1

WD

1

0

WD

01

WS

0

1

WD

0

0

WD

00

Tb

11

Th

30

11

11

Ts

M 4 K 2

WD 2Mf d

Ws 2k WD

Ts 2Th 2T

00

1

M=4 means four different frequencies are used to encode the data inputs

2bits at a time.

Each symbol is a discrete freq. tone and hence total MFSK bandwidth is

Wd = Mfd

use an FHSS scheme with k=2 ,2 K

Ws 2k Wd

Each channel has a bandwidth of Wd Hz Hence FHSS Bandwidth

Thof

2Ts 4T

00

PN Seq.

MFSK Symbols

01

11

11

00

01

11

11

10

01

10

00

00

00

11

11

11

WD

1

0

WD

01

00

WS

WD

10

00

WD

NITR

00

Tb

11

Ts

32

NITR

Th

01

2/10/16

Questions:

1. An FHSS system employs a total bandwidth of 400 MHz and an individual channel

bandwidth of 100 Hz. What is the minimum no. of PN bits required for each frequency

hop?

2. An FHSS system using MFSK with M = 4 employs 1000 different frequencies . What is

the processing gain?

a) Make a frequency assignment for each of the eight possible 3 bit data combinations.

b) We wish to apply FHSS to the MFSK scheme with K = 2. Find the no. of frequency

assignments that expands the result of part (a) for individual frequency slots.

33

NITR

2/10/16

4. The signal power received for a desired signal of 100 Kbps bit rate signal is 1 mW. The

chip frequency used is 100 MHz A jamming signal is employed at the carrier frequency

of 1W. Find the:

a) Processing gain

b) Pe without and with jamming. ( = 2 x 10-9 W/Hz)

5. If the probability of error Pe = 10-3, determine the processing gain required for a CDMA

system to have 20 simultaneous users.

6. Direct sequence spread spectrum is to be used for ranging . The approximate distance to

be measured is 10 Km to a resolution of 1 m. Determine the required chip rate f c.

34

NITR

2/10/16

7. FH/BFSK spread spectrum is to be used. The bit rate is 20 Kbps. The available

bandwidth is 8 MHz. Then:

a) Calculate the bandwidth required to pass the FM signal.

b) Calculate the maximum number of hopping frequencies used.

c) Assume one symbol per hop and a symbol contains 5 bits after coding. What is

the hopping rate?

35

NITR

22nd June 12

***THANK

YOU***

36

NITR

2/10/16

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