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SPREAD SPECTRUM

TECHNOLOGY

BY
PROF. P.K. SAHU

Department Of Electrical Engineering


National Institute of Technology Rourkela
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NITR

22nd June12

introduction
WHAT IS SPECTRUM ?

WHAT IS SPREAD SPECTRUM ?

WHY SPREAD SPECTRUM ?

NITR

22nd June12

Spread Spectrum Modulation


Features:
Spectrum of baseband spreads beyond expectation
Chip rate (fc) >> Data rate (fb)
Code Signal(Chip code) is also called an NRZ Signal and varies between 1 Volt
Chip code sequence is generated in a deterministic manner and is repetitive.
Sequence length is extremely long before repetition.
Sequence is truly random and hence known as PRN (Pseudo Random Noise) or PRBS (Pseudo Random
Binary Sequence)
Power Spectral Density is reduced by a factor of fb/fc
Spreading gain is fc/ fb
Bandwidth of BPSK signal is 2fb and bandwidth of Spread Spectrum signal is 2fc

Without
Spreading

f0fb

f0+f

With Spreading
f0- fc

f
0

f0+fc

CDMA Encoder:
Modulated chip
(product code)
Dat
a in

BM

BPSK
Mod.

RF
Mod.

N bit
CWG

IF
Carrie
r

RF
Osc.

HPA &
BPF

Up
Convert
er

BM: Balanced Modulator


NCWG: N Bit Code Word Generator
BPSK Mod: Binary Phase Shift Keying Modulator
HPA: High Power Amplifier
BPF: Band Pass Filter

To
Satelli
te

fc=7fb
+1

tb

Data

-1

+1 +1 +1

tb/7

t
+1 +1 +1

+1

Chip
code

+1

-1

-1

-1

-1

-1

-1

+1

+1 +1

+1

+1

+1 Product

code
-1

-1

-1

-1

-1

-1

-1

-1

CDMA Decoder:
From satellite

RF
Demod.

IF PSK

IF PSK

Bit
Decode
r

Corre-lator

CA & T

BM
Chip
code

BPF

Data
Out

PSK
Carrier
CPD

RF Demod: Radio Frequency Demodulator


CA & T: Code Acquisition and Tracking
CPD: Coherent Phase Detector
BM: Balanced Modulator

Logic 0 = -1

Logic 1 = +1

Data in Chip Code

1 1 1 -1 +1 -1 -1

Product Code

-1 -1 -1 1 -1 1

Recovered Chip
Code

Correlation

-1 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1
(-7 Volt = logic 0)

1
1

1 -1 1 -1 -1
1

1 1 1 -1

1 -1 -1

1 -1 1 -1 -1

1 1 1 -1

1 -1 -1

1111111
(+7 Volt = logic 1)

Spread Spectrum Signal


A spread spectrum signal cannot be demodulated accurately if the receiver does not possess a
de-spreading circuit that matches the code word generator in the transmitter.
Types of Spread Spectrum Signal:
Direct Sequence Spread Spectrum (DS-SS)
Frequency Hopping Spread Spectrum (FH-SS)
Hybrid Direct Sequence Frequency Hopping Spread Spectrum (DS-FH-SS)

In DS-SS, a bipolar (NRZ) data modulated carrier is linearly multiplied by the spreading signal in a
special balanced modulator called Spreading Correlator.

Simplified Block Diagram of a DS-SS Transmitter


PSK Mod
n Bit EC

CS

Data
Source (fb)

Output
Amplifier

SC

To Tx

Input Data
Register

FCL/N

FCL (Chip code)

Devide by N
N=100 to
1000
FCL
System
Clock (FCL)

CS: Carrier Source


PSK Mod. N bit EC:
PSK Modulator n bit Encoder
SC: Spreading Correlator

Spreading
code
generator

FH-SS Technique:

I/P

FSK
Modulat
or

UP
Convert
er

O/P
Amplifi
er

SS O/P
Signal

Frequenc
y
Slots

f5

Frequenc
y
Synthesi
zer

Syste
m
Clock

Code
Sequenc
er

f4
f3
f2

1 2 3
Code
..N
Spreadin
g
Generato
r

f1

t1
t4

t2
t5

Time
Slots

t3

t1

t2

t3

t4

t5

0010

0100

0011

0101

0010

f2

f4

f3

f5

f2

Frequency ~ Time hopping matrix

Spread Spectrum
BSS
B

Spreading
Process

Spreading
Signal

Frequency Hopping Spread Spectrum:


This technique uses M different carrier frequencies those are modulated by the source signal.
At one moment, the signal modulates one carrier frequency, at the next moment, the signal modulates
another carrier frequency.
Though the modulation is done using one carrier frequency at a time, M frequencies are used in the long
run.
The bandwidth occupied by a source after spreading is BFHSS >> B

Ranging Using Direct Sequence Spread Spectrum

S (t ) 2 cos 0 (t T1 T2 )

S (t ) 2 PS g (t ) cos 0 (t )

S(t)
g(t
)

R(t)

Radar

r(t)

LPF

S(t-T1-T2)

C (t ) 2 PS Cos0t

AD
(D)

g(t D)

Int

g(t T1
T2)

Effect of Noise on DS-SS


vi (t ).gi (t )

vi (t )

d(t
)

In
t

2 PS cos 0t

g (t )

n(t )

g (t )

Sample
Switch
(Tb)

O/P

2 cos 0t

Vi (t ) 2 Ps cos ot.d (t ) g (t ) n(t )


Vi (t ) g (t ) 2 Ps cos ot.d (t ) n(t ) g (t )
n(t) will be chopped in to chips and the output of the integrator will be a random signal and
hence the statistical properties of the noise gets unaffected due to Spread Spectrum.

Pe 1 2 erfc Eb

Interference or Jamming due to Single Carrier


Let the under mention signal is used to interfere the Spread Spectrum (DS) signal.
n(t) is replaced by
Now

2 Pj cos(ot )

Vi (t ) 2 PS d (t ) g (t ) cos ot 2 Pj cos(ot )

V0 (t )

Ps d (t )(1 cos 20t ) Pj g (t )(1 cos 20t ) cos Pj g (t ) sin 20t sin

The output of the integrator will be

V0' (t ) PS d (t ) Pj g (t ) cos
14 2 43 1 44 2 4 43
Compressed
band

PSD of

Pj cos 2 sin f f c
Pj g (t ) cos

2 fc

f
f
c

Wideband

Gj ( f )

As integrator acts as a low pass filter and the cut-off frequency is 1/T b = fb,
then

Gj ( f )

Pj cos 2
2 fc

for f f b Q f b = f c

If the jamming signal would have been replaced by n(t) with two sided PSD of /2 ,
Then Pe would have been =

Now replace /2 by

1 2 erfc

Eb

Pj cos 2
2 fc

So,

Pe 1 2 erfc

Eb f c
Pj cos 2

Pe 1 2 erfc

PS Tb f c
Pj cos 2

Pe 1 2 erfc

PS f c
1
.
.
Pj f b cos 2

Ps f c
Pe 1 2 erfc 2
Pj
f b


1 2 erfc

PS
Pj

1 2 erfc

2 fc fb
Where Pjeff

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Pj

2 f c fb

PS
Pjeff

Pj
2GP

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Spread Spectrum and CDMA:


Principle:

Number of users are many


Transmission is simultaneous
Transmission is at same frequency without interference
Simultaneous transmission is not destructive even if collisions occur.
Each user is provided with distinctive PN code.
These codes are uncorrelated with one another.
Since all users are transmitting at a particular frequency in a given time, each receiver
will the same input waveform.
v(t)g1(t)
Analysis:
v01(t)
v01(t)
Int
(t )
Samples at each Tb
O/P
g1(t)
Input to each receiver:

2 cos(0t 1 )
k

V (t ) 2 PS g i (t )d i (t ) cos(ot i )

i 1
Where, k = no. of users.
Here PS = Power of transmitter by each user.
gi(t) = PN code of individual user
di(t) = Data of individual user
f0 = Carrier frequency
i = Random phase

Each PN sequence gi(t) has the same chip rate fc and di(t) has the same data rate fb.
A receiver needs k correlators to receive from each of the k users.
If the receiver has only one correlator then

Then

(t ) will be multiplied by g1(t) and

V01 PS d1 (t ) PS g1 (t )gi (t )d i (t ) cos(i 1 )


i 2

The integrator will drop the 2nd components of the equation and will retain
Then

PS d1 (t )

V01' PS d1 (t )

The integrator will integrate

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2 cos(0t 1 )

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PS d1 (t )

and sample at each Tb to retrieve d(t)

2/10/16

Interference due to Multiple User with Same Power of Transmission


Input at each receiver:
k

V (t ) 2 PS gi (t )di (t ) cos(ot i )
i 1

gi(t) has sam echip rate fc


di(t) has same data rate fb
PS is same to all users
i is the random phase
At correlator 1:
k

V PS g1 (t ) g i (t ) d i (t ) cos(i 1 )
'
01

i 1

V (t ) PS d1 (t ) PS g1 (t ) gi (t )d i (t ) cos(i 1 )
'
01

i2
k

V (t ) PS d1 (t ) PS g1i (t ) cos 1i
'
01

i2

We know for single interferer:

Substituting

PS f c
Pe 1 2 erfc 2
.
Pj f b

Pj (k 1) PS ,

1 fc

k 1 f b

Pe 1 2 erfc 2
for Pe 103 ,

X , X is found to be 6.8 dB 4.8

2 fc

4.8 or GP 46
19 fb

FHSS Transmitter
FH
Spreader

Binar FSK or
y
PSK
Data
Mod.

BPF

Spread
Spectrum
Signal

C(t
)
Freq.
Synth.
PN
Sequen
ce

Chann
el
Table

FSK input to FHSS is:

A cos 2 f 0 0.5(bi 1)f t


for iT t (i 1)T , bi 1
SS Signal A cos 2 f 0 0.5(bi 1)f t.cos(2 f it )

FH-SS Receiver
FH
Spreader
Spread
Spectrum
Signal

PN
Sequen
ce

BPF
C(t
)
Freq.
Synth.

FSK or
BPSK
Demod.

Binar
y
Data

Chann
el
Table

Despreader output is further multiplied by cos2fit to retrieve FSK signal which is


demodulated to yield binary data.

Origin
al
Signal

Modulat
or
Spread
Signal
Frequency
Synthesiz
er

PRCG: Pseudo Random Code


Generator

PRCG

Frequency
Table

This is the layout of the technique.


A PRCG or PRN creates a K bit pattern for every hopping period T h.
The frequency table uses the pattern to find the frequency to be used for this hopping period and
passes to frequency synthesizer.

Frequency Selection in FH-SS

K bit pattern

101 111 001 000 010


110 011

K Bit

Freque
ncy

000

200 KHz

001

300 KHz

010

400 KHz

011

500 KHz

100

600 KHz

101

700 KHz

110

800 KHz

111

900 KHz

Hop
Frequency

Frequency Table

The frequency synthesizer creates a carrier of that frequency and the source signal modulates the
carrier signal.

FH-SS Cycles

Carrier
Frequency(K
Hz)
Cycle 1

Cycle 2

90
0
80
0
70
0
60
0
50
0
40
0
30
0
20
0

1
12

2
13

3
14

4
15

5
16

10

11

Hopping
Periods

Bandwidth Sharing

Time

Time

f4

f4

f3

f3

f2

f2

f1

f1

Frequency

FDM

Frequency

FHSS

FHSS Using mfsk


The Basic FHSS technique for FSK or BPSK is as shown
below

TRANSMITTER
FH Spreader
Binary
Data

Modulatio Sd(t)
n
FSK/BPSK

BPF

SS Signal
S(t)

c(t)

FS
PNG

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FT

FS-Frequency Synthesizer
FT- Frequency Table
PNG- Pseudo Noise Generato

FHSS Using mfsk


RECEIVER
FH Despreader
SS Signal
S(t)

Sd(t)
c(t)

BPF

Demodulatio Binary Data


n
FSK/BPSK

FS
PNG

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FT

FS-Frequency Synthesizer
FT- Frequency Table
PNG- Pseudo Noise Generator

FHSS Using mfsk


f i f c (2i 1 M )f
Bandwidth required for MFSK signal

2M f

Where

M 2L

For M=4 and input bit stream of 20 bits


01

11

00

11

11

01

10

00

00

11

f c 3f

f c f

f c f

WD

f c 3f

Tb

Ts

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Time

WD 2M f 2 4 f
( f c 4f ) ( f c 4f )
8f

Slow frequency Hop Spread Spectrum


using MFSK (M=4, K=2)
00

PN Seq.
MFSK Symbols

01

11
11

00

01
11

11

10
01

10

00
00

00

11

1
1

WD

1
0

WD
00

WS

0
1

WD

00

WD

10

00

Tb

11

Ts
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Th Ts is a SFHSS Case
hereTh Ts

Th

01

11

Example of Fast FHSS


PN Seq.

00

MFSK Symbols

11

01

10

00

10

00

11
1

10
1

11

1
1

WD

1
0

WD

01

WS

0
1

WD

0
0

WD
00

Tb
11

Th
30

11

11

Ts

M 4 K 2
WD 2Mf d
Ws 2k WD
Ts 2Th 2T

00
1

Example of Slow FHSS


M=4 means four different frequencies are used to encode the data inputs
2bits at a time.
Each symbol is a discrete freq. tone and hence total MFSK bandwidth is
Wd = Mfd
use an FHSS scheme with k=2 ,2 K

diff. carrier freq. for FHSS .

Ws 2k Wd
Each channel has a bandwidth of Wd Hz Hence FHSS Bandwidth

The channel is held for a duration


Thof

2Ts 4T

Example of Slow FHSS


00

PN Seq.
MFSK Symbols

01

11
11

00

01
11

11

10
01

10

00
00

00

11

11

11

WD

1
0

WD

01

00

WS
WD
10

00

WD

NITR
00

Tb

11

Ts
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Th

01

2/10/16

Questions:
1. An FHSS system employs a total bandwidth of 400 MHz and an individual channel
bandwidth of 100 Hz. What is the minimum no. of PN bits required for each frequency
hop?
2. An FHSS system using MFSK with M = 4 employs 1000 different frequencies . What is
the processing gain?

3. Consider an MFSK scheme with fc = 250 KHz, f = 25 KHz and M = 8,


a) Make a frequency assignment for each of the eight possible 3 bit data combinations.
b) We wish to apply FHSS to the MFSK scheme with K = 2. Find the no. of frequency
assignments that expands the result of part (a) for individual frequency slots.

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4. The signal power received for a desired signal of 100 Kbps bit rate signal is 1 mW. The
chip frequency used is 100 MHz A jamming signal is employed at the carrier frequency
of 1W. Find the:
a) Processing gain
b) Pe without and with jamming. ( = 2 x 10-9 W/Hz)

5. If the probability of error Pe = 10-3, determine the processing gain required for a CDMA
system to have 20 simultaneous users.
6. Direct sequence spread spectrum is to be used for ranging . The approximate distance to
be measured is 10 Km to a resolution of 1 m. Determine the required chip rate f c.

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7. FH/BFSK spread spectrum is to be used. The bit rate is 20 Kbps. The available
bandwidth is 8 MHz. Then:
a) Calculate the bandwidth required to pass the FM signal.
b) Calculate the maximum number of hopping frequencies used.
c) Assume one symbol per hop and a symbol contains 5 bits after coding. What is
the hopping rate?

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22nd June 12

***THANK
YOU***

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2/10/16