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Research Center for the Natural Sciences /
Faculty of Engineering
University of Santo Tomas
Yow to Store Energy ?
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Yow to Store Energy ?
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Yow to Store Energy ?
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Energy Storage Methods
‡ Storage of free energy
± the stored energy can be converted
without any loss into some other form
of energy.
‡ Storage of thermal or heat energy
± efficiency of conversion depends on the
temperature at which thermal energy is
available
Exergy = Workrev. ± Workambient surroundings

|| 
‡ Energy
‡ Enthalpy
‡ Entropy Intrinsic Properties
‡ Free Energy

  ± not an intrinsic material property


± It depends on the temperature of the
surroundings.
Facts about
Thermal Energy Storage (TES)
‡ An electrical load management and building
equipment utilization strategy, that reduces utility
electricity demand and equipment first-costs.
‡ Utilized as a demand-side management strategy
by several utilities to shift electricity use
associated with cooling from on-peak periods to
off-peak periods.
‡ designed to avoid high utility demand and energy
charges from cooling during on-peak periods
associated with time-of-use rates or real-time
pricing rates
Storage •o,To
•i,Ti
Box

 !| 


•i=•o

  !| 


To<Ti.
 
 

     

 
Storage Strategies
ñ 

‡ discharging or complete solidification


is generated during off peak periods.
ñ ˜
‡ discharging during off peak periods
based on the immediate thermal needs
on a specific peak time on the
following day.
| 
   

  
  ~ 
 

  
w  
  ~ 
 
 

     
   
‡ Solid ± gas ‡ Solid ± liquid
‡ Liguid ± gas ‡ Solid ± solid
  
 
~ 
 
   
Sensible Yeat Storage Materials

‡ rocks   


‡ earth Mercedez Benz
‡ water American Airlines
‡ ceramic bricks Mc Donald¶s
JC Penney Corporate
Yeadquarters
6 Relatively cheap Sapporo Kousei
6 safe Yospital
6 Universally available Itabashi Ecopolis Center
6 transportable Osaka Municipal
Central Gym
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 | 

Yeat Yeat
Exchanger Exchanger
Ice
Water

a  


Compressor

Condensing
Ice Storage Tank Unit Evaporator
÷   
 
Latent Yeat Storage Materials
1. Salt Yydrates ± inorganic compounds of
salt and water
2. Organic Materials ± paraffins and fatty
acids
3. Eutectic Mixtures ± solutions of organic and
inorganic components

4. Clathrates ± a fluid crystalline compound


formed when water is mixed
with a small quantity of an
organic medium or coolant

 

× Phase change materials have


high energy densities
× Nearly isothermal charge and
discharge
× Compactness of the storage unit
× Less insulation required
Concept of cool storage for possible
industrial application

4°C |  
a  „   
 
   

 
#$   
÷
%
j% 
j
% „   
# 12 L‡s±1 
"   

&" !
 %
' () *R+ " 
Thermochemical Storage Materials
6 Reversible chemical reaction

6 Adsorption

6 Direct hydration process

6 Metal hydrides in chemical heat pumps using


hydrogen as the working fluid

6 Metallic salts with ammonia

|   "  !


 ###   
# " !   # 
"        $
•C

Condenser
•rR
Yeating phase
Reactor Storage
Cooling phase
• cR

Evaporator
•E
Base operation of a solid absorbent
solar cooling system.
 !" %  &|   &
|     
#$
a
a !
 , j Ô j  2j int


   

a  

"j

#  
‡ dormant mode: = 0;
‡ charging mode:  0; and
‡ discharging mode: 
0.
  
‡ = 0
‡ 
0
‡ Tinlet = Texit
‡ If discharge cannot
‡ No storage capacity to
be provided by the
handle building cooling
TES system,
loads
a
a 

  , j Ô
j  2j int

‡  0 a = the TES water mass flow rate (kg/s),


a = TES cooling load (W),

|Loop setpoint = the supply loop setpoint water
temperature (RC).
 j  j 2j 
  j
 j  j j

!!'
‡ availability of entering gas streams due to T &P being
greater than ambient
‡ entropy generation by transient heat conduction within the
storage element
‡ entropy generation due to convection heat transfer between
the gas and storage material
‡ entropy generation during the dwell period due to transient
heat conduction within the storage material
‡ availability destroyed by heat transfer between the exiting
gas and the environment during the storage period.
÷   
‡ Building cooling/heating systems
‡ Power utilization in space missions
‡ Electronics
‡ Coal fired stations
‡ energy storage
‡ industrial waste heat recovery
‡ greenhouse heating
Yeating/cooling Thermal Yeating/cooling
source Energy Storage load
System

Rate of Rate of Rate of


thermal thermal thermal
 Energy out
+ Energy = 0
Energy in
production

Rate of exergy storage = Transfer by heat + Transfer by


shaft/boundary work + Transfer
by flow ± Exergy destruction
Performance of TES System
‡ load
‡ water/transfer fluid circulation
temperature
‡ ambient temperatures
‡ water/transfer fluid flow rates
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^discoveries often come from people straying outside the
normal bounds of their specialties: (J. Gleick on   2:
Making a New Science)
^Discoveries often come from
people straying outside the normal
bounds of their specialties´
(J. Gleick on   2: Making a New
Science)
˜    
System Materials
Performance Characteristics
Working temperature Fusion/transition temperature
Density
Energy density Yeat of fusion/transition
Behavior of fusion/transition
Response to load
Yeat transfer characteristics
Thermal Efficiency
Thermal stability
Life Expectancy
Thermal degradation
Reliability Explosive/ignition reactivity
Compatibility with working fluid
Safety Toxicity

Continuity Equation j
Πa Πa
 

  
Rate of change of total !  Œ a  a
energy from the energy j j
equation  Πa j j ,  Πa j j ,

Rate of change of entropy from the entropy equation


 2 a a
! ! Πa 2  Πa 2   Π  
j j |

Exergy,  i  : no flow availability


 !   (
* 
! Œ a  a  Œ a j j ,  Œ a j j ,   0
j j
a
 |0 Πa 2   |0 Πa 2   Π|0  |0 a
|
S
 ( 0  |0 2 0 ) Πa  Πa

*  |0  a
Transfer by heat at T ! Œ 1  
j  | 

a 
Transfer by shaft/boundary work    0
j
Transfer by flow Πa[  Πa [
   

: specific flow exergy;


flow availability

Exergy destruction  0 a


Rate of exergy storage = Transfer by heat +
Transfer by
shaft/boundary work
+ Transfer by flow ±
Exergy destruction