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A

PRESENTATION
ON TRAINING
REPORT ON

EMBEDDED
SYSTEMS

NETRATVA TECHNOLOGY PVT. LTD. RAIPUR


BRANCH,
TATYAPARA CHOWK, RAIPUR

-: PREPARED BY :-

SANJAY KUMAR DHRITLAHARE


DILIP KUMAR
VIKAS KUJUR

OUTLINES :Introduction
Need
Microcontroller
Hardware

Design
Programming
Program burning
on Microcontroller
Applications of ES

1. INTRODUCTION
An

Embedded System is a computer system


designed to perform one or a few dedicated
functions often with real-time computing
constraints.
An embedded system is designed to run on its
own without human intervention, and may be
required to respond to events in real time.

IN GENERAL, AN EMBEDDED
SYSTEM:
Is

a system built to perform its duty,


completely or partially independent
of human intervention?
Is specially designed to perform a
few tasks in the most efficient way.
Interacts with physical elements in
our environment, viz. controlling
and driving a motor, sensing
temperature, etc.

EXAMPLES OF EMBEDDED SYSTEMS


MP3

music players
Mobile phone units
Domestic appliances
Data switches
Automotive controls

typical embedded
system would have:
A micro-controller to provide the
intelligence.
Interfacing circuits to connect with
the main application.
Real time software.
Dedicated hardware for functions.
Test and maintenance hardware.

1. NEED :
The

first reason why we need embedded


systems
is
because
general-purpose
computers, like PCs, would be far too costly
for the majority of products that incorporate
some form of embedded system technology.
Another reason why we need embedded
systems
is
because
general-purpose
solution might also fail to meet a number of
functional or performance requirements
such as constraints in power-consumption,
size-limitations, reliability or real-time
performance etc.

The

digital revolution, started decades ago, has


reached a stage that we cannot conduct our normal
modern daily lives without this technology. Indeed,
it is safe to say that we already own at least one
piece of equipment, which contains a processor,
whether it is a phone, a television, an automatic
washing machine or an MP3 player.
Embedded systems are playing important roles in
our lives every day, even though they might not
necessarily be visible. Some of the embedded
systems we use every day control the menu system
on television, the timer in a microwave oven, a cell
phone, an MP3 player or any other device with
some amount of intelligence built-in. In fact, recent
poll data shows that embedded computer systems
currently outnumber humans in the USA.
Embedded systems are a rapidly growing industry
where growth opportunities are numerous.

1. MICROCONTROLLER
Amicrocontroller(sometimes

abbreviated C,uCorMCU) is a small


computer on a singleintegrated
circuit containing a processor core,
memory, and programmable input/
output peripherals.
A

microcontroller is a compact
microcomputer designed to govern
the operation of embedded systems.

typical microcontroller includes a


processor, memory, andperipherals.

An

embedded micro-controller runs a


single
program
which
never
terminates.

There

is no (separate) operating
system or monitor program the
operating system has to be merged
with the application program.

Most

embedded micro-controllers have


to respond in real time.

EMBEDDED
MICROPROCESSORS

ATMEL MICROCONTROLLERS

BASIC INFORMATION OF DIFFERENT


MICROCONTROLLERS

MICROCONTROLLER
8051

8051

is the most commonly


used microcontroller
This microcontroller had 128
bytes of RAM, 4K bytes of onchip ROM, two timers, one
serial port, and four ports (each
8-bits wide) all on a single chip.
The 8051 is an 8-bit processor,
meaning that the CPU can work
on only 8 bits of data at a time.
Data larger than 8 bits has to
be broken into 8-bit pieces to
be processed by the CPU.

BLOCK DIAGRAM OF THE


8051 FAMILY

PIN DIAGRAM OF 8051

1.

hardware design

DEVELOPMENT BOARD

7 Segment
Display

Rela
y

ULN2003

L293
D

LM32
4

IR Sensor

COMPONENTS USED :12V/750mA Step down Transformer.


1N4007 p-n junction diodes for rectifier ckt.
1000F Capacitor for filter.
IC-7805 for +5V output.
IC-7812 for +12V for Relay and Motor.
LEDs
Resistors & Potentiometers
Microcontroller AT89C51
Crystal Oscillator for 11.0592MHz frequency
generation
BC547 npn Transistors
Male and Female bus connectors
Pull-up Resistors

HARDWARE
DESIGN
Compatibility
of system components
CHALLANGES
with each other.

Interface

design (linear to digital,


asynchronous to synchronous etc.).
Low power design.
Modularity and ability to upgrade the
system in the field.
Designing for easy testability is
difficult.
Time to market.

FOLLOWINGS CAN BE
INTERFACED WITH EMBEDDED
SYSTEM OR C.
Relays
Motors
7

segment display
LCD & LED display
Infrared Sensor
Ultrasonic Sensor
LED cubes
Op-ampr
Key-Board
Digital Cameras
Different Alarms
Colour Detector
Temperature Detector
Moisture Detector
A cell phone
Timers
External RAM
Any Electronic Circuit or Device

1..

Programming

Programming

in embedded systems
means to create or design a software
for microcontroller to perform a
specific operation or to interface a
particular device or circuit.
For programming many software can
be used like Microsoft Visual Studio,
Keil Vision etc. and other IC
programming softwares.
Here we have used Keil Vision 3.

CONCEPT OF COMPILER
& CROSS COMPILER
COMPILE
R
Compilers are

programs used to
convert a High Level Language to
object code. Desktop compilers
produce an output object code for
the underlying microprocessor, but
not for other microprocessors. That
is the programs written in one of the
HLL like Cwill compile the code to
run on the system for a particular

CROSS
COMPILER
A cross compiler

is similar to the
compilers but we write a program
for the target processor (like 8051
and its derivatives) on the host
processors (like computer of x86). It
means being in one environment
you are writing a code for another
environment
is
called
cross
development. And the compiler
used for cross development is called
cross compiler.So the definition of
cross compiler is a compiler that

ABOUT KEIL VISION 3


Keil

an ARM Company makes C


compilers, macro assemblers, real-time
kernels,
debuggers,
simulators,
integrated environments, evaluation
boards,
and
emulators
for
ARM7/ARM9/Cortex-M3,
XC16x/C16x/ST10, 251, and 8051 MCU
families.

KEIL C CROSS COMPILER


Keil

is a German based Software development


company. It provides several development tools like
IDE (Integrated Development environment)
Project Manager
Simulator
Debugger
C Cross Compiler, Cross Assembler, Linker

The

Keil ARM tool kit includes three main tools,


assembler, compiler and linker.
An assembler is used to assemble the ARM
assembly program.
A compiler is used to compile the C source code into
an object file.
A linker is used to create an absolute object module
suitable for our in-circuit emulator.

A PROGRAM TO GLOW 8 LEDs IN TWO


DIFFERENT PATTERNS USING PUSH
BUTTONS
#include <reg51.h>
#define led P2
sbit s1=P1^0;
sbit s2=P1^1;

void delay(unsigned int time)


{
int i,j;
for(i=0;i<time;i++)
for(j=0;j<1275;j++);
}

void main()
{
//Alternate glow of single LED
while(s1==0)

{
led=0x55;
delay(50);
led=0xAA;
delay(50);
}
//Alternate glow of LED pair
while(s2==0)
{
led=0x0F;
delay(50);
led=0xF0;
delay(50);
}
}

FOR 1ST PATTERN

1 = (0x55)16
1
0
1
0 = (0xAA)16

FOR 2ND PATTERN

0
0
1 = (0x0F)16
1
1
1
0 = (0xF0)16

Program burning in
MICROCONTROLLER

1.
In

microcontroller the program


burning is done serial or parallel
depending
on
the
type
of
microcontroller used.
ATMEL uses parallel burning.
NXT uses serial burning.
There are plenty of flash burners
are available for 8 to 80 pin IC
burning capacity.

WORKING DEVELPOMENT BOARD

APPLICATIONS OF
EMBEDDED SYSTEM
1.

Embedded systems has vast application areas : Automobile Sector.


Aerospace and Avionics.
Railways.
Defence system.
Household Appliances.
Cell phones
Security Systems.
Different Alarm Systems like Fire alarm.
Electronic Payment Solution Sectors (ATMs)
Telecommunications.
Smart card industry.

Automobile Sector
Steering

Accelerator
Gear
Break
Speedometer
Fuel Indicator
Engine
Window glass open/close
Remote Locking
Air conditioner
Mirror
Sound system
Mobile Transceiver

Anti-lock braking system (ABS)


Electronic Stability Control (ESC/ESP)
Traction control (TCS)
Automatic four-wheel drive
Turning indicator
Front & Back Light
Seat comfort mode
Navigation System
(GPS)
LCD Display
Anti Theft Alarm
Glass Wiper
Satellite TV
Electronic Ignition

AEROSPACE AND AVIONICS


Aerospace

and Avionics demand a


complex
mixture
of
hardware,
electronics, and embedded software.
For
efficient
working,
hardware,
electronics and embedded software
must interact with many other entities
and system.

Navigation

System
GPS & RADAR system
Weapon Controls
Auto Pilot Mode
Surveillance

Audio

and Visual communication


Height and speed indicator
Ground control
Ignition system
High speed sensor data recorders

TELECOM INDUSTRY
The Telecom industry utilizes
numerous embedded systems
from telephone switches for the
network to mobile phones at the
end-user.
The Telecom computer network
also uses dedicated routers and
network bridges to route data.

HOUSEHOLD APPLIANCES
Embedded System is used in
following consumer electronics

devices
and machines :Refrigerator
Microwave

oven

Washing

machine
Dishwasher
LED & LED TVs
Home theaters
Air conditioner
PC and Laptops

HOUSEHOLD APPLIANCES

Video game console


DVD players
Hand drier
Hair drier
Digital cameras
Electronic tooth
brush

ELECTRONIC PAYMENT
SOLUTIONS SECTOR (ATMs)
In the present times there is stiff
competition amongst Embedded solutions
providers to deliver innovative, and highperformance electronic payment solutions
that are easy to use and highly secure.
Embedded engineers knowledgeable in
trusted proprietary technology develop
the
secure,
encrypted
transactions
between payment systems and major
financial institutions.

The market for mobile payments systems


is growing rapidly. It is driven by retailers,
restaurants, and other businesses that
want to service customers anywhere,
anytime. With the use of mobile devices,
mostly mobile phones becoming very
popular,
Embedded
technologies
compatible
with
mobile
are
being
developed to promote payment systems.

SMART CARDS INDUSTRY


Smart

cards, though
began prominently as
either a debit or a
credit card, are now
being introduced in
personal
identification
and
entitlement schemes
at regional, national,
and
international
levels. Smart cards
are appearing now as

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