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Designing Effective

Training (HRD)
Programs

By Aziz Ahmed
Lecture # 5

Phase One: Needs


Assessment
Should be completed before you
start Phase Two
You know:

Where training is needed

What kinds of training are needed

Who needs to be trained

Conditions for training


Werner & DeSimone (2006)

Phase Two: Design

Werner & DeSimone (2006)

Phase Two: Designing the


Training or HRD
Intervention
Key activities include:
Setting objectives
Selecting the trainer or vendor
Developing lesson plans
Selecting methods and techniques
Preparing materials
Scheduling training
Werner & DeSimone (2006)

Objectives
Three parts:
Performance
Conditions
Criteria

Source: R. F. Mager (1997).


Werner & DeSimone (2006)

Performance
What is to be done e.g.,
Increase upper body strength
Assemble a chair
Catch a football pass
Graduate from college

Werner & DeSimone (2006)

Conditions
Conditions under which performance is
done e.g.,
using standard conditioning
equipment
using a screwdriver and hammer
at a full run under man-to-man
coverage
without cheating or outside help
Werner & DeSimone (2006)

Criteria
The level of acceptable performance
e.g.,
by 25 percent within one year
within one hour without mistakes
at least 80% of the time without
penalties
within 5 years and with a B
average
Werner & DeSimone (2006)

Sample Objectives
Inventory 1,000 pieces of bulk
merchandise an hour with an error
rate of less than 1% using industry
standard inventory tools.
Run 40 yards in less than five
seconds on a dry, level field with
winds less than 10 mph.
Werner & DeSimone (2006)

Sample Objectives 2
After training, be able to identify the
four basic stages involved in HRD
within five minutes.
Completely assemble one childs
bicycle within one hour using
common hand tools and instructions
provided on December 24 without
cursing.
Werner & DeSimone (2006)

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Make or Buy Decisions


You cannot be an expert on everything
You cant afford to maintain a full-time
staff for once-a-year training
You cant afford the time or money to
build all of your own training programs
Implication: Much training is
purchased, rather than self-produced

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Factors to Consider Before


Purchasing an HRD
Program
Level of expertise available/required
Timeliness
Number of trainees
Subject matter
Cost
Size of HRD organization
X Factor (other conditions)
Werner & DeSimone (2006)

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Other Factors to Consider


Vendor credentials
Vendor background
Vendor experience
Philosophical match (between
vendor and organization)
Delivery method

Werner & DeSimone (2006)

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Other Factors to Consider


2
Content
Actual product
Results
Support
Request for proposal (RFP)

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Selecting the Trainer


Training competency

How well can he/she train?

If they cant train, why are they


employed?

Subject Matter Expertise

How well is the material understood?

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If No Subject-Matter
Experts (SMEs) are
Available
Use a team to train
Use programmed instruction or CBT
Train your trainers

You are training subject matter experts


to be trainers

You are not training trainers to be SMEs

Werner & DeSimone (2006)

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Preparing Lesson Plans


Content to be covered
Activity sequencing
Selection/design of media
Selection of trainee activities
Timing and phasing of activities
Method(s) of instruction
Evaluation methods to be used
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Training Methods
Methods
Instructor-led Classroom Programs
Self-Study, Web-based
Job-based Performance Support
Public Seminars
Case Studies
Role Plays
Games or Simulations, Non-computer-based
Self-Study, Non-computer-based
Virtual Classroom, with Instructor
Games or Simulations, Computer-based
Experiential Programs
Virtual Reality Programs
Media
Workbooks/Manuals
Internet/Intranet/Extranet
CD-ROM/DVD/Diskettes
Videotapes
Teleconferencing
Videoconferencing
Satellite/Broadcast TV
Audiocassettes

Percent
91
44
44
42
40
35
25
23
21
10
6
3
79
63
55
52
24
23
12
4

SOURCE: From 2003 Industry Report (2003). Training, 40(9), 2138.

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Types of Training
Computer Applications

96

Computer Programming

76

New Hire Orientation

96

Personal Growth

76

Non-Executive Management

91

Managing Change

75

Tech. Training

90

Problem Solving/Decision
Making

75

Communications Skills

89

Time Management

74

Sexual Harassment

88

Train-the-Trainer

74

Supervisory Skills

88

Diversity/Cultural Awareness

72

Leadership

85

Hiring/Interviewing

71

New Equipment Operation

85

Strategic Planning

69

Performance
Management/Appraisal

85

Customer Education

68

Team Building

82

Quality/Process Improvement

65

Customer Service

81

Public Speaking/Presentation
Skills

62

Product Knowledge

79

Basic Life/Work Skills

62

Executive Development
Safety

78
Ethics
Werner77
& DeSimone
Sales(2006)

61
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Selecting Training Methods


Consider the following:
Program objectives
Time and money available
Resources availability
Trainee characteristics and
preferences
Note: Training methods are covered in Ch. 6.
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Training Materials
Program announcements
Program outlines
Training manuals and textbooks
Training aids, consumables, etc.

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Scheduling Training
Must be done in conjunction with:
Production schedulers
Shift supervisors
Work supervisors/managers
Trainees

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Training During Normal


Working Hours
Issues to consider:

Day of week preferred


Time of day
Peak work hours
Staff meeting times
Required travel
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Training After Working


Hours
Are workers/trainees getting paid?
If so, by whom?
What about personal
commitments?
What do you do for shift workers?

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Registration and
Enrollment Issues
How, when, and where does one
register?
Who is responsible for logistics?

Travel
Lodging
Meals
Etc.

How do one cancel/reschedule?


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Summary
As in building a house, design issues
must be addressed before training:

Objectives
Who will conduct the training
Lesson plan
Appropriate methods/techniques to use
Materials needed
Scheduling issues
Werner & DeSimone (2006)

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