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Research Design

Method Vs Methodology
Method (What)

Scientific Method
Pursuit of truth through logical
It is an objective free from bias or
It is systematic investigation proceeds in an
orderly manner
It is a method where phenomenon is capable
of being verified, has internal consistency
It logical it is based on logical reasoning

Characteristics of scientific method

It is based on empirical evidence
It uses relevant concepts
It is objective
Ethical neutrality
It makes probabilistic predictions
It lends itself to critical scrutiny
It is testable
It is replicable
It aims at formulating theories

Problems faced by researchers in India

1. The lack of a scientific training in the
methodology of research
2. There is insufficient interaction between the
university research departments on one side and
business establishments, government
departments and research institutions on the
other side
3. Lack of confidentiality and confidence in
researcher against misuse of data
4. Research studies overlapping one another are
undertaken quite often for want of adequate

Problems faced by researchers in

5. Lack of professionalism There does not exist a code
of conduct for researchers and inter-university and
interdepartmental rivalries are also quite common
6. Many researchers in our country also face the
difficulty of adequate and timely secretarial
assistance, including computerial assistance
7. There is also the difficulty of timely availability of
published data from various government and other
agencies doing this job in our country
8. Problem of conceptualization and also problems
relating to the process of data collection and related

Research Design
(i) It is a plan that specifies the sources and
types of information relevant to the
research problem.
(ii) It is a strategy specifying which approach
will be used for gathering and analysing
the data.
(iii) It also includes the time and cost
budgets since most studies are done under
these two

Research Design
(i) What is the study about?
(ii) Why is the study being made?
(iii) Where will the study be carried out?
(iv) What type of data is required?
(v) Where can the required data be found?
(vi) What periods of time will the study include?
(vii) What will be the sample design?
(viii) What techniques of data collection will be used?
(ix) How will the data be analysed?
(x) In what style will the report be prepared?

Parts of Research Design

(a)the sampling design which deals with the method of
selecting items to be observed for the given study;
(b)the observational design which relates to the
conditions under which the observations are to be
(c) the statistical design which concerns with the
question of how many items are to be observed and
how the information and data gathered are to be
analysed; and
(d) the operational design which deals with the
techniques by which the procedures specified in the
sampling, statistical and observational designs can be
carried out.

Research Design must

(a) a clear statement of the research
(b) procedures and techniques to be
used for gathering information
(c) the population to be studied;
(d) methods to be used in processing
and analysing data.

Need for Research Design

Maximum information from minimal
expenditure of time, money and effort
Like a blueprint to aid the actual research
Helps to plan in advance what methods
are to used given the objectives and the
constraints of time, effort and money
Research design enables the researcher to
organize his ideas into a definite form and
identify flaws and inadequacies

Characteristics of a good design

Depends on the context, purpose and nature
of the research problem
A design that gives the smallest experimental
error is considered a good design
A good design provides the following
(i) the means of obtaining information;
(ii) the availability and skills of the researcher and
his staff, if any;
(iii) the objective of the problem to be studied;
(iv) the nature of the problem to be studied; and
(v) the availability of time and money for the
research work

Research Design for Exploratory

Discovery of ideas and insight
Flexibility to identify all aspects of
the problem
(a) the survey of concerning
(b) the experience survey
(c) the analysis of insightstimulating examples

Research Design for Descriptive and

Diagnostic Studies
(a) Formulating the objective of the study (what
the study is about and why is it being made?)
(b) Designing the methods of data collection (what
techniques of gathering data will be adopted?)
(c) Selecting the sample (how much material will
be needed?)
(d) Collecting the data (where can the required
data be found and with what time period should
the data be related?)
(e) Processing and analysing the data.
(f) Reporting the findings.

Research Design for Hypothesis

Testing Studies