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ME C3609

HEAT TRANSFER
by

Contents:
Fundamental Concepts
Intensity and shape factor
blackbody and gray surfaces

References
1.Heat Transfer by J.P. Holman, Seventh Edition, McGraw
Hill, Singapore 2002
2.Introduction to Heat Transfer by F.P. Incropera D.P. Dewitt,
T.L. Bergman and A.S. Lavine, John Wiley and Sons,
Singapore 2007.
3.Heat and Mass Transfer Fundamentals and Applications,
4th Ed. By Y.A. Cengel and A.J. Ghajar, McGraw Hill,
Singapore, 2011

Fundamental Concepts

Conduction and convection: require a

medium to transport energy

Fluid

(a)

Conduction +
Convection

(b)

Conduction/
convection

Radiation : no carrier or medium is

required
Medium: Participating & Non-participating
Q

Q
Hot
body

q
q<Q
Participating
Medium

vacuum

Enclosure

Non-participating

For gas and semi-transparent materials,

the volume of the medium.

For opaque materials,

absorption, reflection
and emission takes place
at the surface

Fundamental Concepts

reflected

Absorptance = Gabsorbed/Gincident

=
Reflectance = Greflected/Gincident

=
Transmittance = Gtrasmitted/Gincident
=
due to reflection and emission

incident

diffuse

transmitted

specular

Absorptance, Reflectance and Transmittance

For semi transparent material
+ + = 1
If the properties are averaged over the entire
spectrum
++=1
For opaque medium
+ = 1
+=1

Fundamental Concepts

X-rays

Ultraviolet

Gama rays
10-5

10-4

10-3

10-2

10-1

Thermal
1

10

Microwave

102

103

104

Fundamental Concepts

Thermal radiation and light: Light is the visible part of

Fundamental Concepts

Radiation is emitted at different wavelength and

different direction
Spectral distribution

Directional distribution

wavelength
(a)

(b)

Figure Radiation emitted by a surface. (a) Spectral distribution.

(b) Directional distribution

Fundamental Concepts

Plane and Solid angles

r

dl

dAn
Solid Angle = ratio of the element,
dAn and the square
= dAn / r2

Plane angle = ratio of the element

of arc length and
= dl/r

Fundamental Concepts

at any is defined as
the rate at which the
emitted in (
direction per unit dAn
per unit solid angle,
per unit wavelength.
W/(m2.sr. m)

dAn

dA1

(a)

Figure (a) Directional nature of radiation,

(b) spherical co-ordinate system

(b)

Fundamental Concepts

wavelength and direction;

no surface can emit more energy than a

blackbody for a prescribed temp. and
wavelength;

I i

I e= I b
G= E b

Isothermal blackbody enclosure

Fundamental Concepts

The Planck Distribution

Radiation intensity for blackbody emission is given by

I,b (,T) =

2hco
5
exp hco / kT 1

I = Spectral Intensity, W/(m2.sr. m)

h = universal Planck constant = 6.6256 x 10 -34 (J.s)
k = Boltzman constant = 1.3805 x 10 -23 (J/K)
co = speed of light = 2.988 x108 (m/s)
T = absolute temp. of the blackbody (K)

Fundamental Concepts

Planck Distribution Equation

Since the blackbody is a diffuse emitter,

E,b (,T) = I,b (,T)

=

C1
5 exp C 2 / T 1

Where,
C1 = 2hco2 = 3.742 x 108 (W.m4/m2)
C2 = (hco/k) = 1.439 x 104 (m.K)

Example
Emissive power of a blackbody is 1kW/
(m2.m) at a wavelength of 4 m. Find the
temperature of the body.
Solution:
Given- = 4 m
Eb(T) = 1kW /(m2.m)

E,b (,T) = I,b (,T)

C1
= 5 exp C 2 / T 1

Where,
C1 = 2hco2 = 3.742 x 108 (W.m4/m2)
C2 = (hco/k) = 1.439 x 104 (m.K)

3.743 x10
1000 5
4
4 [exp{1.439 x10 /(4T )} 1]
4

1.439 x10
ln 366.53
4T
T 609 K

Exercise
There is a small circular opening of 40 mm
in diameter in a large spherical cylinder
whose inner surface is maintained at 527oC.
Find the rate of emission of radiation
through this opening.

Outline of solution
Emissive power at the given temp
Eb(T) =T4
=(5.67x10-8)(800)4
Q = A Eb(T) , Area of the aperutre

Fundamental Concepts

Wiens Displacement Law

The black body spectral distribution is characterised by
maximum and the wavelength associated with this maximum
depends upon temperature. Differentiating the following
equation w.r.t

E,b (,T) =

C1
5 exp C 2 / T 1

and setting it to zero, gives

maxT = C3 = 2897.6, m.K

Fundamental Concepts

The Stefan- Boltzman Law

Total emissive power

E = E d
0

C1
d
5
exp C 2 / T 1

T4
= Stefan Boltzman constant
= 5.67 x 10-8 (W/m2.K4)
=

Fundamental Concepts

Band Emission
a wavelength band:

F 0- =

E , b d

,b

Eb(T)
0

1
Eb(T)d

= f(T)

F1- 2 =

E
0

,b

d E ,b d
0

,b

= f(T)

= F (0-2) - F(0-1)
1

Example 3
Consider a large isothermal enclosure that is maintained
at a uniform temperature of 2000 K.
1. Calculate the emissive power of the radiation that
emerges from a small aperture on the enclosure
surface.
2. What is the wavelength 1 below which 10% of the
emission is concentrated. What is the wavelength
above which 10% of the emission is concentrated.
3. Determine the maximum emissive power and the
wavelength at which this emission occurs.
4. If a small object is placed within the enclosure, what is
the irradiation incident on the object

Example 3 (contd)
Enclosure T = 2000 K

E, b (T)

10%
1

10%
2

Assumption: aperture area is very small compared to the

surface area of the enclosure

Example 3-Solution
1.

F01 0.1 from table 1

1T 2200 mK
1 = 1.1 m

F0 2 0.9

m K
2

= 9.07 x 10 5 W/m
2.

2T 9382 mK
2 = 4.69 m

(2000)4 (K)4

Example 3-Solution(contd)
3.

From Wiens Displacement Law

maxT = 2898 mK
For T = 2000, max = 1.45 m
Maximum emissive power:

E ,B , T max

C1

5 max exp C 2 / max T 1

3.742 10 8 W m 4 / m 2

1.439 10 4 m K
5
5

1.45 m exp
1

2898 m K

= 4.10 x 105 W/m2 m

Example 3-Solution(contd)
4. The answer is same as (1)

W
2

m K
5
2

= 9.07 x 10 W/m

(2000)4 (K)4

Example 4

A diffuse surface at a temperature of 1600 K has the

spectral, hemispherical emissivity shown below:
2

0.8

()

1.
2.
3.

0.4

, m

Determine total, hemispherical emissivity

Calculate the total emissive power
At what wavelength will the spectral emissive power
be a maximum?

Example 4-solution
Assumption: Surface is a diffuse emitter.
Equation (37)

(T) =

( , T ) E

( , T ) d

(37)

E b (T )
2

E
1

,b

,b

Eb

d
+

E ,b d

Eb

= 1 F(0 - 2 m) + 2 F(2 - 5 m)
or = 1 F(0 - 2 m) + 2[F(0-5 m) F(0 2 m)]

Example 4-solution(contd)
1T = 2 (m) x 1600 (K) = 3200 (mK); F0 2 = 0.318
2T = 5 (m) x 1600 (K) = 80, 000 (mK); F0 5 = 0.856
= 0.4 x 0.318 + 0.8 (0.856 0.318) = 0.558

Example 4-solution(contd)
2. E = Eb = T4
= 0.558 x 5.67 x 10-8 (W/m2 K4) 16004 (K4)
= 207 kW/m2
3. max =

2898
1600

= 1.81 m

Since is different for different , we have to calculate

emissive power for both

Exercise
The filament of tungsten bulb is heated to a
temperature of 2227oC. Find the fraction of
the enrgy in the visible range. The visible
range of the spectrum may be considered as
0.4 m 0.7 m

Example
Example 7
A flat plate collector with no cover plate has a selective
absorber surface emittance of 0.1 and a solar absorptance
of 0.95. At a given time of the day, the absorber surface
temperature is Ts = 120 oC when the solar irradiation is
750 W/m2, the effective sky temperature is -10 oC and the
ambient air temperature is 30 oC. Assume that the convective
heat transfer coefficient for the calm day condition can be
estimated from the following equation is:
h = 0.22 (Ts -T )1/3 W/m2.K
Calculate the useful heat removal rate from the collector
for these conditions. What is the efficiency of the collector
for these conditions?

Sky Temperature:
Ts = Ta[0.711 + 0.0056Tdp +0.000073Tdp2
+0.013 cos(15t)]0.25
Ts = sky temp in K
Tdp= dew point temperature, K
t = time in hour after mid-night.

Example
Example 7 - contd
Tsky = -10 oC
T = 30 oC
G= 750 W/m2

=0.1,
=0.95
qu

Example 7 - contd
Assumption:
b) Bottom of collector well insulated
c) Absorber surface is diffuse
1. Energy balance on the absorber
Ein Eout = 0
Or

Gsky = Tsky4

Sky radiation is concentrated in approximately the same

spectral region as that of the surface emission and as such it
may be reasonable to assume.
sky = 0.1
4
3

qcon = h (Ts T) = 0.22 (Ts - T)

and E = Ts4
Hence, qu = sGs + sky Gsky* - qcon E*
= 0.95 (750 W/m2) + 0.1 x 5.67 x 10-8 (W/m2K4)
x (393)4K4- 0.22(393-303)1.33 0.1x5.67x108
263
(W/m2K4)x3934K4
qu = 712.5 (W/m2) + 27.127 (W/m2) 87.4 (W/m2)
135.25 (W/m2)
= 516.9 W/m2
2. Collector efficiency, =

q u 516.9
=
= 0.689
Gs
750

qu = sGs - (Ts4 Tsky4) h (Ts - T)

= sGs -

(Ts4

Tsky4)

- 0.22 (Ts - T)

4
3

Assumption:surfaces are separated by nonparticipating medium which neither emits,
a) black surfaces,
b) diffuse-gray surfaces, and
c) enclosures.
N

The view factor: The view factor Fij is defined as the fraction
of the radiation leaving surface i, which is intercepted by A , T
j
j
surface j.
Reciprocity relation: Fij Ai = Fji Aj
A1F12=A2F21
R
Summation Rule: J=1 N Fij = 1
2
1
F11 + F12 =1
Ai, Ti
::

The view factor: Example

The view factor F1-3 between the base and
the top surface of the cylinder shown in
Figure can be found from charts. Develop
expressions for the view factors F1-2 and
F2-1 between the base and the lateral
cylindrical surface in terms of F1-3.
3

H
1

Solution
From the summation rule
F1-1 + F1-2 + F1-3 = 1
Since F1-1 = 0, the above equation reduces to the following
form
F1-2= 1-F1-3
From the reciprocity relation,
A1F1-2 =A2F2-1
Hence, F2-1= (A1/A2) F1-2
(Find the values of the shape factors, if R = 40 mm and H =
100 mm)

Consider radiation exchange between two black surfaces
qi.j = (AiJi) Fij
(74)
where qij = rate at which radiation leaves surface i
and is intercepted by surface j
For a black surface, radiosity = emissive power
.
(75)
. . qij = Ai Ebi Fij
Similarly, qji = Aj Ebj Fji
(76)
.

. .

qij = qij qji

(77)

= Ai Ebi Fij - Aj Ebj Fji

= Ai Fij (Ti4 Tj4)
(since Ai Fji = Aj Fji)

(78)

Example 10
A furnace cavity, which is in the form of a cylinder of
diameter D = 75 mm and length L = 150 mm, is open at
one end to surroundings that are at a temperature of 27oC.
The sides and bottom may be approximated as blackbodies,
heated electrically, and are maintained at temperatures of
T1 = 1350oC and T2 = 1650oC ,respectively. The sides and
bottom are considered to be well insulated.
Side, T1
Heater wire
L

Insulation

Bottom, T2

How much power is required to maintain the furnace at the

prescribed conditions?

Example 10 - contd
T3 = Ts

Tsurr = 300 K
= Ts

Solution:
Assumption:
1. Interior surfaces behave
as blackbodies

T1 = 1623 K
L = 0.15m

A2, T2 = 1923 K

D = 0.075m

2. Negligible heat transfer by convection

3. Outer surface of the furnace is adiabatic

Power required = Heat losses from the furnace

Heat loss is due to radiation (other losses have been
neglected) from the hypothetical surface A3. The
surroundings are large; the heat transfer from the furnace to
the surroundings may be approximated by treating the
surface A3 to be at T3 = Tsur .
Heat balance, q = q13 + q23
= A1 F13 (T14 T34) + A2 F23 (T24 T34)
rj /L =

0.0375
L
0.15
= 0.25;
=
= 4,
ri 0.0375
0.15

F23 = 0.06

From Fig 26

From summation rule, F21 + F22 + F23 = 1

F21 = 1 - F23 = 0.94
since F22 = 0
From reciprocity theorem,
A1F12 = A2F21
F12 =

A2
F21
A1

= [{0.25 (0.075 m)2}/{

(0.075mx0.15m)}]x0.94
= 0.118
From symmetry, F13 = F12

Therefore, q
-8

= x 0.075 x 0.15 x 0.118 x 5.67 x 10 [1623 -300 ]

+0.25 (0.075)2 x 0.06 x 5.67 x 10-8 [19234 300 4]
= 1639 + 205 W
= 1844 W

surfaces in an enclosure

Black surfaces are ideal surface, difficult to achieve in

reality.
In real surfaces, complication arises due to multiple
reflection, with partial absorption occurring each time.

Likely assumptions:
1. Isothermal surface characterized by
2. opaque diffuse surface
3. Non-participating medium.
Problem: To determine net radiative heat flux from each
surface.
(Ti associated with each surface is known.)

surfaces in an enclosure (contd)

Tj, Aj, j

T1, A1, 1
Ji qi

Gi

Ti, Ai, i

Fig. 29 Radiation exchange in an enclosure consisting

of gray surfaces and non-participating medium

qi

Qi = Ai (Ji Gi)

(79)

Ji,Ai

Gi,Ai

Ai

qi is the net rate at which radiation

leaves surface i.

iGi,Ai
Ei,Ai

Gi,Ai
iGi,Ai

Ji = Ei + iGi (80)
qi = Ai (Ei iGi) (81)
since, i = 1 - i for an opaque surface
= 1 - i for opaque, diffuse gray surface
.
(82)
. . Ji = i Ebi + (1 - i) Gi
J i - ei Fbi
or Gi= 1-
i

qi

Tj, Aj, j

T1, A1, 1
Ji qi

Gi

Ti, Ai, i

Fig. 29 Radiation exchange in an enclosure consisting

of gray surfaces and non-participating medium

For an enclosure, the irradiation at surface I,
N

Ai Gi F ji A j J j
j 1

F A J
ij

j 1

. .

Gi =

F J
j 1

ij

Substituting into (79) gives

qi = Ai J i Fij J j
j 1

using
qi =

ij

j 1

Ai

j 1

j 1

Fij J i Fij J j

hence, qi = A F J
N

j 1

ij

J j qij
N

j 1

(84)

between i & j

J1

qi1

(AiFi1)-1
qi Ebi

Ji

J2

-1

(AiFi2)

1i
Aii

(AiFin)-1

qi2

(AiFi3)-1
J3
qi3

Jn
qin

N J J
Ebi J i
j
i
1
(1 i ) / i Ai
(
A
F
)
j 1
i ij

(85)

Note:1. Equation (85) is useful when the surface

temperature Ti (and hence Ebi ) is known.
1. Equation (84) is useful when the net radiation
transfer rate, qi , is known.

The two-surface Enclosure:

q1

1 1
A11

Eb1

q1

(A1F12)-1
J1

q12

J2

1 2
A 2 2

q1

A2,T2,

Eb2
-q2

q12

A1, T1, 1
Since there are only two surfaces,
Net radiation transfer from surface 1, q1 = net radiation transfer to surface 2, - q2
q1 = - q2 =

q12

E bi - J1
q1 =
;
1- 1
1A1
J - J
q12 = 1 2
1
A1F12

J 2 - E b2
-q2 =
1-
2A 2

Eb1 - J1 = q1
A1 1

J1 - J2

= q12

1 1

A1 1

= q12
A1 F12

1 2

J2 - Eb2 = -q2
A2 2

= q12

1 2

A2 2

1 1
1 2
1
[

]
A1 1 A1 F12 A2 2

= T1 T2
4

r1

r2

Concentric sphere Concentric Finite

Cylinders
A1
r12
= 2 ; F12 = 1
A 2 r2

A1
r
= 1 ; F12 = 1
A 2 r2

Infinite parallel
plane
A1 = A2 = A; F12 = 1

Radiation shield, constructed from low emittance

materials can be used to reduce heat transfer
between two surfaces.
q12
q1
Eb1

1 1
A11

-1

J1

(A1F13)

J31

1 31
A331

Eb3

1 32
A332

-1

(A3F32)
J32

1 2
A 22

Eb2
q13

J2
q1

q32

31

32

A1, 1, T1

-q2

A2, 2, T2
A3T3

Total Resistance
Rtotal = R1+R2+R3+R4+R5+R6
Where,
R1= (1-1)/A11
R2= (A1F13)-1
R3= (1-31)/A331
R4= (1-32)/A332
R5= (A3F32)-1
R6= (1-2)/A22

For large parallel plates

A1 (T14 T2 4 )
q12
1 1 1 31 1 32

1 2
31
32
when 31 and 32 are small, the resistance become very
large.
Special case:
1 = 2 = 31 = 32
50%

Example 12
A cryogenic fluid flows through a long tube of diameter D 1
= 20 mm, the outer surface of which is diffuse-gray with 1
= 0.03 and T1 = 77 K. This tube is concentric with a larger
tube of diameter D2 = 50 mm, the inner surface being
diffuse-gray with 2 = 0.05 and T2 = 300 K. The space
between the surfaces is evacuated.
1. Calculate the heat gain by cryogenic fluid per unit length
of the tube.
2. If a thin radiation shield of diameter D = 35 mm and
emittance, 3 = 0.02 (both sides) is inserted midway
between the inner and outer surfaces, calculate the
change in percent of heat gain per unit length of the tube.

Example 12-solution
Solution
D3 = 35 mm
3 = 0.02

D2 = 50 mm
T2 = 300 K
2 = 0.05

Network: (without shield)

1 1
(A1F12)-1
Eb1
A11

1 2
A 2 2

J2

Eb2

J1
Network: (with shield)
Eb1
D1 = 20 mm
T1 = 77 K
1 = 0.02

J1
R1

J31
R2

Eb3 J32
R3

R4

J2
R5

Eb2
R6

Example 12-solution(contd)

Total Resistance
Rtotal = R1+R2+R3+R4+R5+R6
Where,
R1= (1-1)/A11
R2= (A1F13)-1
R3= (1-31)/A331
R4= (1-32)/A332
R5= (A3F32)-1
R6= (1-2)/A22

Example 12-solution(contd)

Example 12-solution(contd)

Example 12-solution(contd)

Example 12-solution(contd)