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UNIT-IV

INVERTERS

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Single-Phase Inverters
Half-Bridge Inverter
One of the simplest types of inverter. Produces a square wave output.

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Single-Phase Inverters
(contd)
Full Bridge (H-bridge) Inverter
Two half-bridge inverters combined.
Allows for four quadrant operation.

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Single-Phase Inverters
(contd)
Quadrant 1: Positive step-down converter
(forward motoring)
Q1-On; Q2 - Chopping; D3,Q1 freewheeling

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Single-Phase Inverters
(contd)
Quadrant 2: Positive step-up converter
(forward regeneration)
Q4 - Chopping; D2,D1 freewheeling

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Single-Phase Inverters
(contd)
Quadrant 3: Negative step-down converter
(reverse motoring)
Q3-On; Q4 - Chopping; D1,Q3 freewheeling

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Single-Phase Inverters
(contd)

Quadrant 4: Negative step-up converter


(reverse regeneration)
Q2 - Chopping; D3,D4 freewheeling

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Single-Phase Inverters
(contd)
Phase-Shift Voltage Control - the output of
the H-bridge inverter can be controlled by
phase shifting the control of the
component half-bridges. See waveforms
on next slide.

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Single-Phase Inverters
(contd)

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Single-Phase Inverters
(contd)
The waveform of the output voltage vab is a quasi-square
wave of pulse width . The Fourier series of vab is given
by:

4Vd
vab
n 1,3,5... n

n
sin 2 cos n t

The value of the fundamental, a1=

4Vd
sin / 2

The harmonic components as a function of phase angle


are shown in the next slide.
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Single-Phase Inverters
(contd)

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Three-Phase Bridge
Inverters
Three-phase bridge inverters are widely
used for ac motor drives. Two modes of
operation - square wave and six-step. The
topology is basically three half-bridge
inverters, each phase-shifted by 2/3,
driving each of the phase windings.

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12

Three-Phase Bridge Inverters


(contd)

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Three-Phase Bridge Inverters


(contd)

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Three-Phase Bridge Inverters


(contd)
The three square-wave phase voltages
can be expressed in terms of the dc
supply voltage, Vd, by Fourier series as:
2Vd
va 0

2Vd
vb 0

2Vd
vc 0

02/20/16

(1) n 1 cos(nt )

n 1,3,5...

(1)

n 1

n 1,3,5...

n 1,3,5...

(1)

2
cos( nt )
3

n 1

2
cos( nt )
3

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Three-Phase Bridge Inverters


(contd)
The line voltages can then be expressed as:
2 3Vd
vab va 0 vb 0

2 3Vd
vbc vb 0 vc 0

2 3Vd
vca vc 0 va 0

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cos( t / 6) cos(nt 6)

cos( t / 2) cos(nt 2)

cos( t 5 / 6) cos( nt 5 6)

n 1,3,5...

n 1,3,5...

n 1,3,5...

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Three-Phase Bridge Inverters


(contd)
The line voltages are six-step waveforms and
have characteristic harmonics of 6n1,
where n is an integer. This type of inverter is
referred to as a six-step inverter.
The three-phase fundamental and harmonics
are balanced with a mutual phase shift of
2/3.
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Three-Phase Bridge Inverters


(contd)
If the three-phase load neutral n is isolated from the the
center tap of the dc voltage supply (as is normally the
case in an ac machine) the equivalent circuit is shown
below.

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Three-Phase Bridge Inverters


(contd)
In this case the isolated neutral-phase
voltages are also six-step waveforms with
the fundamental component phase-shifted
by /6 from that of the respective line
voltage. Also, in this case, the triplen
harmonics are suppressed.

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19

Three-Phase Bridge Inverters


(contd)
For a linear and balanced 3 load, the line currents are also
balanced. The individual line current components can be obtained
from the Fourier series of the line voltage. The total current can be
obtained by addition of the individual currents. A typical line current
wave with inductive load is shown below.

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20

Three-Phase Bridge Inverters


(contd)
The inverter can operate in the usual inverting or motoring mode. If
the phase current wave, ia, is assumed to be perfectly filtered and lags
the phase voltage by /3 the voltage and current waveforms are as
shown below:

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Three-Phase Bridge Inverters


The inverter can also operate in rectification or regeneration
mode in which power is pushed back to the dc side from the ac
side. The waveforms corresponding to this mode of operation
with phase angle = 2/3 are shown below:

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Three-Phase Bridge Inverters


(contd)
The phase-shift voltage control principle
described earlier for the single-phase
inverter can be extended to control the
output voltage of a three-phase inverter.

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Three-Phase Bridge Inverters


(contd)

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Three-Phase Bridge Inverters


(contd)
The three waveforms va0,vb0, and vc0 are of
amplitude 0.5Vd and are mutually phaseshifted by 2/3.
The three waveforms ve0,vf0, and vg0 are of
similar but phase shifted by .

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25

Three-Phase Bridge Inverters


(contd)

The transformers secondary phase voltages, vA0, vB0, and vc0


may be expressed as follows:

v A0 mvad m(va 0 vd 0 )
vB 0 mvbe m(vb 0 ve 0 )

where m is the transformer turns ratio


(= Ns/Np). Note that each of these waves is a function of
v

mv

m
(
v

v
)
C
0
cf
c
0
f
0
angle.

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26

Three-Phase Bridge Inverters


(contd)
The output line voltages are given by:

v AB v A0 vB 0

vBC vB 0 vC 0
vCA vC 0 v A0

While the component voltage waves va0, vd0, vA0 etc. all
contain triplen harmonics, they are eliminated from the line
voltages because they are co-phasal. Thus the line
voltages are six-step waveforms with order of harmonics =
6n1 at a phase angle .
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27

Three-Phase Bridge Inverters


(contd)
The Fourier series for vA0 and vB0 are given
by:

02/20/16

v A0

4mVd

n 1,3,5... n

vB 0

4mVd

n 1,3,5... n

n
sin 2 cos n t

n
sin 2 cos n t 2 / 3

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Three-Phase Bridge Inverters


(contd)
The Fourier series for vAB is given by:

v AB v A0 vB 0
4mVd

n 1,5,7,11... n

n
sin 2

cos n t cos n t

Note that the triplen harmonics are removed in


vAB although they are present in vA0 and vB0.
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29

PWM Technique
While the 3 6-step inverter offers simple
control and low switching loss, lower order
harmonics are relatively high leading to high
distortion of the current wave (unless
significant filtering is performed).
PWM inverter offers better harmonic control
of the output than 6-step inverter.
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30

PWM Principle
The dc input to the inverter is chopped by
switching devices in the inverter. The
amplitude and harmonic content of the ac
waveform is controlled by the duty cycle of
the switches. The fundamental voltage v1
has max. amplitude = 4Vd/ for a square
wave output but by creating notches, the
amplitude of v1 is reduced (see next slide).
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PWM Principle (contd)

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PWM Techniques
Various PWM techniques, include:

02/20/16

Sinusoidal PWM (most common)


Selected Harmonic Elimination (SHE) PWM
Space-Vector PWM
Instantaneous current control PWM
Hysteresis band current control PWM
Sigma-delta modulation
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Sinusoidal PWM
The most common PWM approach is
sinusoidal PWM. In this method a
triangular wave is compared to a
sinusoidal wave of the desired
frequency and the relative levels of the
two waves is used to control the
switching of devices in each phase leg
of the inverter.
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34

Sinusoidal PWM
(contd)
Single-Phase (Half-Bridge) Inverter
Implementation

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Sinusoidal PWM (contd)

when va0> vT T+ on; T- off; va0 = Vd


va0 < vT T- on; T+ off; va0 = -Vd

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Sinusoidal PWM
(contd)

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37

Sinusoidal PWM (contd)


Definition of terms:
Triangle waveform switching freq. = f c (also called carrier
freq.)
Control signal freq. = f (also called modulation freq.)
Amplitude modulation ratio, m = Vp
VT
Frequency modulation ratio,
mf (P)= fc / f

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Peak amplitude
of control signal

Peak amplitude
of triangle wave
38

Multiple Pulse-Width Modulation


In multiple-pulse modulation, all pulses
are the same width
Vary the pulse width according to the
amplitude of a sine wave evaluated at the
center of the same pulse

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39

Generate the gating signal

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2 Reference Signals, vr, -vr

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Comparing the carrier and reference signals


Generate g1 signal by comparison with vr
Generate g4 signal by comparison with -vr

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41

Comparing the carrier and reference signals

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42

Potential problem if Q1 and Q4 try to turn ON


at the same time!

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43

If we prevent the problem

Output voltage is low when g1 and g4 are both


high
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44

This composite signal is difficult to generate

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45

Generate the same gate pulses with one


sine wave

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Alternate scheme

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rms output voltage


Depends on the modulation index, M
V V
o

p
V

2p

m1

Where m is the width of the mth pulse

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48

Fourier coefficients of the output voltage

4V
n
B
sin
n
4
n 1,3,5,..
2p

m1

02/20/16

sin n 3 sin n

4
4
m

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Harmonic Profile

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Compare with multiple-pulse case for p=5

Distortion Factor is considerably less


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51

Series-Resonant Inverter

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52

Operation
T1 fired, resonant pulse of current
flows through the load. The current
falls to zero at t = t1m and T1 is self
commutated.
T2 fired, reverse resonant current
flows through the load and T2 is also
self-commutated.
The series resonant circuit must be
underdamped,
R2 < (4L/C)

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53

Operation in Mode 1 Fire T1

di1
1
L
Ri1 i1dt vC (0) VS
dt
C
i1 (0) 0
vC (0) VC
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i1 (t ) A1e

R
t
2L

sin r t
1
2

1
R2
r
2
LC 4 L
Vs Vc
di1

A1
dt t 0
r L
Vs Vc t
i1 (t )
e sin r t
r L
R

2L
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55

To find the time when the current is


maximum, set the first derivative = 0
di1
0
dt
Vs Vc
t
t

e
sin

e
cos r t 0

r
r
r L
.....

r
tan r tm

1 r t m
tan
r t m

1
1 r
tm
tan
r
2
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To find the capacitor voltage, integrate the


current
t

1
vC1 (t ) i1 (t )dt Vc
C0
1 Vs Vc
t
vC1 (t )
e
sin r t dt VC

C 0 r L
...
t

vC1 (t ) (Vs VC )e t ( sin r t r cos r t ) / r Vs

0 t t1m ( )
r

The current i1 becomes = 0 @ t=t1m

vC1 (t1m ) VC1 Vs VC e


02/20/16

Vs

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58

Operation in Mode 2 T1, T2 Both OFF

i2 (t ) 0
vC2 (t ) VC1
vC2 (t2m ) VC2 VC1
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t2m

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60

Operation in Mode 3 Fire T2

di3
1
L
Ri3 i3dt vC3 (0) 0
dt
C
i3 (0) 0
vC3 (0) VC2 VC1
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61

i3 (t )

VC1

r L

sin r t

1
vC3 (t ) i3dt VC1
C0
vC3 (t )

VC1 e t ( sin r t r cos r t )

0 t t3m ( )
r
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62

vC3 (t3m ) VC3 VC VC1 e

vC1 (t1m ) VC1 (VS VC )e

VS

.
.
1
VC VS z
e 1
ez
VC1 VS z
e 1
VC VS VC1
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63

Space Vector Modulation


Space Vector Diagram
j

V3

V2

OPO

Active vectors: V1 to V6
(stationary, not rotating)

Zero vector: V0
Six sectors: I to VI

SECTOR
II

SECTOR III

V4

SECTOR I


Vref

V1

PPP

OPP

OOO

POO

V0

SECTOR IV

SECTOR VI
SECTOR V

OOP

V5

02/20/16

PPO

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POP
V6

64

Space Vector Modulation


Space Vectors
Three-phase voltages

v AO (t ) v BO (t ) vCO (t ) 0

(1)

Two-phase voltages
2
cos
0
cos
v (t )
2
3

v (t )

3 sin 0 sin 2

4
3
4
sin

v AO (t )
v (t )
BO

cos

vCO (t )

(2)

Space vector representation

V (t ) v (t ) j v (t )

(2) (3)

2
V (t ) v AO (t ) e j 0 v BO (t ) e j 2 / 3 vCO (t ) e j 4 / 3
3
02/20/16

jx
where e cos x j sin x

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(3)

(4)
65

Space Vector Modulation


Space Vectors (Example)
Switching state [POO]

S1, S6 and S2 ON

2
1
v AO (t ) Vd , v BO (t ) Vd
3
3

1
v
(
t
)

Vd
and CO
3

2
V1 Vd e j 0
3

(6)

SECTOR
II

SECTOR III

V4

PPP

OPP

(7)

PPO
SECTOR I


Vref

V1

OOO

POO

V0

SECTOR IV

SECTOR VI
SECTOR V

OOP

V5

02/20/16

V2

OPO

Similarly,

2
j ( k 1)
3
Vk Vd e
3
k 1, 2, ..., 6.

V3

(5) (4)

(5)

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POP
V6

66

Space Vector Modulation


Active and Zero Vectors
Switching State
(Three Phases)

On-state Switch

[PPP]

S1 , S 3 , S 5

[OOO]

S4 , S6 , S2

V1

[POO]

S1 , S 6 , S 2

V2

[PPO]

S1 , S 3 , S 2

V3

[OPO]

S 4 , S3 , S 2

V4

[OPP]

S 4 , S3 , S5

V5

[OOP]

S4 , S6 , S5

V6

[POP]

S1 , S 6 , S 5

Space Vector
Zero
Vector

Active
Vector

Active Vector: 6
Zero Vector: 1
Redundant switching
states: [PPP] and [OOO]
02/20/16

V0

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Vector
Definition

V0 0
2
V1 Vd e j 0
3

2
j
V2 Vd e 3
3
2
2
j
V3 V d e 3
3
3
2
j
V4 V d e 3
3
4
2
j
V5 V d e 3
3
5
2
j
V6 V d e 3
3
67

Space Vector Modulation


Reference Vector Vref
Definition

Vref Vref e j

dt

V4

PPP

SECTOR I


Vref

V1

OOO

POO

V0

SECTOR IV

SECTOR VI
SECTOR V

(9)
OOP

V5

02/20/16

PPO

OPP

Angular displacement

(t )

SECTOR
II

SECTOR III

(8)

V2

OPO

Rotating in space at

2 f

V3

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POP
V6

68

Space Vector Modulation


Relationship Between Vref and VAB
Vref is approximated by two active
and a zero vectors
Vref rotates one revolution,
VAB completes one cycle
Length of Vref corresponds to
magnitude of VAB

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69

Space Vector Modulation


Dwell Time Calculation
Volt-Second Balancing

Vref Ts V1 Ta V2 Tb V0 T0

Ts Ta Tb T0

(10)

Ta, Tb and T0 dwell times for V1 , V2 and V0


Ts sampling period
Space vectors

2
2

j
j
3
,
and
Vref Vref e , V1 Vd V2 Vd e
V0 0
3
3

(11)

(11) (10)

2
1
Re
:
V
(cos

)
T

V
T

Vd Tb
ref
s
d
a

3
3

Im : Vref (sin ) Ts 1 Vd Tb

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02/20/16
Copyright

(12)
70

Space Vector Modulation


Dwell Times
Solve (12)

3 Ts Vref

Vd

Ta

3 Ts Vref

Vd

Tb

sin (

)
3

sin

0 /3

(13)

T0 Ts Ta Tb

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71

Space Vector Modulation


Vref Location versus Dwell Times

V2

Vref

Tb
V2
Ts

SECTOR I

V1

Ta
V1
Ts

V ref

Location

Dwell Times
02/20/16

0
Ta 0
Tb 0

Ta Tb

Ta Tb

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6
3
Ta Tb

Ta 0
Tb 0
72

Space Vector Modulation


Modulation Index

T
m
sin
(
)
s
a
a
3
Tb Ts ma sin

(15)

T0 Ts Tb Tc

ma

02/20/16

3 Vref

(16)

Vd

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73

Space Vector Modulation


Modulation Range
j

V3

OPO

Vref,max

SECTOR
II

SECTOR III

2
3 Vd
Vref , max Vd

3
2
3

(17)

V4

PPP

V1
POO

V0
SECTOR V

OOP

SECTOR VI

POP
V6

V5

Modulation range: 0 ma 1
02/20/16

SECTOR I


Vref

OOO

SECTOR IV

(17) (16)

PPO

OPP

ma,max = 1

V2

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(18)
74

Space Vector Modulation


Switching Sequence Design
Basic Requirement:
Minimize the number of switchings per
sampling period Ts
Implementation:
Transition from one switching state to
the next involves only two switches in
the same inverter leg.

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75

Space Vector Modulation


Seven-segment Switching Sequence

V0

V1

OOO POO

Selected vectors:
V0, V1 and V2
Dwell times:
Ts = T0 + Ta + Tb

V2

V0

V2

V1

PPO

PPP

PPO

POO OOO

v AN

Vd

vBN

Vd

vCN
0

V0

Vd
T0
4

Ta
2

Tb
2

T0
2

Tb
2

Ta
2

T0
4

Ts

Total number of switchings: 6


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76

Space Vector Modulation


Undesirable Switching Sequence
Vectors V1 and V2 swapped

V0

V2

OOO PPO

V1

V0

V1

POO

PPP

POO

v AN

V0

PPO OOO

Vd

vBN

Vd

vCN
0

V2

Vd
T0
4

Tb
2

Ta
2

T0
2

Ta
2

Tb
2

T0
4

Ts

Total number of switchings: 10


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02/20/16

77

Space Vector Modulation


Switching Sequence Summary (7segments)
Sector
I
II
III
IV
V
VI

Switching Sequence

V2
V0
V2

V0

V1

V1

V0

OOO

V0

POO

V3

PPO

V2

PPP

V0

PPO

V2

POO

V3

OOO

V0

OOO

V0

OPO

V3

PPO

V4

PPP

V0

PPO

V4

OPO

V3

OOO

V0

OOO

V0

OPO

V5

OPP

V4

PPP

V0

OPP

V4

OPO

V5

OOO

V0

OOO

V0

OOP

V5

OPP

V6

PPP

V0

OPP

V6

OOP

V5

OOO

V0

OOO

V0

OOP

V1

POP

V6

PPP

V0

POP

V6

OOP

V1

OOO

V0

OOO

POO

POP

PPP

POP

POO

OOO

Note: The switching sequences for the odd and ever sectors are different.
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78

Space Vector Modulation


Simulated Waveforms
Sector
V

VI
III

II

IV

VI
II

III

IV

v AB
Vd
0

v AO
2Vd / 3

iA
0

f1 = 60Hz, fsw = 900Hz,


02/20/16

ma = 0.696, Ts = 1.1ms

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79

Space Vector Modulation


Waveforms and FFT

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80

Space Vector Modulation


Waveforms and FFT (Measured)

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81

Space Vector Modulation


Waveforms and FFT (Measured)

( f1 60Hz
02/20/16

and

Ts 1 / 720 sec )

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82

Space Vector Modulation


Even-Order Harmonic Elimination

Type-A sequence
(starts and ends with [OOO])

02/20/16

Type-B sequence
(starts and ends with [PPP])

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83

Space Vector Modulation


Even-Order Harmonic Elimination

Space vector Diagram


02/20/16

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84

Space Vector Modulation


Even-Order Harmonic Elimination

Measured waveforms and FFT

02/20/16

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85

Space Vector Modulation


Even-Order Harmonic Elimination

( f1 60Hz
02/20/16

and

Ts 1 / 720 sec )

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86

Space Vector Modulation


Five-segment SVM

V0

V1

V2

V1

V0

V0

V2

V1

V2

V0

OOO

POO

PPO

POO

OOO

PPP

PPO

POO

PPO

PPP

Tb
2

T0
2

v AN

Vd

vBN

Vd
Vd

Vd

vCN
0

Vd
T0
2

Ta
2

Tb

Ta
2

T0
2

T0
2

Tb
2

Ts
(a) Sequence A
02/20/16

Ta
Ts
(b) Sequence B

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87

Space Vector Modulation


Switching Sequence ( 5-segment)
Sector
I
II
III
IV
V
VI
02/20/16

Switching Sequence (A)

V1
V2
V1
V0

V0

OOO

V0

POO

V3

PPO

V2

POO

V3

OOO

V0

OOO

V0

OPO

V3

PPO

V4

OPO

V3

OOO

V0

OOO

V0

OPO

V5

OPP

V4

OPO

V5

OOO

V0

OOO

V0

OOP

V5

OPP

V6

OOP

V5

OOO

V0

OOO

V0

OOP

V1

POP

V6

OOP

V1

OOO

V0

OOO

POO

POP

POO

OOO

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vCN 0
vCN 0
v AN 0
v AN 0
v BN 0
v BN 0
88

Space Vector Modulation


Simulated Waveforms ( 5-segment)
v g1

2 / 3

vg 3

vg 5
v AB
0

Vd
2

iA
0

f1 = 60Hz, fsw = 600Hz, ma = 0.696, Ts = 1.1ms


No switching for a 120 period per cycle.
Low switching frequency but high harmonic distortion
02/20/16

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89