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Process Engineering Group

Advanced Process Control


5 Days Training
April 03, 2012
Fareed Khan
February 21, 2016

Reliance Technology Group APC / RTO

Purpose

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

APC Introduction & RTO Brief


APC Project Steps
APC Configuration
APC Performance Monitoring
APC Hands on Training using a Simulated Controller

6.

Modifications in APC model, APC tuning or logic change is not part of this
training scope.

February 21, 2016

Reliance Technology Group APC / RTO

APC Introduction
What is APC?
APC at RIL
How APC Works?
APC Monitoring & Maintenance
Introduction to RTO

APC Control Hierarchy


Months & days

Planning & Scheduling

LP

(Plant wide)

CLP

min

Empirical & Dynamic model

APC
msec

(Site & Enterprise wide)

Rigorous & Steady state

Optimization

hrs

Simple & Steady state

APC
DCS

Multiple or single loop no Model

Instrument & Plant


4

APC @ RIL
History:

Development started in early 1970s


Commercialization by Dr Charley Cutler, Dr Mike Morshedi, & others in 1980s
Today more than 20,000 APC applications world wide

Commercially available technologies:

DMCplus (Aspen Tech)


RMPCT (Honeywell)
ExaSMOC (Shell/Yokogawa)
CONNOISSEUR (Invensys)

APC initiative at RIL

STAR Corporate License in 1994


SMCA PMD License in 1994
DMCplus HMD Cracker unit License in 1998
DMCplus Corporate License in 2001

Current Status at RIL

More than 130 APC Controllers


More than 2300 setpoints are written into the DCS System every minute or two
More than 95% of the APC controllers are installed In-house
More than 35000 PID closed loops
100% maintained in-house
5

Real Time Optimisation


APC

Profit

RTO
Floating Optima

Constraints
-Safety
-Equipment
-Quality

Reactor Temperature
First principles Model
Steady State Model
Nonlinear (QP) Optimizer

APC Control
True
Economic
Optimum

DMCplus
Operating
Region
Compressor Speed
+

Column D P
Pressure
+

Temperature

Operator's
Preferred
Operating
Region

Regression Model
Dynamic Model
LP Optimizer
Purity
Valve Positions
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DCS Control - Distillation Tower


MV - Parameters that Operator
change
Safety Valve

Safety Constraints

Ovd Temp

CV - Parameters that Operator


controls

Ovd Pres

Drum PresFF

- Disturbance variable to the


unit Valve
Control

L
F

Equipment Constraint

Ovd Comp (95)


A

P
Control Valve

FEED
F

FEED
T
T

A Side Comp (95)

Side FLOW

Quality Constraints
Simple PID Model
Override Logic

L
REB Duty
J

A Btm Comp (5)

DMCplus Architecture

Step 1- Read Process Values


Step 2- Predict Steady State (SS)
Step 3- Optimize at Predicted SS
Step 4- Generate a Move Plan to reach SS
Step 5- Implement Set points

Prediction using Plant Model

Assumes Linearity and Superposition


10

Model Prediction - Linearity and Superposition

Linearity Ability to multiply MV movement


Superposition Ability to add curves

Possible when the dynamic equations are


represented by Linear differential equations like
Laplace Transforms

Composite Curve for 1 & -0.5 unit of MV movement


5 -1 -3 = 1

&

-2.5 +0.5 +1.5 = -0.5

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Error Correction

12

Optimization at steady state


Controlled Variable
Predicted Steady State
Values

Manipulated Variable
Steady State Targets

Controlled Variable
Operating Limits

Manipulated Variable
Current Values
Manipulated Variable
Operating Limits

Steady
State
Linear Program

Controlled Variable
Steady State Targets

Economic Information

13

Move Plan Generation

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Move Plan Generation Example

February 21, 2016

Reliance Technology Group APC / RTO

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DMCplus Control Structure

Economics
Costs on Manipulated Variables

Operator

Control Engineer
Tuning
Constants

Limits and Targets


Dynamic Predictions

Prediction
Module

Dependent
Variable
Values

SteadyState
Predictions

Independent
Variable Values

Steady-State
Optimization
Module

MV
Targets

CV
Targets

Manipulated
Variable Values

Dynamic
Control
Module
Setpoint
Output
Values

ACOBASE / Cim-IO
DCS / Process Information System
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Model Equation

CV = A * I

CV1
CV
2

CV3

CV
4

CV5

CV

6
CV
7

Calculate

Prediction Mode

a1
a
2

a3

a4
a4

a4
a
4

a1
a2
a3
a4
a4
a4

a1
a2
a3
a4
a4

Calculate

Identification Mode

a1
a2

a3
a 4

I1
I
2
*
I3

I4

Calculate

Control Mode
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Recap

APC is a 3 step Process:


1.
2.
3.

Predict Steady State (SS)


Optimize at Predicted SS
Generate a Move Plan to reach SS

Minimize give away in quality, equipment & Safety constraints


Minimize movements in Setpoints
Robust design for different operating points, and absorb Instrument Noise, unexpected
disturbance, and Model Error
Minimize Cost and Maximize Capacity

Desired Behavior in the Controlled and Manipulated Variables to expected and


unexpected disturbances, Model errors and noisy measurements

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APC Lifecycle

&
e
u
l
Va
x
a
M iency e of
lu
Effic imize Va
n
Max licatio
App

n lication
e
o
v
i
l
t
o
a
p
& Sance
ritiz on of Ap
t
o
i
o
r
n
P adati e
ho erform
s
atio
c
e
i
l
r
l
c
p
ubery of P
Deg orman
e
o
f Ap
r
c
o
T
f
n
t
a
ov
en
Per
Rec
Ennhhancemnce
E
rm a
o
f
r
Pe

Degradation
Time

Annual
Profits
($M)

Lost
Profit

Applications
Commissioned

Economic Benefits
are optimized when
applications are
achieving their
design potential

Applications
Off

Changes to process
& equipment,
operating philosophy,
resources, and
market conditions
affect performance

Sustained and Enhanced


Performance
(Continuous Improvement)

Low effort changes can


often be made to the
applications to sustain and
enhance Benefits

Time

APC Maintenance

Process changes

Equipment degradation, New Constraints


Major change in operating regime (Feed & product spec, flows etc)
New operational objectives, or increased unmeasured disturbances

Instrumentation issues

Deficient PID loop tuning, Control valve or other issues


Control loop configuration changes

MV Pinching & Conflicting CV Constraints


Operator understanding Inconsistent objectives & Deficiency in Training

Model design, Controller fidelity and Soft sensor accuracy issues


Tuning & Logic problems

APC Issues

Panel Officer, Instrument engineer, Plant & CTS engineer & APC group
Clarity of Roles
Conflicting Objectives; POs comfort vs CTS constraint pushing

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RIL Performance Index MVCPI

Performance Criteria for each APC steps:


1.
2.
3.

Predict Steady State (SS)


> Model Fidelity (Prediction Errors)
Optimize at Predicted SS
> LP Performance (Freeness to move)
Generate a Move Plan to reach SS > Controllability (CV Violations & Tuning)

(Number of MVs 0.5*MVs at Limits)


MVCPI = -------------------------------------------------------- x 100
(Number of MVs )
Reflects performance of LP
Monitors Active Constraint of MVs
Penalty of 50% if an MV is targeted at lower or upper limit
Performance of 50% will result if all MVs are ON but all targeted at upper or lower limit
Lower than 50% could result if MVs are pinched, or kept OFF

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Manipulated Variables

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Controlled Variables

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APC Dashboard

http://APC.in.ril.com

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Introduction to RTO
1. APC

Advanced Process Control

2. EO

Equation Oriented simulation

3. SM

Sequential Modular simulation

4. RTO

Real Time Optimization

5. ARPM Automated Rigorous Performance Monitoring


6. ROMeo Rigorous Online Monitoring Equation Oriented
7. PTS

Plant Trouble Shooting

8. PCS

Plant Case Studies

February 21, 2016

Reliance Technology Group APC / RTO

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Why RTO?
APC (PIMS)

Optimum at Constraint
Profit

Feed Rate

Constraints
-Equipment
-Safety
-Quality

Dynamic Plant Model


Regressed Model from plant data
Optimum always at constraints
Linear Objective & Constraints (LP)

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02/21/16

Why RTO?
APC

Constraints
-Equipment
Profit

RTO
Floating Optima

-Safety
-Quality

Reactor Temperature

Fundamental Model from first principles


Steady State Plant Model
Optimum floating
Nonlinear Objective & Constraints (QP)
Needs Steady State Detection
February 21, 2016

Reliance Technology
27 Group APC / RTO

02/21/1627

Types of Simulation SM (OTS)


Sequential Mode Solvers (SM) Aspen Plus , PRO II, HYSYS, Refsys , PetroSIM

Product
Feed

Give inputs

Calculate outputs

Initialization is easy
Needs different solving algorithm for each equipment
Can solve differential equations for Reactors
Solves one by one and proceeds
Difficult to solve for recycle streams and heat integration
More difficult to optimize
Still more difficult to respect constraints
February 21, 2016

Reliance Technology Group APC / RTO

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Types of Simulation - EO
Equation Oriented Solvers (EO) Aspen DMO, Invensys Opera,

Honeywell NOVA

Product
Feed
Give outputs

Calculate inputs

One solving algorithm for complete plant flowsheet


Easy for recycle streams and heat integration
Easy optimization and constraint handling
Difficult to initialize
Needs equation and variable information
Needs special reactor model consideration
Solves only algebraic equations
February 21, 2016

Reliance Technology Group APC / RTO

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Summary SM & EO Models

EO

SM

Ease of initialization

Design PFD simulation

Simulation studies

Optimization

Data reconciliation

Heat Integrated

Complete plant model with constraints

Ease of mirroring plant configuration

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02/21/16

What is SM & EO
EO - Open Equations

SM - Closed Equations
Q = U *A *LMTD
U = Q / A * LMTD

0 = Q - U *A *LMTD

LMTD = Q / (U *A)

dF/dV = -ri

Features:

Features:
Here 3 formulation for one equation
Would needs 3 different solving
algorithm
Only Simulation

February 21, 2016

One formulation for one equation


Same equation for : Simulation
Parameterization, Data Reconciliation &
Optimization
Needs variable information (const & Calc)

Reliance Technology Group APC / RTO

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RTO Modeling
Equation Oriented Approach
Variable Definition
Sparse Matrix
Derivative Information

First Order Jacobian


Second Order - Hassian

Normalization
Initialization
Spline Collocation
SQP Algorithm
Steady State Detection
Ramping Methodology

Additional Requirement for EO


Variable Definition (Const & Calc):
0 =3 +4*X1 +5*X2 +7*X3
0 =2+ X2+2*X4
0 =4+ 9*X1+3*X4

Input variables needs to be defined as constants


Output variables needs to be defined as calculated

0=6+5*X1+4*X3

Sparsity Matrix
1

Variables location in an equation needs to be defined in a sparsity


pattern. Only 2% or less non zeros are there in process plants
Reduces computational time

Jacobian Matrix
4

February 21, 2016

Direction required to solve the equations in is defined in a Jacobian


matrix. These are slopes or partial derivatives
A second order numerical derivative information in a Hassian matrix

Reliance Technology Group APC / RTO

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Additional Requirement for Reactors in EO


Reactor Models are Differential Equations
EO Solves only Algebraic Models
Differential Eqs. are converted to algebraic Eqs. by collocation

Example:
y = ln(x)
dy/dx = 1/x
at x=1, y = 0
Assumes a solution equation as:

y = a+bx+cx^2
dy/dx = b+2cx
at x=1, dy/dx =1
& x=1.1, dy/dx = 1/1.1
y=-1.4545 +1.909*x -0.4545*x^2
February 21, 2016

Spline 1 Collocation

Reliance Technology Group APC / RTO

Spline 2

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RTO Solution Algorithm


Sequential Quadratic Programming
Steps to SQP Algorithm
1. Given Xk , Set k = 0
2. Evaluate Functions and derivatives
3. Compute search direction, Delta Xk
4. Check for convergence
5. Compute step length, ak
6. Set Xk+1 = Xk + ak Delta Xk
k = k+1
Go to step (2)

RTO Sequence
Selected Plant
Measurements

Plant Steady?

No

Wait one Minute

Measurements

Measurement Validation

Economic
Values

Less than 1 minute

Controller Limits
Control and opt.
Status Info.

Selected Plant
Measurements and
Controller Limits

Parameter Calculation

15 minute

Optimization Calculation

30 minute

Plant Steady?

No

Implement Optimization points (Ramper)

February 21, 2016

Reliance Technology Group APC / RTO

Line-Out period 90 minutes

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Summary
APC needs profit direction to be known
RTO is required to capture floating optima, that is not simple to calculate
SM or Closed Equation models are generally impossible to use for optimization
Open equation models need special consideration for Reactors & Initialization
More inputs are required for RTO problem definition than SM
RTOs generally are steady state models

February 21, 2016

Reliance Technology Group APC / RTO

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ROMeo Advantages

Romeo

Online RTOs

Simulation Studies PCS

Daily Monitoring ARPM

Inputs to Economics Planning Model (EPS)

Easy GUI

Simpler interface through SIM4ME Portal

MILANO facility to create our own Reactor models

Use of Third Party Reactor models from (KBC/Spyro)

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02/21/16

Romeo & KBC License


Corporate ROMeo Suite license including ARPM, Utilities, Mass balance, MILANO, SIM4ME, Database
4 PRO II License

Petrosim 6 user KBC License

10 KBC Reactor models including FCC, Reformer, Hydrocracker & Hydrtotreaters


60 KBC Reactor users including ROMeo users
AMC, Software upgrade and consultancy agreement
Usage beyond 20 years of license

February 21, 2016

Reliance Technology Group APC / RTO

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February 21, 2016

Reliance Technology Group APC / RTO

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