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D. C.

Motor
1. Highly versatile energy conversion device
2. Flexible machine.
3. Variety of purposes.
From 3 mm stepper drawing a few A at 1.5 in a quartz crystal
watch.
to the giant 75000MW or more rolling mill motor.
4. It can produce high starting torque,
accelerating torque
retarding torque
5. It can give wide range of speed control
6. Suitable for fast reversal of speed

D. C. Motor
7. Characteristics can be modified by feedback circuit.
8. In spite of high initial cost, widely used in industries for
tough jobs.
9. At present, annual production and sale are about 40% of
rupee volume.
This is due to the automobile industry.
The batteries are used for storing electrical energy and
for starting the vehicles by dc motor.
It is also used for wipers, fans and for raising the window
glass.
10. Due to this, almost millions of dc motors are manufactured
every year.

The design of machines become a very


interesting and challenging topics
with improved magnetic, electrical and
insulating materials and the use of computer.

Construction

Construction

Common constructional features for


ALL rotating electrical machines
STATOR

Stator Core

Air Gap

Rotor Core

Shaft
ROTOR

Rotor wdg

Bearings
Stator Frame

STATOR
Base

Stator wdg

1. An outer stationary member is called as STATOR


2. The rotating member is called as ROTOR
3. The clearance between stator and rotor is called as AIR GAP
4. The rotor is mounted on the shaft and bearings.
Bearings are fixed to stator frame.
5. Both stator and rotor carry concentric cylindrical cores.
Cores are laminated and made up of ferromagnetic materials
to give optimum electric and magnetic characteristics.
6. When wdgs are excited, a common flux is set up.
This flux crosses the air gap from one core to the other.
N and S poles are produced on both stator and rotor.

Such a magnetic system with alternate N and S poles


along the air gap periphery is called Hetropolar system.
7. This stator and rotor move relative to each other for
Electro-Mechanical Energy Conversion.

Construction of DC machine
Field winding is on STATOR
Armature winding is on ROTOR
The clearance between stator and rotor is called as
AIR - GAP
The energy transfer from stator to rotor is through Air Gap

Pole Shoe Pole

Yoke or Frame

Earth's Magnetic Field

Earth
Magnet

N
S

Compass

The magnetic pole model: two opposing poles,

North (+) and South (-), separated by a distance


d. Each arrow represents the direction of H at that
point.

Pole Shoe Pole

Armature

Yoke or Frame

Pole Shoe Pole

Yoke or Frame

Mica
Insulation

Armature
Commutator
Segments

Pole Shoe Pole

Yoke or Frame

F
Mica
Insulation

Armature
Commutator
Segments

A
+

AA

FF

Pole Shoe Pole

Yoke or Frame

F
Armature
Commutator
Segments

Mica
Insulation

N
+

A
+

/2

AA

/2
FF

Pole Shoe Pole

Yoke or Frame

F
Armature

Mica
Insulation

Commutator
Segments

A
+

I/P

/2
Compensating
Winding

I/P
AA
S

/2
FF

Pole Shoe Pole

Yoke or Frame

F
Armature

Mica
Insulation

Commutator
Segments

I/P

/2
Compensating
Winding

I/P
AA
S
FF

+
DC i/p - M
DC o/p - G

/2
Dirn of rotation
M-Anticlockwise
Genr-Clockwise

STATOR

ROTOR
SHAFT

ROTOR

STATOR

STATOR

ROTOR

1. STATOR: consists of
i) Yoke or frame
Laminated magnet material
ii) Salient field poles
Laminated magnet material,
Concentrated field wdg.
Cross-section Pole core is smaller than pole shoe
Pole shoe is 70% of pole pitch
iii) Bearings
iv) Brushes: Carbon, Graphite, copper-graphite
v) Interpole wdg: Fixd to yoke in between main poles
Connected in series with armature wdg
vi) Compensating wdg: Housed in pole shoe
Connected in series with armature wdg

2. ROTOR: consists of
i) Armature core
It is made from 0.35 to 0.5 mm thick lamination
of Cold Rolled Grain Oriented Silicon Steel
to reduce iron loss.
Provides the low reluctance path to the flux /2
ii) Armature Winding
Distributed Lap or wave wdgs.
Housed in slots, connected in series or parallel
An alternating emf is induced in the coil due to rotation
iii) Commutator
Conducting segments are seperated by insulation
Arm wdg is connected to these segments

Carbon brushes are placed over commutator


It converts AC to DC in case Gen (Rectifier)
and DC to AC in case of Motor (Inverter)

Insulation
Conductor

Shaft

Commutator
Brush

Commutator

Commutator

Carbon brushes are placed over commutator


It converts AC to DC in case Gen (Rectifier)
and DC to AC in case of Motor (Inverter)

Armature Wdg

Insulation
Conductor

Shaft

Commutator
Brush

Armature Core

iv) Shaft
Armature core and commutator are fixed on the
shaft by means of key.
On both sides there are bearings which is connected
to the yoke.
The DC machine = AC machine + Commutaor
The DC machine = AC machine + Converter

Action of Commutator
Two important Functions
1. To convert AC to DC or vice-versa
In case of Generator, commutator acts as a
Rectifier, AC to DC
In case of Motor, commutator acts as a
Inverter, DC to AC
2. To keep armature mmf stationary in space,
ie cross & dot polarities in armature.
Due to stationary mmf, electromagnetic torque Te is
stationary or constant at particular position, which
is required for the rotation of rotor or armature.

Action of Commutator
Gen - Rectifier, AC to DC
B1

B2

Action of Commutator
Gen - Rectifier, AC to DC
B1

For Gen, direction of rotation


of arm - Clockwise

B2

Action of Commutator
Gen - Rectifier, AC to DC
B1

For Gen, direction of rotation


of arm - Clockwise

Observe the movement of


arm conductor and flux

B2

They move parallel


to each other

No change in flux
w r t time
No voltage is voltage is induced
in the arm conductor if it is
along brush axis
So conductors are
having no polarities

Action of Commutator
Gen - Rectifier, AC to DC
B1

For Gen, direction of rotation


of arm - Clockwise
Observe the movement of
arm conductor and flux

B2

They move parallel


to each other

No change in flux
w r t time
No voltage is voltage is induced
in the arm conductor if it is
along brush axis
So conductors are
having no polarities

Action of Commutator
Gen - Rectifier, AC to DC
B1

A1 = 0 and A2 = 0
B1B2 not connected to condr
B1 = 0 and B2 = 0

A2

S
A1

VA1A2

B2

VB1B2

Action of Commutator
Gen - Rectifier, AC to DC
B1
A2

A2
A1

A1

VA1A2

B2

VB1B2

A1 = 0 and A2 = 0
B1B2 not connected to condr
B1 = 0 and B2 = 0
Now rotate the
armature by 900.
Find out the polarities
of A1 and A2
For gen apply RHR

Action of Commutator
Gen - Rectifier, AC to DC
B1

VA1A2

A2
A1

B2

VB1B2

A1 = 0 and A2 = 0
B1B2 not connected to condr
B1 = 0 and B2 = 0
Now rotate the
armature by 900.
Find out the polarities
of A1 and A2
For gen apply RHR
A1 = Cross A2 = Dot
B1 = Cross B2 = Dot

Action of Commutator
Gen - Rectifier, AC to DC
B1

Again rotate the


armature by 900.

A1

A2
A1

Find out the polarities


of A1 and A2

A1 and A2 move
parallel to flux
No voltage

A2

VA1A2

B2

VB1B2

A1 = 0
B1 = 0

A2 = 0
B2 = 0

Action of Commutator
Gen - Rectifier, AC to DC
B1

Again rotate the


armature by 900.

A1

A1
A2

A2

VA1A2

B2

VB1B2

Action of Commutator
Gen - Rectifier, AC to DC
B1

Again rotate the


armature by 900.
A1

A2

Find out the polarities


of A1 and A2
For gen apply RHR
A1 = Dot A2 = Cross

VA1A2

B2

VB1B2

B1 = Cross

B2 = Dot

Action of Commutator
Gen - Rectifier, AC to DC
Again rotate the
B1
armature by 900.
Find out the polarities
A2
of A1 and A2

A1
A2

A1

VA1A2

B2

VB1B2

A1 and A2 move
parallel to flux
A1 = 0
B1 = 0

No voltage
A2 = 0
B2 = 0

Action of Commutator
Gen - Rectifier, AC to DC
B1
A2

S
A1

VA1A2

B2

VB1B2

Action of Commutator
Gen - Rectifier, AC to DC
B1
A2

S
A1

VA1A2

B2

VB1B2

A1 under N pole is
always positive
A1 under S pole is
always negative
So arm wdg is
having AC emf.
But B1 is always +
and B2 is always So output is DC
Rectifier action

This is due to commutator

Action of Commutator
Gen - Rectifier, AC to DC

If there is no
Commutator
As per AC genr
action, o/p is AC

Action
of
Commutator
B1
+

Gen - Rectifier, AC to DC

S
VB1B2

VA1A2

B2

Action
of
Commutator
B1
+

Gen - Rectifier, AC to DC

S
VB1B2

VA1A2

B2

Action
of
Commutator
B1
+

Gen - Rectifier, AC to DC

B2

Action
of
Commutator
B1
+

Gen - Rectifier, AC to DC

B2

Action of Commutator
+

B1

Motor - Inverter, DC to AC
Input DC supply is
given to motor

A1

B1 = + and B2 = -

A1 = 0, and A2 = 0

A2

VB1B2 = I/p DC

B2

A1A2 conductors are not


connected to brushes.

VA1A2

Action of Commutator
+

B1

Motor - Inverter, DC to AC

A1

S
A2

VB1B2 = I/p DC

B2

VA1A2

For Motor, direction of rotation


of arm Anti-clockwise
Rotate the armature by 900
in anticlockwise dirN.

Action of Commutator
+

B1

Motor - Inverter, DC to AC

A1

A2
A1
A2

VB1B2 = I/p DC

B2

VA1A2

For Motor, direction of rotation


of arm Anti-clockwise
Rotate the armature by 900
in anticlockwise dirN.

Action of Commutator
+

B1

Motor - Inverter, DC to AC

A2
A1

For Motor, direction of rotation


of arm Anti-clockwise
Rotate the armature by 900
in anticlockwise dirN.
S
Voltage VB1B2 =DC
A1 = +

VB1B2 = I/p DC

B2

VA1A2

A2 = -

Action of Commutator
+

B1

Motor - Inverter, DC to AC
Again, rotate the armature by
900 in anticlockwise dirN
Voltage VB1B2 =DC

A2

A2
A1

VB1B2 = I/p DC

B2

Supply is not
connected to A1A2
A1 = 0

A1

VA1A2

A2 = 0

Action of Commutator
+

B1

Motor - Inverter, DC to AC
Again, rotate the armature by
900 in anticlockwise dirN
Voltage VB1B2 =DC

A2

A1
A2
A1

VB1B2 = I/p DC

B2

VA1A2

A1 = -

A2 = +

Action of Commutator
+

B1

Motor - Inverter, DC to AC
Again, rotate the armature by
900 in anticlockwise dirN
Voltage VB1B2 =DC

A1

A1
A2
A2

VB1B2 = I/p DC

B2

VA1A2

A1 = 0

A2 = 0

Action of Commutator
+

B1

Motor - Inverter, DC to AC
Due to DC supply is given, B1 is
always + and B2 is always A1 under N pole is
always positive
S
A1 under S pole is
always negative

A1

N
A2

VB1B2 = I/p DC

B2

So arm wdg is having AC Voltage


even though input is DC.
VA1A2

Inverter action
This is due to
commutator

Action of Commutator
+

B1

Motor - Inverter, DC to AC

B2

Action of Commutator
+

B1

Motor - Inverter, DC to AC
All conductors under N pole are
having CROSS polarity

S
All conductors under S pole are
having DOT polarity

B2

This produces stationary armature


mmf in space,
Therefore stationary or constant
FORCE applied to each conductor
This is due to commutator

Generation of emf
The difference between AC and DC generator.

Collector or
Slip Rings

Generation of emf
The difference between AC and DC generator.

Collector or
Slip Rings
Fig.: AC Genr

Commutator

N turn Coil

DC OUTPUT

AC O/P

N turn Coil

Fig.: DC Genr

Generation of emf
In rotating machines, emf can be generated in armature wdg by
1. Rotating these windings through a magnetic field
2. Rotating magnetic field w r t these windings
3. Designing magnetic circuit to have variable reluctance with
rotor rotation
Consider first case

Generation of emf
1. Rotating these windings through a magnetic field
T turn arm coil
Armature Field Axis

A2

r
A1

Main Field Axis

= rt = 0
Both magnetic axes are
COINCIDENT

Main field flux is assumed to be sinusoidal in air gap


r is angular velocity in radian per second
The flux passing through or linking the coin A1A2 is MAXIMUM
MINIMUM
F

Cos0 = 1 =MAXIMUM
Flux linkage Cos or Cost

Armature Field Axis

A1

A2

Main Field Axis

= rt = 90
F

Both magnetic axes are


displaced by 900

The flux passing through or


linking the coin A1A2 is
MINIMUM
Cos90 = 0 = MINIMUM
Flux linkage Cos or Cost

For =1800, the flux passing through the coil is


maximum but in reversed direction
Therefore, in general, the diagram is
T turn arm coil
Armature Field Axis
A2

A1

Main Field Axis

= rt

The flux linkage with the arm coil at any time t is


= T Cos = T Cost
By Faradays Law, the emf induced in T turn coil is
e = -d/dt = -d(T Cos)/dt
= T r Sin rt - T {d/dt} Cos rt

= T r Sin rt - T {d/dt} Cos rt


I

II

The first term is Speed Voltage term because it


contains speed r in it
The second term is Transformer Voltage term
because it contains time derivative of flux , i.e., d/dt,
in it.
Here flux is sinusoidal, but is not changing with time due
to DC supply to field wdg.
Therefore, the flux is time-invariant, and d/dt = 0.
e = T r Sin rt

The voltage appearing at the brushes is unidirectional or DC

Average or DC value is
1
Ec T Sin t d( t )

2
T r

2
E c T r
n speed in rps

nP
r= 2 f 2
nP
2
2
Ec T n P 2 T n P

If z is the total number of conductors in one coil of T turns

Conductor 2

Ec z n P

Conductor 1

then, z =2 T, because single turn consists of two conductors


Average emf per conductors Ec n P
In the armature wdg consider there are Z total number of condRs
Coil 1 Coil 2 Coil 3

Coil 12

For increasing voltage, coils are connected in series


For increasing current, coils are connected in parallel
single turn

Suppose 4 coils are connected in series


and there are such 3 parallel paths
60V, 1A 60V

60V

60V

AA

Rating of
arm wdg
220V, 3A

For 3 parallel paths, total number of series conductors =Z/3


For a parallel paths, total number of series conductors =Z/a
Thus the resultant voltage between A and AA, ie Ea is given by
Ea Average emf per conductor x
Total number of series conductors in each parallel path
= n P x Z/a
Z n P= Ka n
a
where, Ka=Z P/a = constant for a machine

Ea Z n P
a
Ea Z N P
60 a

where, N = Speed in r p m

Ea depends upon the flux per pole and not upon the
shape of the flux density wave.

Flat Topped
Average value of
Flat Topped
Sinusoidal

Average value of
Sinusoidal

Thus for the same value of peak flux density Average


value of armature voltage for flat topped is more
than a Sinusoidal flux density wave.
It is because for this reason the DC machines are
designed with flat topped B wave.

Schematic Diagram
Conductors move parallel with the flux.
No change in flux.
No induced voltage in the coils in this zone.
A

ARM

AA

Schematic Diagram
Brushes are positioned along Q axis or along MNA,
which is also called as Commutation Axis.
M. N. A. or G. N. A.or Commutation Axis
A

AA

The armature MMF is directed along brush axis,


Interpolar Axis or Q axis (downwards).

Schematic Diagram
M. N. A. or G. N. A.or Commutation Axis
A

AA

The armature MMF is directed along brush axis,


Interpolar Axis or Q axis (If polarity of conductors
are reversed then upwards).

Schematic Diagram
+
A

AA

Two Pole DC machine

Schematic Diagram
+
A

S
F
N
AA

FF

DC machine with any Number of Poles

EMF Waveform
A
1
2

S
F

N
AA

FF

900 elect. displacement between


11 and 22

EMF Waveform
A

V11
1
2

V22
S
F

N
AA

FF

If field winding is excited


and rotor rotates

AC

EMF Waveform
+
A

Va-aa

DC

1
2

S
F

N
AA

FF

Across armature we get DC voltage (due


to Commutator-Rectifier)

EMF Waveform
D axis
Q axis

Q axis

+
A

Va-aa
1
2

S
F

N
AA

D axis

FF

If the brushes are put along D axis.

EMF Waveform

Q axis

Due to more Q axisD axis


+
voltage wdg may
V
burn.
1
a-aa

S
F

N
AA

D axis

FF

+
If the brushes are put along D axis.
If rotor rotates.
There is more spark along D axis.

EMF Waveform

Q axis

Due to more Q axisD axis


+
voltage wdg may
V
burn.
1
a-aa

S
F

N
AA

D axis

FF

+
Thats why the brushes are not installed
along D axis.

EMF Waveform
+

Va-aa

DC Voltage

A
1
2

S
F

N
AA

FF

Across armature we get DC voltage (due


to Commutator-Rectifier)

EMF Waveform
+

Va-aa

DC Voltage with two coils

A
1
2

S
F

N
AA

FF

DC voltage with Two Coils.

EMF Waveform
+
A
1

3
S

3
N
AA

FF

DC voltage with Three Colis

EMF Waveform
+

Va-aa

DC Voltage with Three coils

A
1

3
S

3
N
AA

FF

+
If field wdg is excited.
If rotor rotates.
Then three phase voltages are generated

EMF Waveform
+

Va-aa

DC Voltage with Three coils

A
1

3
S

3
N
AA

FF

+
If field wdg is excited.
If rotor rotates.
Then three phase voltages are generated

EMF Waveform
+

Va-aa

DC Voltage with Three coils

A
1

3
S

3
N
AA

FF

+
If field wdg is excited.
If rotor rotates.
Then three phase voltages are generated

Va-aa

EMF Waveform
DC Voltage with two coils
DC Voltage with Three coils

Across armature we get DC voltage (due


to Commutator-Rectifier)

Va-aa

EMF Waveform
DC Voltage with many coils in series

Therefore, as the number of series coils


between the brushes increases,
1. Magnitude of voltage increases.
2. Brush frequency increases.
3. Ripple content decreases.

Distribution factor Kd
Cosider the coil 11.
Due to large number of coils, the phasor
diagram for the emf polygon becomes
almost a circle.
Therefore, the distribution factor for a DC
machine is
Phasor Sum of Coil emfs
Chord 2 r 2
Kd

Arithmatic Sum of Coil emfs


Arc
r

Working Principle
(Principle of Operation)
In 1819, it was discovered by a Danish
Language Netherlands Physicist, Hans
Christian Oersted that an electric current is
always accomplished by a certain magnetic
effects. He found that when a current is
passed through a conductor placed above
the magnetic needle, the needle turns in a
certain direction.
which is also called as Motor Rule.

Working Principle
(Principle of Operation)

Hans Christian Oersted

Right Hand Rule

Working Principle
(Principle of Operation)
Whenever a current carrying conductor is
placed in a magnetic field, it experiences a
force whose direction is given by Flemings
Left Hand Rule

Working Principle
(Principle of Operation)

Pole Field

Conductor Field

Working Principle
(Principle of Operation)
Addition
N

Opposite

Force

Working Principle
(Principle of Operation)
Addition
N

Opposite
+

Opposite

Addition
Force

Force

Working Principle
(Principle of Operation)
+
N

ARM

Working Principle
(Principle of Operation)
MNA

+
N

ARM

MNA is perpendicular to field flux.

Working Principle
(Principle of Operation)
MNA

+
N

ARM

When supply is given to armature,


current flows through armature conductors.

Working Principle
(Principle of Operation)
MNA

+
N

ARM

Due to + and polarities, flux direction changes .


S

Working Principle
(Principle of Operation)
MNA

+
N

New MNA
New MNA shifts towards the direction opposite to the direction
S
of rotation.
So shift the brush axis in a direction opposite to the direction
of rotation due to which there is less spark.

Working Principle
(Principle of Operation)
MNA

+
N

New MNA
New MNA shifts towards the direction Sopposite to the direction
of rotation.

Torque Developed
MNA
+
N

New MNA
Conductors under N pole with + polarity, when reacted with field
flux, produces downwards force.
S
Conductors under S pole with polarity, when reacted with field
flux, produces upwards force.
Commutator maintains these polarities constant. So there is
continuous torque and continuous rotation.

Torque Developed
Force on a conductor, F=B i l.
Torque developed by each conductor, T=B i l.r
Where B = Flux density wb/m2
i = Armature current in a conductor, Amp
l = Active length of conductor, m
r = Average radius at which conductors are placed, m
If motor contains Z conductors, then totalStorque
Ta = B i l r.Z
If Ia is the total armature current, then I = Ia/a.

Torque Developed
If is the total flux and A is the cross sectional area of flux path
at radius r, then B = /A,
Where A = (2 r l )/ p.
Therefore, the total torque
Ta = B i l r.Z =( /A) x (Ia/a) x l r Z = ( Ia l r Z ) / (aA)
= ( Ia l r Z ) / (a x (2 r l )/ p)
= ( Ia Z p) / (2 a )
= KT Ia Nm, where KT = Z p / S2 a
= K If Ia Nm, where K = KKT
Thus the torque is directly proportional to the field flux or field
current and armature current.

Torque Developed

Ia
B

N Pole
S Pole
Force or Torque

Average
Force or Torque

Torque Developed
Gross Torque TG: The torque developed by the armature Ta is
called as Gross Torque.
Shaft Torque Tsh: Some torque developed by the armature is
lost to overcome the Iron and Friction and
Windage loss, Tsh=Ta-TLost Torque.
The torque available at the shaft is called as
Shaft Torque Tsh (Useful Torque).

B. H . P. 735.5
Tsh
, n speed in r p s
2 n
S

B. H. P.= Brake Horse Power

Iron Friction & Windage Loss


Nm,
Ta-Tsh=Lost Torque
2 n

Back EMF
MNA

As the armature rotates, the armature conductors (with + and


dot) cut the lines of field flux.
So that an EMF is induced in the armature whose direction is
given by Right Hand Rule.

Back EMF
MNA

Eb

Apply Right Hand Rule under N pole.


Apply Right Hand Rule under S pole.

Back EMF

Eb

ROTATION

ROTATION

MNA

Apply Right Hand Rule under N pole.


Apply Right Hand Rule under S pole.

Back EMF
MNA

Eb

Therefore it is called as Back EMF or Counter EMF.


Again it is Back EMF as per Lenzs Law, which states that
the direction of induced emf is such to oppose the cause of
it and which is the applied voltage.

Back EMF
MNA

Eb

This is the voltage due to generator action.


Therefore it is given by Eb=ZnP/a
This voltage is always less than applied voltage V.
Due to the difference between these two armature current
flows through the armature resistance.

Back EMF
MNA

Eb

Voltage Equation for DC Motor, V=Eb+Iara

I =(V-E )/r
a

The resistance ra is always present in the machine. Eb is


induced due to rotation.
Therefore Eb is also called as Voltage Behind Armature
Resistance, ra.

Back EMF
This Back EMF makes DC motor as Self-Regulating Machine.
This makes to draw required Ia to match the Load Torque.
S
Under no load, torque is required to overcome F & W losses.
Therefore Ia is very low. V and Eb are nearly equal.

When load increases, speed decreases, Eb decreases,


Ia increases, Ta increases to drive the increased load.
When load decreases, speed increases, Eb increases,
Ia decreases, Ta decreases to drive the decreased load.
The steady state conditions are attained when Ta matches load
torque TL

Back EMF

Thus back EMF Eb acts as a GOVERNER


i. e, it makes the motor SELF REGULATING
so that it draws as much current as just required.

Equivalent Circuit
In DC machine armature have parallel paths equal to a.
Each path have resistance rp and generated EMF Eb.
Ia

Ia

rp
Eb

rp

Ia

rp

rp

rp

Eb Eb Eb Eb

Vb
ra
Eb

Equivalent Circuit
In DC machine armature have parallel paths equal to a.
Each path have resistance rp and generated EMF Eb.
Ia

Ia

rp
Eb

rp

Ia

rp

rp

rp

Eb Eb Eb Eb

Vb
ra
Eb

Equivalent Circuit
In DC machine armature have parallel paths equal to a.
Each path have resistance rp and generated EMF Eb.
Ia

Ia

Vb
ra
Eb

Ia

A
V

ra
Eb
AA

ra

Eb
AA

Equivalent Circuit
Circuit Model of DC Motor
Psh
I a ra
A
n

V
AA

Separately Excited DC Motor

Tsh

FF

F
VF

Equivalent Circuit
Circuit Model of DC Motor
Psh
I a ra
A
n

V
AA

Separately Excited DC Motor

Tsh

FF

F
VF

Equivalent Circuit
Circuit Model of DC Motor
I a ra
A
F

V
AA

DC Shunt Motor

FF

Equivalent Circuit
OR

Circuit Model of DC Motor


I a ra
A
F
V
FF
AA

DC Shunt Motor

Equivalent Circuit
OR

Circuit Model of DC Motor


I a ra
A
F
V
FF
AA

DC Shunt Motor

Power
Voltage Equation for DC Motor, V=Eb+Iara+Vb
Vb = Brush Contact Voltage Drop =1-2 volts. Hence neglected.

V=E +I r
b

Ia

a a

Multiplying by Ia on
both sides.
VIa=EbIa+Ia2ra

EbIa= Output Power


A

Electromagnetic Power
F

This is a Power Equation


VIa=Electrical Input to
the armature
Ia2ra= Copper Loss in
DC
the armature

FF
AA

Shunt Motor

Power
EbIa= Output Power=Electromagnetic Power
or Electrical Equivalent of Mechanical Power Pm developed in the
Armature causing Rotation of the Armature.
Pm=EbIa=VIa - Ia2ra
VIa=E
EbIa+I
+Iaa22rraa
Psh=Pm - Constant Loss.
=EbIa - (Iron Loss +F & W Loss).
If brush contact loss is given

P =E I =Vi
m

b a

2
I
a
a ra VbIa

Power
EbIa= Output Power=Electromagnetic Power
or Electrical Equivalent of Mechanical Power Pm developed in the
Armature causing Rotation of the Armature.
Pm=EbIa=Via - Ia2ra
VIa=E
EbIa+I
+Iaa22rraa
Psh=Pm - Constant Loss.
=EbIa - (Iron Loss +F & W Loss).
If brush contact loss is given

P =E I =Vi
m

b a

2
I
a
a ra VbIa

+Ia2ra
EbIa
Psh +Constant Loss.

Power
EbIa= Output Power=Electromagnetic Power
or Electrical Equivalent of Mechanical Power Pm developed in the
Armature causing Rotation of the Armature.
Pm=EbIa=Via - Ia2ra
VIa=E
EbIa+I
+Iaa22rraa
Psh=Pm - Constant Loss.
=EbIa - (Iron Loss +F & W Loss).

EbIa

Ia 2 r a

If brush contact loss is given

P =E I =Vi
m

b a

Constant Loss.

- I r VbIa
2
a a

Psh
( Tsh)

Power
EbIa= Output Power=Electromagnetic Power
or Electrical Equivalent of Mechanical Power Pm developed in the
Armature causing Rotation of the Armature.
Pm=EbIa=Via - Ia2ra
VIa=E
EbIa+I
+Iaa22rraa
Pi
P =P - Constant Loss.
sh

=EbIa - (Iron Loss +F & W Loss).


If brush contact loss is given

P =E I =Vi
m

b a

- I r VbIa
2
a a

Pm

EbIa

Po
Psh
( Tsh)

Ia 2 r a
Constant Loss.

Power
Condition for Maximum Power
We know that Pm=EbIa=Via - Ia2ra
Differentiating both sides with respect to Ia
dPm
V 2 I a ra 0, I a ra V / 2
dI a

Back EMF Eb V V / 2 V / 2

Thus mechanical power developed is maximum when back EMF


is equal to half the applied voltage.
Under this condition, Ia would be more than rated current.
Half the input current Ia is wasted in copper loss.
Considering constant losses, the efficiency will be below 50%.
Some Calculations.

The EFFECT or ACTION of armature mmf on the field flux is


called armature reaction.
There is a ACTION of the field flux and under operating
condition there is a REACTION of armature flux on main flux or
field flux. Thats why the word REACTION.

Q axis or GNA or MNA

ARM

Q axis or GNA or MNA

Field Flux
S D axis

Fig. Main Pole Flux due to Field Current only

D axis

Q axis or GNA or MNA

ARM

Q axis or GNA or MNA

Field Flux
S D axis

D axis

With Field wdg unexcited, if supply is given to Armature wdg.

Q axis or GNA or MNA

ARM

Q axis or GNA or MNA

Field Flux
S D axis

D axis

With Field wdg unexcited, if supply is given to Armature wdg.


Current flows through the armature wdg with cross under N pole
and dot under S pole. Cross produces clockwise flux
and dot produces anticlockwise flux.

Q axis or GNA or MNA

ARM

Q axis or GNA or MNA

Field Flux
S D axis

D axis
a

Fig. Armature flux only.


Due to all conductors, armature sets up vertical downward flux.
Armature flux is perpendicular to main flux or CROSSES the
main flux or armature flux is entirely Cross-Magnetizing (1st effect).

Q axis or GNA or MNA

ARM

Q axis or GNA or MNA

Field Flux
S D axis

D axis

a
When the current flows in the Field and Armature windings.
Arm flux adds at the upper end of N pole and lower end of S pole.
This strengthens the main field in the said area.

Q axis or GNA or MNA


r
N

ARM

Q axis or GNA or MNA

Field Flux
S D axis

D axis

a
Arm flux opposes at the lower end of N pole
and upper end of S pole.
This weakens the main field at this ends.

Q axis or GNA or MNA

Q axis or GNA or MNA

MNA

ARM

Field Flux
S D axis

MNA
f

D axis
r

In the phasor r is the resultant flux.


MNA is always perpendicular to the axis of resultant flux.
MNA is shifted from GNA (2nd effect).
This shift is dependant on armature current. If Ia is more shift
is more.

Q axis or GNA

Q axis or GNA
MNA

ARM

Field Flux
S D axis

MNA
f

D axis
r

Under heavy load condition flux is set up over the brush, so


there is more spark.

We have seen that there strengthening and weakening effect on


main field due to armature current.
B
If there is no saturation,
High B
B-H curve is a straight line.
knee point.
Strengthening and weakning of main field
are equal and resultant flux remains
Low B
unchanged due to same SLOP.
H
But for a practical machine, there is magnetic saturation
because machines are designed at knee point for ecomomy.
Below knee point, Constant Flux= Low B/More Area (more cost)
Above knee point, Constant Flux= High B/Less Area (less cost)

Under saturation, slop is less and


under no saturation i. e, for straight line slop is more.
Strengthening effect means more BB
less slop
2
flux i. e., saturation and with less
B0
knee point.
slop strengthening effect is less
B1
as compared to weakening effect
more slop
with more slop.
For constant H0H2=H0H1, B0B2 < B0B1
So resultant flux r1 decreases from
its no load value.
This is called as De-Magnetizing
effect (3rd effect).

H1 H0 H2 H

Under saturation, slop is less and


under no saturation i. e, for straight line slop is more.
Strengthening effect means more BB
less slop
2
flux i. e., saturation and with less
B0
knee point.
slop strengthening effect is less
B1
as compared to weakening effect
more slop
with more slop.
For constant H0H2=H0H1, B0B2 < B0B1
So resultant flux r1 decreases from
its no load value.
This is called as De-Magnetizing
effect (3rd effect).

H1 H0 H2 H
f
a1

r1

D Axis

Thus the net effect of armature reaction or the net effect of


armature flux on the main flux is
1. to cross-magnetize main field flux or to distort the main
field flux causing non-uniform distribution under main pole.
2. to shift the MNA against the direction of rotation for a
motor and in the direction of rotation for a generator.
3. to de-magnetize or weaken or to reduce the main field
flux from its no load value due to saturation.

Q axis

D axis

GNA
Stator
Rotor

Field wdg is excited

Field Wdg
Q axis

GNA

D axis

Q axis
GNA

Q axis

D axis

GNA

Field Wdg
Q axis

GNA

D axis

Q axis
GNA

Stator
Rotor
Flux Density B Waveform for Main Field alone

Field wdg is excited

Q axis

D axis

GNA

Field Wdg
Q axis

GNA

D axis

Q axis
GNA

Stator
Rotor
Flux Density B Waveform for Main Field alone

Field wdg is un-excited

Q axis
GNA

D axis

Field Wdg
Q axis

D axis

Q axis

GNA

GNA

Stator
Rotor

Arm
wdg

Voltage V is given to Armature wdg

Q axis
GNA

D axis

Field Wdg
Q axis

D axis

Q axis

GNA

GNA

Stator
Rotor

Arm
wdg

Armature MMF Waveform

Voltage V is given to Armature wdg

Q axis
GNA

D axis

Field Wdg
Q axis

D axis

GNA

Q axis
GNA

Stator
Rotor

Armature MMF Waveform

When Field and Arm are Excited

Arm
wdg

Q axis

D axis

GNA

Field Wdg
Q axis

D axis

GNA

Q axis
GNA

Stator

Rotor

Substraction

Addition
Armature MMF Waveform

Arm
wdg

Q axis
GNA

D axis

Field Wdg
Q axis

D axis

GNA

Q axis
GNA

Stator
Rotor

More Spark
Armature MMF Waveform

Arm
wdg

Q axis

D axis

GNA

Field Wdg
Q axis

D axis

GNA

Q axis
GNA

Stator

Rotor

ARM
Saddle shaped arm flux

Armature MMF Waveform

Now draw armature flux waveform.


Under poles air gap is uniform. So arm flux varies uniformly.
Along Q axis air gap is maximum. So flux is minimum.

Arm
wdg

Q axis
GNA

D axis

Field Wdg
Q axis

D axis

GNA

Q axis
GNA

Stator
Rotor

Now add field flux and armature flux waveform.

Arm
wdg

Q axis
GNA

D axis

Field Wdg
Q axis

D axis

GNA

Q axis
GNA

Stator

Rotor

Arm
wdg

Un-saturated B-H Curve


If saturation is considered then
there is DE-MAGNETIZING action
Flux decreases

Now add field flux and armature flux waveform.

Q axis
GNA

D axis

Field Wdg
Q axis

D axis

GNA

Q axis
GNA

Stator

Rotor

Arm
wdg

Un-saturated B-H Curve


If saturation is considered then
there is DE-MAGNETIZING action
Flux decreases

Now add field flux and armature flux waveform.

Q axis
GNA

D axis

Field Wdg
Q axis

D axis

GNA

Q axis
GNA

Stator

Rotor
This is Trailing
Edge of Pole

Arm
wdg

Rotation of Motor towards left


So this is Leading Edge of Pole

Less Flux

More Flux

This is resultant flux r waveform.


MNA moves towards right
Move brushes towards right for less spark

Detrimental Effects of Armature Reaction:


1. Distortion of the main field flux.
a) This increases iron loss.
The flux and flux density increase in teeth and pole
shoe. As a result iron loss increases which is more
than no load condition.
b) Poor commutation.
The zero crossing of the flux density wave is shifted
by an angle from GNA or Q axis. The coils
undergoing commutation have some voltage
induced in them. Due to which there is current
which resulted in detrimental sparking or poor
commutation at the brushes.

c) Sparking.
Under heavy load condition, the flux density
waveform is distorted considerably. So more
voltage may be generated in the coils. If adjacent
commutator segments voltage exceeds 30 or 40V,
a spark may occur between these segments. Some
times this spark may spread around the
commutator in the form of ring fire.

ARM

2. Net reduction of the main field flux.


a) Induced voltage in the armature decreases in
case of generator.
b) Due to lower voltage, current decreases and
torque decreases in case of motor.
c) In order to compensate the above, it is required
to increase the field mmf which is possible by
increasing the number of turns and diameter of
field winding. Therefore cost increases.

Methods for limiting the effects of Armature Reaction.


1. Chamfered or Eccentric Pole.
Chamfered or
Eccentric Pole.
Long Air Gap
Short
Ai Gap
The air gap at the pole tips can be increased to
increase the reluctance for arm flux.

Methods for limiting the effects of Armature Reaction.


2. Staking of Laminations Alternately.
1

1 1 1
2 2 2

2
Air Gap
High Reluctance
to Arm Flux

1
1
1

2
2
2

Staking of
Laminations
Alternately.

Methods for limiting the effects of Armature Reaction.


3. Reduction in Cross Armature Flux.
Rectangular Holes for
Air Gap
High Reluctance
to Arm Flux
Cross Arm Flux decreases

Methods for limiting the effects of Armature Reaction.


4. Interpoles.
Interpole
Interpoles are placed in
between main poles.
Q axis
They are Smaller in size.
N

ARM

Interpolar magnetic axis


is along Q axis

S D axis
Interpole wdg is connected
in series with arm wdg.
Interpole

Interpole mmf neutralizes


the effect of arm mmf
along Q axis at all load
current.

Methods for limiting the effects of Armature Reaction.


4. Interpoles.
For the polarities + and dot
S
Interpole for arm, arm mmf is
DOWNWARDS.
Q axis

ARM

To neutralizes the effect of


arm mmf along Q axis
lower interpole must be
S D axis N and upper interpole
must be S
So for motor in the direction of
rotation main pole comes
Interpole first and then interpole for
same type i. e. N or S

Methods for limiting the effects of Armature Reaction.


5. Compensating Winding.
Compensating wdg is housed
Compensating
wdg

Slots

S
Q axis

ARM

Interpole in the slots which are at the


pole face or pole shoe.
Compensating wdg is
+
+
connected in series with
+
armature wdg
+S D axis
+
Compensating wdg
+
polarities are opposite
+
to that of arm wdg
polarities in order to
Interpole
reduce the armature
reaction.

MNA

ARM

Due to + and polarities of armature, flux direction changes .


S

MNA

New MNA
New MNA shifts towards the direction opposite to the direction
S
of rotation.
So shift the brush axis in a direction opposite to the direction
of rotation due to which there is less spark.

New MNA
MNA shifts in the direction of rotation in case of generator and
against the direction of rotation in caseS of motor.
If brushes are given forward shift in case of generator and
backward shift in case of motor, then there is GOOD
commutation (Less Spark).

Q Axis

f
a

D Axis

N
Resolve a
1. aq is right angle
to main flux f .
Cross-magnetizing
or Distorting
component of arm
flux.
aq = a Cos

Q Axis

ad
a

aq

2. ad is opposing
the main field
This reduces the
main field.
S
D Axis Demagnetizing
Component of
arm flux
ad= a Sin

N
Resultant flux r is
reduced due to
brush shift even if
there is no
saturation

Q Axis

ad
a

aq

aq and ad will
increse with the
increase in armature
current.
S
D Axis

Q Axis

ad
a

aq

D Axis

180-2
N

180-2
S

Q Axis

2
f

ad
a

aq

D Axis

2
180-2
N

180-2
S

Q Axis

ad
a

aq

D Axis

Consider
2

180-2
N

This gives ad
This ad is
demagnetizing
arm flux.
Conductors in 4
gives
demagnetizing
ampere turns.

180-2
S

Q Axis

ad
a

aq

Demagnetizing
ampere turns per
pole ATd
4 I a Z 1

=
S
360 a 2 P
D Axis
angle in
electrical degrees

Consider
180-2

180-2
N

This gives aq
This aq is
crossmagnetizing
arm flux.
Conductors in
360-4 gives
crossmagnetizing
ampere turns.

180-2
S

Q Axis

ad
a

aq

Crossmagnetizing
ampere turns per
pole ATc
360 4 I a Z 1

=
S
360
a 2 P
D Axis
angle in
electrical degrees

Demagnetizing Conductors, 20 electrical


Cross
Magnetizing
Conductors,
(180-2)0 electrical

Cross
Magnetizing
Conductors,
(180-2)0 electrical

Demagnetizing Conductors, 20 electrical


If =0, then brushes are on GNA and ATd=0, and entire AT=ATc.
Some Calculations.

COMMUTATION
Armature conductor carries + current under N pole and
current under S pole.
So current is reversed. This reversal takes place along
brush axis.
During reversal armature coil is short circuited.
If coil is having low induced voltage along brush axis,
large current flows in short circuited coil.
As you know, under short circuit test of transformer, low
voltage is required for the flow of rated current.
The process by which current is a coil is reversed during the short
circuit is known as COMMUTATION
The period during which the coil remains short circuited is called
commutation period and is represented by Tc.

COMMUTATION
Good commutation means no sparking at the brushes.
Poor commutation means sparking at the brushes.
Poor commutation may be due to
1. An elliptical form of the commutator.
2. Unbalancing of the commutator.
3. Uneven projection of the commutator segments.
4. Vibration of the brush holders.
The causes of sparking
1. Increase in voltage between commutator segments,
which may result in flash over.
2. Increase in current density at the trailing edge of the
brush.

COMMUTATION
S

Armature

Commutator
S
Armature
Winding

Commutator
segments

Connection between Commutator and arm wdg.

COMMUTATION PROCESS
Q axis

Commutator
Segments
1

Brush
Stator

Width of
brush=width of
segment

Rotor

COMMUTATION PROCESS
Commutator
Segments
1

Q axis
Current=2Ic

Brush

Ic
1

Ic
1

Ic

Ic

Ic

2Ic

Ic
4 Coils

3
Ic

Consider
Stator this portion

Rotor

Ic
5

COMMUTATION PROCESS
Q axis
Anticlockwise direction
Clockwise direction
N Pole
1

2Ic
S Pole
4

3
Ic

Ic

Ic

Consider coil 3

Ic

COMMUTATION PROCESS
Q axis
Anticlockwise direction
Clockwise direction
N Pole
1

2Ic
S Pole
4

3
Ic

Ic

Which is the direction of rotation?

Ic

Ic

Move rotor towards left

COMMUTATION PROCESS
Q axis

Brush comes in contact


with another segment 5
So current flows from 5
to brush
I5

2Ic
2Ic-I5
1

Ic-I5
Ic

Ic

Ic

COMMUTATION PROCESS
Q axis
2Ic

Ic-I5
Ic

Ic

Ic

Again move rotor towards left

COMMUTATION PROCESS
Q axis
2Ic

Brush comes in contact


with 50% segment 4 & 5
So current flows from 4
& 5 to brush is Ic.
Ic

Ic
1

3
Ic

Ic

Ic=0

Ic

COMMUTATION PROCESS
Q axis
Total current remains constant = 2Ic

Brush comes in contact


with 50% segment 4 & 5
So current flows from 4
& 5 to brush is Ic.
Ic

Ic
1

3
Ic

Ic

5
Ic=0

6
Ic

4
Coil is Shorted

If induced low voltage is present, high current flows.

COMMUTATION PROCESS
Q axis
Total current remains constant = 2Ic

Brush comes in contact


with 50% segment 4 & 5
So current flows from 4
& 5 to brush is Ic.
Ic

Ic
1

3
Ic

Ic

5
Ic=0

Ic

4
Coil is Shorted
Coil may burn.
If induced low voltage is present, high current flows.
2

COMMUTATION PROCESS
Q axis
2Ic

Brush comes in contact


with 50% segment 4 & 5
So current flows from 4
& 5 to brush is Ic.
Ic

Ic
1

3
Ic

Ic

Ic=0

Ic

Again move rotor towards left

COMMUTATION PROCESS
Q axis
Total current remains constant = 2Ic
So current flows
from segment 4 to
I4
brush is I4.
1

3
Ic

Ic

Brush comes in contact


with 75% segment 5
Current flows from 5 to
brush is 2Ic - I4.
2Ic-I4

Ic-I4

Ic

COMMUTATION PROCESS
Q axis
Total current remains constant = 2Ic
So current flows
from segment 4 to
I4
brush is I4.
1

2
Ic

3
Ic

1
2
As soon as rotor moves I4 is
interrupted, so there is spark.

Brush comes in contact


with 75% segment 5
Current flows from 5 to
brush is 2Ic - I4.
2Ic-I4

Ic-I4

Ic

4
Again move rotor towards left

COMMUTATION PROCESS
Q axis
Total current remains constant = 2Ic
So current flows
from segment 4 to
brush is zero.
1

Ic

Brush comes in contact


with 100% of segment 5
Current flows from 5 to
brush is 2Ic.

Ic

Ic

6
Ic

COMMUTATION PROCESS
Q axis

+Ic
2Ic

0
-Ic

3
Ic

Ic

1
Initially current polarity is dot,
with current = +Ic

Ic

Ic

4
Coil 3

COMMUTATION PROCESS
Q axis

+Ic

2Ic

0
2Ic-I5
1

-Ic
4

I5

Ic-I5
Ic

Ic

Then current polarity is dot, and


current =+ (Ic- I5)

Ic

4
Coil 3

COMMUTATION PROCESS
Q axis
2Ic

+Ic
0

Ic
1

-Ic
4

3
Ic

Ic

Now no polarity, and current =0

Ic=0

Ic

Ic

4
Coil 3

COMMUTATION PROCESS
Q axis
2Ic

+Ic
0

I4
1

-Ic
4

3
Ic

Ic

Then current polarity is cross,


and current =- (Ic- I4)

Ic-I4

2Ic-I4

Ic

4
Coil 3

COMMUTATION PROCESS
Q axis
2Ic

There is spark due to


interruption of I4.

+Ic
0
-Ic

Ic

Ic

Ic

Current polarity is cross, and


Coil 3
current = -Ic

Ic

4
So current is reversed
from +Ic to -Ic

COMMUTATION PROCESS
+Ic
0
-Ic

Tc

The time required by a coil to change the current from +Ic to Ic, is
Tc, commutation period.
The time Tc, can be calculated from the relation
Tc

BrushWidth
One Millisecond or less
commutator peripheral Speed

COMMUTATION PROCESS
Delayed or Under Commutation
+Ic
Ideal Commutation
0
-Ic

Tc

Current in
Spark

If the current changes from +Ic to Ic linearly in the commutation


period Tc, then the commutation is called as Ideal Commutation or
Straight Line Commutation.
If the current changes from +Ic to Ic in the time more than Tc, then
the commutation is called as Delayed or Under Commutation.
After time Tc is over there is some current I4 in the coil which is
to be disconnected, therefore due to this current there is spark.

COMMUTATION PROCESS
Delayed or Under Commutation
+Ic
Ideal Commutation
Over or
0
Accelerated
Commutation -Ic

Current in
Spark

Tc

If the current changes from +Ic to Ic in the time less than Tc,
then the commutation is called as Over or Accelerated Commutation.
This gives satisfactory commutation.

COMMUTATION PROCESS
The nature of current in the coil being commutated depends on:
1. The resistance of copper-carbon contact.
2. The resistance of the coil being commutated.
2. The emfs induced in the coil due to
a) Self inductance and
b) Mutual inductance with another coil.

IMPROVING
COMMUTATION
There are three methods of obtaining sparkless commutation.
1. Resistance Commutation.
2. Voltage Commutation.
3. Compensating Commutation.

IMPROVING
COMMUTATION
1. Resistance Commutation
If the time constant of coil i. e. L/R is reduced,
then the current change is faster.
So metal brush is replaced by high resistance carbon brush.
+Ic
Resistance Commutation
0
-Ic

Tc
If the resistance of the coil and brush is considered then variation
of current is as shown in figure.
Such type of commutation is called as resistance commutation.

IMPROVING
COMMUTATION
1. Resistance Commutation
Due to resistance, current Ic also decreases.
For small rating or fractional machines, thin wires are used due
to which there is more resistance. This gives good commutation.

2. Voltage (emf) Commutation


Current changes from +Ic to Ic with time interval of Tc
(1 millisecond or less).
dI c
So emf is induced as per equation e Lc
dt
Lc is self inductance, Lc is self reactance.
Similarly some voltage is also induced due to mutual flux of the
other coils. ( Flux Linkage per amp=Inductance, Lm and Xm=Lm.)
These voltages are called as REACTANCE voltage.

IMPROVING
COMMUTATION
As per Lenzs Law, this reactance voltage opposes the cause of
it, and the cause is change in current.
The change in current is delayed. Thats why it is also called as
Delayed Commutation.
Delayed or Under Commutation
+Ic
Ideal Commutation
0
-Ic

Current in
Spark

Tc
2

IMPROVING
COMMUTATION
The spark due to voltage commutation is minimised by the use
of Interpoles.
Interpoles are also called as Compensating Poles or Compoles.
Interpoles are placed in between
Interpole
main poles.
Q axis
They are narrow and Smaller in size.

Interpole

ARM

S D axis

Interpolar magnetic axis


is along Q axis

Interpole wdg is connected


in series with arm wdg.
Interpole mmf neutralizes the effect of arm
mmf along Q axis at all load currents.

IMPROVING
COMMUTATION

Interpole

Interpole

S
Q axis

ARM

For the polarities + and dot for arm,


arm mmf is DOWNWARDS.
To neutralizes the effect of
arm mmf along Q axis
lower interpole must be
N and upper interpole
S D axis must be S
So for motor in the direction of
rotation main pole comes
first and then interpole for
same type i. e. N or S

Interpole Winding.
L

A I
F
H
F

FF

II
HH Y
A

YY

AA

Circuit Diagram of DC Shunt Motor with Interpole Winding.

IMPROVING
COMMUTATION
Functions of interpoles.
1. To neutralizes the cross magnetizing
effect of arm reaction.
S
Q axis
cross
Interpole
magnetizing
ad
N

Interpole

ARM

S D axis

aq

Due to this opposition, there is no flux


in the commutating zone.

IMPROVING
COMMUTATION
Functions of interpoles.
2. To neutralizes the reactance voltage
and to make sparkless commutation.
S
Q axis Some of the interpole flux neutralizes
Interpole
the cross mangetizing flux and
remaining interpole flux
induces rotational
ARM
N
S D axis emf in the coil which
opposes the
reactance voltage.
So reactance voltage decreases.
Delaying of current decreases.
N
Interpole
That resulted in to less spark.

IMPROVING
COMMUTATION
Reactance Voltage due to linear commutation=

2I c
Tc

Reactance Voltage due to sinusoidal commutation=

1.11 L

Delayed or Under Commutation


+Ic
Ideal Commutation
0
-Ic

Current in
Spark

Tc
2

2I c
Tc

Q axis

D axis

Q axis

D axis

Q axis

Stator
Rotor
1

Under main N pole flux is negative


So under N interpole flux should be negative
This is main field flux This is resultant flux due to
arm reaction.

Now draw flux under Interpole


Under main S pole flux is positive
So under S interpole flux should be positive

Q axis

D axis

Q axis

Stator
Rotor
1

Now add these two fluxes

D axis

Q axis

Q axis

D axis

Q axis

Stator
Rotor
1

Now add these two fluxes

D axis

Q axis

Q axis

S
Stator
Rotor
1

D axis

Q axis

D axis

Q axis

Q axis

D axis

Q axis

Stator
Rotor
1

Resultant flux due to interpole wdg

D axis

Q axis

IMPROVING
COMMUTATION
3. Compensating Commutation
The interpole winding is effective only in the commutating zone.
With interpole winding the resulted flux waveform is
Consider coil aa at the peak
position of flux, where flux is
rising of falling suddenly.
a

a
Under this condition large voltage may be induced
If this voltage is more than 40V between the
commutator segments, then nearby air is ionized.
This may result in to the flashover, damaging segments, mica
sheet and sometimes armature winding.

IMPROVING
COMMUTATION
3. Compensating Commutation
The induction of voltage also depends on sudden change in
heavy load.
If load increases, current increases, flux increases or flux
changes from lower to higher value, so induced voltage
increases.
If load decreases, current decreases, flux decreases or flux
changes from higher to lower value, so induced voltage
increases.
The induction of voltage can be neutralized or compensated by
providing winding in the pole shoe or pole face and connecting
that winding in series with armature winding.
Because load current flows through the armature winding.

IMPROVING
COMMUTATION
3. Compensating Commutation
Compensating
wdg

Slots

This wdg is called as compensating wdg


which is housed in the slots which are
S
Q axis at the pole face or pole shoe.

ARM

+
Compensating wdg is
+
+
connected in series
+S D axis
with armature wdg.
+
+
Compensating wdg
+
polarities are opposite
to that of arm wdg polarities in order to
reduce the induced voltage in the coil
to have better commutation.

Interpole Winding.
+

YY H
F

FF

Compensating
HH C Winding.
A

CC

AA

Circuit Diagram of DC Shunt Motor with Interpole and


compensating Winding.

Q axis

D axis

Q axis

D axis

Q axis

Stator
Rotor

Resultant Flux due to Interpole winding


Armature Flux

Q axis

D axis

Q axis

D axis

Q axis

Stator
Rotor

Armature Flux

For cross arm current


So for cross compensating wdg current

Q axis

D axis

Q axis

D axis

Q axis

Stator
Rotor

For dot arm current

Armature Flux

So for dot compensating wdg current

Q axis

D axis

Q axis

D axis

Stator
Rotor

Flux due to compensating winding


For air gap

Q axis

Armature Flux

Flux due to compensating winding in the air gap

Q axis

D axis

Q axis

D axis

Stator
Rotor

Armature Flux

Now add these two fluxes

Q axis

Q axis

D axis

Q axis

Stator
Rotor

Now add these two fluxes

D axis

Q axis

Q axis

D axis

Q axis

Stator
Rotor

Now add these two fluxes

D axis

Q axis

Q axis

D axis

Q axis

Stator
Rotor

Resultant Flux due to Interpole


and Compensating winding

D axis

Q axis

Q axis

D axis

Q axis

D axis

Q axis

Stator
Rotor

This is Main field Flux

Q axis

D axis

Q axis

D axis

Q axis

Stator
Rotor

Thus the detrimental effect of Armature


Reaction on Main field is minimised
due to Interpole and Compensating
windings.
Note the difference
between two
waveforms.

The difference is negligible.

Q axis

D axis

Q axis

D axis

Q axis

Stator
Rotor

So MNA is very near Q axis.


Good Commutation
Less spark

MNA due to armature reaction


shifted towards right
Now it is toward left

D axis

D axis

The Functions of Compensating Winding


1. To neutralize the cross magnetizing effect of arm reaction.
2. To shift MNA near to Q axis from angle .
3. To reduce armature inductance by decreasing flux. Thus
armature time constant (L/R) is reduced, which resulted
into quick dynamic response.
FAST
SLOW
response
Time
4. To have better commutation and less spark under heavy
load condition.

D axis

D axis

Compensating Winding MMF per Pole, ATcomp.

ATcomp

Ia Z 1
Pole Arc
( )
a 2 P
pole Pitch

Since compensating wdg mmf


neutralizes arm mmf under pole face.
ATcomp Arm MMF per pole

Ia Z 1
0.7

a 2 P

Pole Arc
Pole Pitch

Pole arc or pole shoe portion is


approximately equal to 70% of pole pitch.

D axis

D axis

S
70%

ARM

+
+
+
+S
+
+
+

100%

IMPROVING
COMMUTATION
The methods of obtaining sparkless commutation are.
1. Resistance Commutation: by increasing brush contact
resistance.
2. Voltage Commutation: by providing interpole winding.
3. Compensating Commutation: by providing compensating
winding.

CLASSIFICATION
TYPES OF MOTORS
(METHODS OF EXCITATION
In general, there are two methods of exciting the field winding.
1. Separate excitation
+

Ia
A

A
F

OR
+

FF

AA
N-

Ia

N-

AA

FF