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Topic : Organic Chemistry and Organic

Compounds
Presented by:Name -Akshat Saxena

Contents

What is Chemistry?
Origin of Organic Chemistry
Earlier Theories.
Modern Defination.
Why Organic chemistry a separate branch?
Classification of Organic Compounds.

What is Chemistry?
Chemistry is the branch of science which
deals with matter,its composition,its
structure,its property and its
transformation from one form to another
form.

Main Branches of Chemistry

Chemistry
Physical
Chemistry

Inorganic
Chemistry

Organic
Chemisty

Earlier Theories
Based on their source, chemical
compounds are classified into
three types by Lemery:
i) Mineral sourced.
ii) Vegetable sourced.
iii) Animal sourced.
Lavoiser founded that the compounds from
vegetable and animal sources contain similar
composition.

Then Berzelius classified the above three


types into two types and he coined the new
terms Organic and Inorganic.
i) Organic compounds: These are present in
living beings (plants, animals etc.)
ii) Inorganic compounds: These are present in
minerals.

Origin of Organic Chemistry


Scheele extracted tartaric acid from grapes
and citric acid from lemons.
Roulle isolated urea from human urine.
Serturner prepared morphine from opium.
This discoveries led to increment of
interest among the scientists towards
organic compounds.

Vital Force Theory


This theory is also known as Bio-force
Theory.
Vital Force Theory was given by
Jons Jacob Berzelius in 1808.
Therefore, he is known as
Father of Organic Chemistry.
According to him, We can not
prepare Organic Compounds in the laboratory
because vital force is absent there.

Organic Compounds can only be Prepared by


living things because they have vital force.
Other scientist supported Berzelius and he
suggested that we should study Organic
Chemistry separately because they have
unique properties.
Then introduced a new branch of chemistry
known as Organic Chemistry.

Break-down of Vital Force


Theory
In 1828,Friedrich Wohler
,a German Chemist, prepared
Urea as the first organic
compound in laboratory and
broke Vital force Theory.
He was actually preparing
ammonium cynate(NH4CNO)
from ammonium Chloride (NH4CL).

The reaction is
NH4CL + KCNO
NH4CNO + KCL
But , he heated it much and then rearrangement
reaction took place,which formed Urea.
NH4CNO
Ammonium
cynate
(A typical inorganic Compound)

NH2CONH2
Urea
(A well known Organic
compound)

After that,
Kolbe synthesised CH3COOH from its
elements.
Berthelot synthesised CH4
Carbon is tetravalent as it contains four
unpaired electrons in its excited state
configuration.
The tetravalency of carbon was given by
Vanthoff and Lebel who were awarded the
first nobel prize in chemistry.

Modern Defination
Compounds which are made by carbon and
hydrogen are known as Hydrocarbon.
The branch of chemistry dealing with the
study of hydrocarbons and the compounds
which could be thought of as the
derivatives of hydrocarbons is called
Organic chemistry.

Why Organic Chemistry is a


separate branch?

Large number of organic Compounds.


Composition of Organic Compounds.
Complexity of molecules.
Most of the Properties are decided by
functional groups.
They contain covalent bonds between
carbon and carbon as well as between other
elements.

They shows property of isomerism.


They have low melting and boiling points
as compared to inorganic compounds.
They are not soluble in non-polar solvents.
Combustibility
Nature of Chemical reactions.

Further reading
en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Organic_chemistry
www.britannica.com/
www.ocw.mit.edu/
Modern ABC for class XI
ISC Chemistry
Morrison & Boyd

Thank You