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ADVANCED GRAMMAR

SESSION 3
SENTENCE PATTERNS (1)

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OUTLINE
Subjects and Predicates: Core
Structure
Types of Verbs;
Basic patterns of sentences;
Subject complements;
Exercises

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Subjects and Predicates


The skeletal structure of the
sentence patterns is made of two
parts: SUBJECT AND PREDICATE.
Subject is the TOPIC: what the
sentence is about;
Predicate: what is said about the
subject;
Subject and Predicate refer to
sentence FUNCTIONS
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Subjects and Predicates


These functions can be described in
terms of Form: Noun Phrase
(Subject) + Verb Phrase (Predicate)
The Subject slot usually is filled by a
Noun Phrase (NP), while the
Predicate slot is always filled by a
Verb Phrase (VP).
Subject-Predicate relationship is the
common element in all sentences.
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Sentence Slots and Patterns


Picture the sentence as a series of
positions or SLOTS;
The first slot in every pattern is the
Subject and the second, the first in
the predicate, is the main verb
predicating verb.

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Verb Types
The sentence patterns are grouped
according to their verb types:
1- BE patterns
2- linking verb patterns
3- intransitive verb pattern
4- transitive verb pattern
The following is a list of patterns with
each slot labeled according to its form
and function:
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The Be Patterns
Patterns I:
Form: {NP + be + ADV/TP}
Function: {Subj + Pred Vb +
Adverbial of Time or Place}
The students /are /here.
The last session /was/ yesterday.
The last session /was/ on Saturday.
The students /are/ in the library.
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The Be Patterns
Pattern II:
Form: {NP + be + ADJ}
Function: {Subj + Pred Vb + Subj
Complement}
The students /are /clever.
The price of oil /is /low.
The Subject Complement completes the
verb and modifies/describes the subject
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The Be Patterns
Pattern III
Form: {NP1 + be + NP1}
Function: {Subj + Pred VB + Subj
Complement}
The students /are /scholars.
Professor Mohamed/ is /my English Instructor.
NPs have the same number: they have the same
referent, i.e. both refer to the same person.
Subject Complement renames the subject;
Main verb, be, acts as an equal sign (=) connecting
the subject with the complement.
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Linking Verb Patterns


Pattern IV
Form: {NP + V-lnk + ADJ}
Function: {Subj + Pred Vb + Subj
Complement}
The students /seem /clever.
The soup /tastes /delicious.
Be verb can replace the linking verb but there
could be a change in meaning;
Linking verbs include appear, become,
remain, turn, smell, feel, sound, look, taste.
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Linking Verb Patterns


Pattern V:
Form: {NP1 + V-lnk + NP1 }
Function: {Subj + Pred Vb + Subj
Complement}
The students /became /scholars.
He seemed a nice person.
Most common verbs: become,
remain, seem
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Describe the picture using any of the


above patterns.

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