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FILTERS
Presented To:-

Presented BY:-

## Ms. Priyanka Mishra

Ankit Sharma
Asstt. Professor
BU2015PGEC001
Electronics and communication
Engineering
Engineering

## Electronics and communication

Contents
Introduction
Block Diagram Of Adapter Filtering Problem
Algorithms
The Mean square Error cost function
The Wiener Solution

Introduction
In many Practical scenario it is observed
that we are required to filter a signal whose
exact frequency response is not known.
A solution to such problem is an adaptive
filter.
An adaptive filter is one which can
automatically design itself and can detect
system variation in time.

An Adaptive filter is defined by four aspects:
The signal being processed by the filter.
The structure that defines how the output signal
of the filter is computed from its input signal.
The parameters within this structure that can be
iteratively changed to alter the filters inputoutput relationship.
The adaptive algorithm that describes how the
parameters are adjusted from one time instant to
the next.

Filtering Problem

## The error signal e(n) is calculated from the

desired response as shown in block diagram.
The error signal is fed into a procedure which
alters or adapt the parameters of the filter
from time n to time(n+1) in a well-defined
manner.
Thus as time increases the output signal or
actual responses y(n) is hoped to become
better and better match to the desired
response d (n).

Problem 1
So far we are focusing on the desired response
d(n). However, it is quite obvious that in many
practical situation d(n) is not available.
To solve this problem d(n) must be estimated
from whatever signal is available to the input.
The fact that such schemes even work is a
tribute both to the ingenuity of the developers
of the algorithms and to the technology
maturity of the adaptive filtering field.

Problem 2
It should also be recognised that the
relationship between x(n) and d(n) can vary
with time.
In this situation the adaptive filter must
continuously change its parameter values to
This behavior is commonly referred to as
tracking.

Filtering Algorithms

## The general form of an adaptive FIR filtering

algorithm is
W(n+1)=W(n)+(n)G(e(n),X(n),(n))
where,
G(.)= particular vector valued non-linear
function.
(n)=Step size parameter
(n)=Vector of states

Cost Function

## The MSE cost Function (contd.)

The MSE Adaptive filters is useful for

## has a well-defined minimum with

respect to the parameters in W(n).
The parameters at this minimum minimizes
the power of the signal e(n), indicating that
y(n) has approached d(n).

## is a smooth function of each

parameter of W(n),and differentiable w.r.t.
each of these parameters.

Descent

## This procedure adjusts each parameter of

the system according to

## For FIR Adaptive Filter This Relation Reduces

to:

Other Implementation

Discussion