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There is no such thing as a pure

protein food, i.e. one containing 100%

protein. Even those foods which are
highest In protein do not contain more
than 45 %.
In assessing the protein value of food
it is often useful to know the proportion
of energy in foods provided by protein
rather than the protein content alone.
Important HBV proteins are:
Soya bean

An Introduction
Meat is the muscle portion of animals body that is consumed as food. Meat provides most of the nutrients but it is the most
important exogenous non-vegetarian source of protein to our body. It has been a principle food for centuries and is still in
great demand, despite its expense.
Types of Meat:-
The meat is classified into following types:-
Beef Mutton
Veal Bacon
The subclasses of meat are following:-
1: Poultry; (chicken, goose, turkey, duck, pigeon etc.) 2:Offal; (liver, kidney, heart, brain, tongue,
sweetbreads etc.)
Structure of meat
The meat is generally composed of muscle tissues present
in the animal body.
The muscle tissues of animals are composed of two types of
1: Muscle fibers:-
The myofilaments tightened in a membrane, sarcolemma,
form long, slender and cylindrical fibers, called muscle Nutrients %age
fibers. These muscle fibers are always found in the form
of bundles. protein 20%
Muscle fibers are composed of following two major proteins:- fats 5%
1: Actin 2: Myosin
minerals 1%
2: Connective tissues:-
The muscle tissues which surround muscle fibers bundles water 74%
and attach to bones by tendons, are called connective
Connective tissues are composed of following proteins:-
1: Collagen 2: Elastin
Nutritional Composition of
1: Carbohydrates:-
Meat contain little quantities of carbohydrates. Glycogen and glucose are the two
carbohydrates provided by the meat. Glucose-6-phosphate is also found in meat.
2: Proteins:-
Meat is rich in proteins and provides all the essential amino acids (EAAs). Meat have
about 15-20% of good quality proteins, the percentage is higher in lean meat (20-22%).
Total nitrogen content of meat is divided into 95% proteins and 5% as smaller peptides and
amino acids.
3: Fats:-
The fats content of meat ranges b/w 5-40%. Meat is rich in saturated fatty acids,
cholesterol and phospholipids. Fats are responsible for “marbling” in meat.
4: Vitamins:-
Meat contains vitamin B complex (B12) and also have vitamin A particularly inside
the liver.
5: Minerals:-
Minerals are present either as free ions or in combined state. Calcium and
magnesium roles to play in contraction of muscles. Iron is component of red pigment
(hemoglobin) and zinc is present in enzymes. Meat also provides sodium and potassium
to the diet.
Meat Proteins
Proteins are the basic structural and functional component of muscle tissues in meat.
1: Proteins in Muscles fibers (Contractile Proteins):-
83-90% of the total muscles proteins comprises such intracellular protoplasmic
proteins, called contractile proteins. These are soluble in salt solutions of high
concentrations thus called soluble proteins. These proteins are classified as following:-

Protein Types %age Functions

1: Myosin 60% Component of myofibrils. Is the major protein of thick

filaments and develops polarity on interaction.

2: Actin 15-30% Also a component of myofibrils. Is the major protein of

thin filaments and consists of two components; F-Actin
and G-Actin.

3: Troponin 4-20% Constitutes a part of the contractile system and has

two components; C, which confers calcium sensitivity,
and I, which inhibits contraction.

4: Tropomyosin 5% Found in thin filaments and aid in proper contraction.

2: Proteins in Connective Tissues (Structural
The structural proteins are 10-17% of the total muscle proteins. These proteins
are insoluble in even salt solution of high concentration , thus called insoluble
proteins. These proteins are classified into following two types:-
Collagen Elastin
1: Collagen:-
It is the major component of connective tissues surrounding muscles. Collagen is
less flexible than elastin. When heated in the presence of moisture it converts into the
gelatine, which greatly increases tenderness of the meat.
2: Elastin:-
It is the major component of ligaments (b\w the bones) and has the ability to
stretch and return to its original shape. It is an insoluble and tough protein. Elastin is in
lesser amount than that of the collagen so it has not much influence on the toughness of
the meat.
Pigment Proteins in Meat:-
There are two types of pigment proteins in the meat:-
1: Hemoglobin:-
It gives the red coloration to the meat as it is a constituent of blood inside meat.
Hemoglobin carries oxygen to the muscle tissues.
2: Myoglobin:-
It gives pink coloration to the meat. It is an oxygen binding protein and it stores
oxygen inside the muscles tissues so that it may be used in the contraction of muscles
and it results in the movement of the body.
Effect of Heat on Meat
As meat is heated, following changes occur in the meat:-
 Muscle proteins coagulates and shrink, squeezing out water.
 The meat proteins denature at about temperature of 40-65 C, as it happens
structure of meat tightens and meat becomes firmer.
 Color of meat changes from red to light pink and finally it becomes brown.
 Connective tissues soften. Collagen gelatinizes and elastin also gets soft.
 Fats melt, so the real flavor of cooked meat is developed and its aroma becomes
Meat Products
Some of the meat products are; sausages, steaks, soups, roast, stew, faggots etc.
Structure of an egg
 Shell-1st line of defense
against bacteria
 Shell membrane-2nd line of
 White-accounts for 2/3 of
egg’s weight
 Yolk-1/3 of egg’s weight
 Chalazae-pair of spiral
bands that anchor the yolk
in the centre of the thick
 Air cell-forms at the wide
end of the egg as it cools
after being laid
Nutrients found in egg Nutrition Statement
Nutrient or Other Quantity in One Percent of Daily
Component Large Egg* Value**
 A large Egg contains contains
only 75 calories & 5g fat. Calories 75 4

 Eggs are a valuable component Total Fat 5g 8

Saturated Fat 1.5 g 8

in a healthy diet due to their
nutrient dense nature. Cholesterol
211.5 mg
6.3 g

 Eggs contain the highest quality Vitamin A 243 IU 5

Vitamin D 17 IU 4

food protein known. Vitamin E 0.75 mg 3

Vitamin B12 0.6 mcg 10
 Only nutrient absent in egg is
Vitamin B6 0.07 mg 4
carbohydrate Folate 24 mcg 6

 Only vitamin absent in egg is Thiamin

0.031 mg
0.24 mg

vitaminC Phosphorus
95 mg
0.55 mg

 Egg Yolk is one of the few foods Iron 0.91 mg 5

Choline 125 mg 22
that naturally contain vitaminD. Lutein & Zeaxanthin 165 mcg n/a
Egg Protein
Egg Protein Calories

 12.5% of the weight of the egg is Raw 6g 75 calories

protein. Boiled average 6g 80 calories

 Proteins in eggs are HBV Proteins, Fried in oil 6g 120 calories
containing all the essential Amino acids in Scrambled (2 eggs 14g 170 calories
the exact proportions required by the + milk)
body. Poached 1 egg 6g 80 calories
 Egg Proteins, due to their high quality, Scotch egg 7g 140 calories
are all used up for synthesis, limiting the
Omelette 10g 128 calories
amount used as fuel or stored as fat.
Quiche (egg & 15g 300 calories
 Most of the protein powders are based on cheese)
egg protein such as Albumen due to it’s
Egg Fried Rice 6g 210 calories
high protein quality.
Meringue 7g 360 calories
 Egg proteins are called “Perfect Proteins”
as it contains all the building blocks of life Duck egg 15g 170 calories

e.g. CHO, Proteins, minerals, vitamins & Quail egg 2g 20 calories

good cholesterol.
Proteins in Egg White
 Egg contains 6g of high
quality muscle building
 Proteins in egg white are
Globular Proteins.
 Foaming of Egg White-the
& curled long chains of
acids uncurl & stretch
 Egg whites contain an
enormous quality of
different proteins having
many different functions
as shown in the table.
Proteins in Egg Yolk
 Egg Yolks contain half of the total protein of an egg.
 Proteins in the Egg Yolk & their respective properties are as follows.


Lipovitellins 16-18 Has emulsifying


Livetin 4-10 Water soluble,

sulphur rich

Phosvitin 5-6 Iron carrier of yolk

LDL 12%of granules Density0.98

Uses of eggs based on
 Binding Agents- due to coagulation of egg protein upon heating.
 Coating Agents- coagulation of egg protein
 Thickening Agents- in which protein coagulation help thicken sauces.
 Emulsification-lecithin acts as a stabilising emulsion b/w oil & water.

 Coagulation is caused by heat, salt, acid, alkali & whipping.

 Overcooking can destroy heat sensitive amino acid(Lysine)or can make
protein more resistant to digestive enzymes.
Benefits of High quality Egg
 High quality protein in eggs contributes to:
 Sustained Energy-eggs provide several Bvitamins
required for energy production in body.
 Muscle Strength-Egg protein help build & preserve
muscle mass.
 Gold standard protein-egg protein is used as the
standard for evaluating the protein quality of other
 Satiety & weight management-egg proteins provide
greater sense of fullness.
 Value & Versatility-eggs are the only affordable &
versatile food source containing high quality protein.
Proteins are essential for muscle building and proper
functioning of body. we should have adequate amounts of
protein in our daily diet.
In short, proteins maintain and repair all protein
components of the body such as bones ,hair , skin
,muscles and other organs.
Good sources of protein are dairy products , eggs , meat ,
vegetable , legumes and FISH!!!
Fish is a food of
excellent nutritional
value providing:
High quality Proteins (17
to 20%)and a wide variety
of vitamins and minerals
including vitamin A and D.
Phosphorous ,
magnesium ,selenium
and iodine.
Small fish eaten along
with bones, are a rich
source of calcium.
 Fish complements dietary
protein provided by
legumes and cereals.
 It further complements
the essential amino acids
that are often present in
low quantities in
vegetable based diets.
Flesh is composed of bundles of short fibres called
It has less connective tissues and no elastin.
Amount and quality is equal to lean meat.
It deteriorates after death quickly because of
connective tissues.
Cooking is not required to tender but to make it
If over-cooked becomes rubbery and dry.
During cooking protein coagulate and collagen is
converted in gelatin.
o There are wide variety of
fish to choose from ,many
of which have a very high
protein content and very
low saturated fat .(catfish,
tuna , salmon , cod,
mackerel, herring, sardines)
o Tuna is high in protein as
well as iron and calcium, is
very versatile and can
easily be added to pasta
salads, sandwich, casserole
o Fish such as salmon
contains somewhat high
quantity of fats.
 The value of proteins in fish is directly related to the amino
acid content such as:
• Arginine
• Histidine
• Isoleucine
• Leucine
• Lysine
• Methionine
• Trytophan
• And valine, which essentially are building blocks for muscle
and growth.
Rich in omega three polyunsaturated fatty
acids( a healthy type of fat).
The best sources of omega 3 fats are the oily
fish like salmon, sardines ,mackerel and tuna.
Fish is low in saturated fat content.
Soya bean
 Soybean is one of the most prominent and major natural
sources of protein known.
 It was cultivated in China 5000 years ago.
 It arrived in USA accidentally in 1804.
 it was recognized in second world war that shortage of
animal protein focused on its alternative “SOYA BEAN”.
 Soybeans contain high amount of protein, important fibers
and they are low in carbohydrates, this helps in building
muscles instead of only increasing fat in the body.
 who do not eat animal meat, soybean has served as a
source of supplement of the proteins.
Soy protein has been used since 1959 as ingredients for its
functional properties in a variety of foods such as salad
dressings, soups, vegetarian foods and meat imitations. Its
functional properties are emulsification and texturizing.
Recently the popularity of soy protein is increasing, mainly
because of its health benefits. It has been proven that soy
protein can help to prevent heart problems and many
countries allow health claims for food, which are rich in soy
•For human consumption, soybeans must be cooked with "wet" heat
in order to destroy the trypsin inhibitors.
• It is not advisable to eat raw soybeans.
•Soybeans are considered by many agencies to be a source of
complete protein.
•A complete protein is one that contains significant amounts of all
the essential amino acids that must be provided to the human body
because of the body's inability to synthesize them.
•For this reason, soy is a good source of protein, amongst many
others, for vegetarians and vegans or for people who cannot afford
•Soy protein products can be good substitutes for animal products
because, unlike some other beans, soy offers a 'complete' protein
• Soy protein products can replace animal-based foods—which also
Protein content in soya bean seeds(raw) per 100 gm

Protein 36.49 g
- Tryptophan  0.591 g
- Threonine  1.766 g
- Isoleucine  1.971 g
- Leucine  3.309 g
- Lysine  2.706 g
- Methionine  0.547 g
- Cystine  0.655 g
- Phenylalanine  2.122 g
- Tyrosine  1.539 g
- Valine  2.029 g
- Arginine  3.153 g
- Histidine  1.097 g
- Alanine  1.915 g
- Aspartic acid  5.112 g
- Glutamic acid  7.874 g
- Glycine  1.880 g
- Proline  2.379 g
 2.357 g
- Serine
It is used in different ways:

Fermented beans form soya sauce.

The flour derived from it is used to make a form
soya milk which is same as cow milk.
The milk is used further to make cheese called
Soya beans are crushed to make flour
Dried beans are roasted and used as coffee