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m 

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€ Uncompressed multimedia data occupies large
space.
€ Transfer of such content consumes more
bandwidth.
€ Processing of Uncompressed data requires storage
at least in range of Gigabytes.
€ Data Compression is done to provide a feasible and
cost effective solution.
€ Research is going on in this field to develop
reliable techniques.
€ Many compression techniques are available in
market.
?  
  
ý àuality should be as good as possible after Compression
process.

ý Implementation should be cost effective.

ý Complexity of the machine should be minimal.

ý Processing of Algorithm should not exceed the threshold

ý Techniques change based on mode of Applications.


Example pX64 for dialogue mode applications.

ý DVI PLV for retrieval mode applications.


CODING REQUIREMENTS

‡ Representation of text requires two bytes. Each character is displayed using


8x8 pixels in order to allow some Asian language variants.

‡ Presentation of vector graphics: Still image composed of 500 lines. Each


line is determined by horizontal, vertical position and an 8-bit attribute field.

‡ Simple color display modes: Single pixel represented by 256 colors. One
byte per pixel is needed.

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‡ Uncompressed audio signal (telephone quality):


Sampled @ 8KHz
àuantized : 8 bits pre sample.
Bandwidth requirement: 64 Kbits/sec
Storage requirement: 64 Kbits (to store 1sec of playback)
‡ Statistics vary for uncompressed audio signal of CD quality.

‡ According to PAL standard: (For Video data)

* Defined by: 625 Lines. Frame rate: 25 frames per sec.

* Luminance & chrominance encoded separately.

* Sampling rate : 13.5 MHz(Luminance)


6.75 MHz(Chrominance)

* Bandwidth Requirement:
(13.5+6.75+6.75)*8= 216x10^6 bits/sec (8 bits)

* Storage requirement: (Assuming 640x480 resolution)

(640x480)x3 = 921,600 bytes. [ 3 bytes to encode]


Mode of applications
Y    
‡ Based on Human perception characteristics.
‡ End to end delay should not exceed 150 ms (for both comp.
and decomp)(
‡ Delay should be in range of 50 ms to support ³face-to-face´
dialogue applications.
‡ Delay is introduced by compression and decompression.

„   
 
‡ Éast forward and backward data retrieval with simultaneous
display should be possible.
‡ Random access to single image and audio frames of data
stream should be possible.
‡ Decompression of images, video or audio should be possible
without a link to other data units.
For both dialogue and retrieval modes

‡ Support scalable video in different systems: Independent


of frame size and frame rate

‡ Support various audio and video data rates: leads to


different qualities.

‡ Synchronization of audio and video

‡ Possible economic solution.

‡ Should be compatible.
SOURCE, ENTROPY, HYBRID CODING
‡ Compression techniques fit into different categories.

‡ Distinguished into Source, entropy and Hybrid encoding.

‡ Entropy: Lossless encoding.


Source: Lossy compression.
Hybrid : Combination of above two.

‡   

* Used regardless of media specific instructions.
* Data stream considered to be simple digital sequence.
* Data semantics is ignored.
* Decompression generates data completely. (Hence Lossless)
* Example: Run length Coding.
‡ 



* Data semantics considered.

* Degree of compression depends on data contents.

* One way relation between original data stream and encoded data.

* Example: sound compression.

* Major Problem: Correct reproduction of Transition between individual


voice units.

* Comprises Content prediction, transformation, Layered Coding.

* Example: DCT(Direct Cosine Transformation)


STEPS of data compression
Uncompressed
Picture

Picture
preparation

Picture
Processing

Quantizatio
n

Entropy Compressed
Encoding Picture
Steps of compression
‡ m  
9 Analog to Digital Conversion
9 Digital representation of Information
9 Image is divided into 898 pixel blocks

‡ m 
9 first step of compression process and uses sophisticated algorithms
9 Transformation of time to frequency domain is done by DCT

‡ à 
9 Process results of previous step
9 Maps real numbers to integers
9 Reduces precision

‡ ›  › 
9 last step of compression process and compresses sequential data stream
without loss
9 Example: Compress sequence of zeros by specifying no. of zeros followed by
zero
‡ Processing and quantization can be repeated iteratively in
Adaptive differential Pulse Code Modulation.

‡ Compression technique is chosen and compressed video builds a


data stream.

‡ Decompression is reverse process of Compression.

‡ In symmetric applications encoding and decoding cost are same.


Ex: Dialogue applications

‡ In asymmetric applications decoding is less costly than


encoding.
Some basic compression techniques
‡ Hybrid Compression techniques are combination of Well
known algorithms and transformation techniques.
‡ Simplest Compression techniques are Interpolation and Sub
sampling.
‡ Repeating repeated sequence by number of occurrences- Run
length Coding. Indicated by special flag.
‡ Example:
Uncompressed data: ABCCCCCCCCDEÉ
Compressed data : ABC!8DEÉ
‡ Run length encoding is generalization of Zero suppression.
‡ Sequence of blanks replaced by M-byte.
‡M4byte could replace 8 zero bytes. M5 byte replace 16 zero
bytes. M5 followed by M4byte represent 24 zero bytes.
‡ S  à 
9 Data stream is divided into blocks of n bytes (n>1)
9 Predefined table contains set of patterns.
9 Each block: A table entry with similar pattern is identified
with indices.
9 Patterns that occur frequently can be replaced.
9 Techniques can be applied to still images, video and text.
9 Difficult to identify frequently occurring pattern.
9 So approximation is done by looking for similar patterns.

‡ Y
   
9 Variation of Run length encoding.
9 Based on combination of two data bytes.
9 Determines most frequently occurring pairs of bytes.
9 Replaces pair by special single byte.
9 Data reduction can be done more than 10%.
‡¬
?   


P(ADCEB)=1.00
0 1

P(ADCE)=0.49 P(B)=0.51

0
1

P(CE)=0.20 P(AD)=0.29

1
1 0 0

P(C)=0.09 P(E)=0.11 P(D)=0.13 P(A)=0.16


‡ w(A)=001, w(B)=1, w(C)=011, w(D)=000, w(E)=010

‡ Huffman encoding is the optimal when compared to other


techniques as cost of encoding is less.

‡p 
 › 
9 Data transformed into Mathematical domain.
9 Éourier transformation: Widely used technique.
9 Discrete Cosine Transformation technique: Effective
for image compression.
9 ÉÉT for special filtering
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‡ Motion compensation: Blocks of 8x8, 16x16 pixels in


subsequent pictures are compared.

‡ Audio techniques often apply differential Pulse code


Modulation to sequence of Pulse code Modulation. Sufficient to
represent only the first PCM-coded sample as a whole.
Éollowing samples as difference from previous.

‡ Delta Modulation: Uses exactly one bit which indicates whether


signal increases or decreases. Profitable if coding does not
depend on 8 bit grid edges.
some techniques to adapt«
‡ Coding table is maintained. Coder determines the code. Table entries
are sorted according to values of counter. Érequently occurring
characters are at beginning of table..

‡ Adaptive DPCM: Prominent technique uses small number of bits(4)


for coding. Rough transitions are coded correctly. Small changes are
coded exactly. Coding and decoding is done based on coefficient.

‡ Video compression technique often uses Color Look-Up table


(CLUT) to achieve data reduction.

‡ Silence Suppression: Simple technique for audio.. Data are encoded


if volume level exceeds certain threshold.
TECHNIQUES TO BE DISCUSSED

‡ xPEG

‡ H. 261

‡ MPEG

‡ DVI